Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Combining malaria control with rural electrification : social and behavioural factors that influenced the design, use and sustainability of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria elimination on Rusinga Island, western Kenya
Oria, Prisca A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Willem Takken, co-promotor(en): J. Alaii. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578579 - 176
malaria - vector control - public health - culicidae - insect traps - social factors - behaviour - design - solar energy - kenya - vectorbestrijding - volksgezondheid - insectenvallen - sociale factoren - gedrag - ontwerp - zonne-energie

Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that informed this thesis.

Chapter 2 systematically documented and analysed how the mosquito trapping technology and related social contexts mutually shaped each other and how this mutual shaping impacted the design and re-design of the intervention. Our analysis focused on the design, re-design and piloting of the innovative approach to controlling malaria largely before its field implementation had started. During the pre-intervention year, various aspects of the intervention were re-designed ahead of the project roll-out. Changes to the technology design included removal of carbon dioxide from the blend, trap improvements and re- design of the electricity provision system. In order to gain and maintain the support of the community and organisations on the island, the project adapted its implementation strategies regarding who should represent the community in the project organisation team, who should receive solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS), and in which order the systems should be rolled out. This process involved not only the project team and the producers of the different components of SMoTS, but also included feedback from the residents of Rusinga Island. This process of incorporating feedback from a broad range of stakeholders utilized data from the entomological, technical and socio-behavioural researches as well as data from more broad engagements with the social environment of the study population and setting. The analysis demonstrates how system innovation theory helps to provide insights into how a promising malaria control intervention evolves and matures through an interaction between technical and social phenomena. This part of the study demonstrated that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but similar to other malaria strategies, required new social organisational arrangements to go with it.

In chapter 3, this thesis investigated immediate community response to the innovation and the implications for ongoing implementation and supportive community communication outreach. The explorations found that the main benefit of SMoTS to study participants was house lighting and suggested that the main reason that people adhered to recommended behaviours for SMoTS deployment was to ensure uninterrupted lighting at night, rather than reducing mosquito biting or malaria risk. Electrification led to a number of immediate benefits including reduced expenditure on kerosene and telephone charging and conveniences (such as lit early mornings and late nights, increased study hours, etc.). The changes brought about by electric lighting provided conveniences which improved the welfare of residents. Some respondents also reported hearing fewer mosquito sounds when interviewed a few weeks after a SMoTS was installed in their house. On the question of maintenance, we found that residents of Rusinga Island adequately maintained SMoTS. Households also reported maintenance needs to the project and project technicians carried out repair and maintenance needs.

Chapter 4 documented the perceived impact of SMoTs on family dynamics, social and economic status, and the community as a whole. The findings suggest that even when the use of energy is restricted, electricity can enhance the value of life. Although data on malaria prevention was yet to be fully collected and analysed, there was evidence of enhanced socio-economic and emotional well-being of study participants which may enhance the desire to sustain the intervention. In the end, this may be a double-edged intervention that delivers health benefits and contributes to improved welfare. The utility, social significance and emotional benefits experienced with the lighting component of SMoTS may create the desire to sustain the intervention. However, the motivation to sustain the whole SMoTS will also depend on the results of the entomological and parasitological components of this intervention.

Chapter 5 evaluated the knowledge, perceptions and practices related to malaria control before and after the roll-out of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems. As a malaria control strategy, SMoTS were installed in Rusinga to complement the existing use of long- lasting insecticidal nets (LLINS) and prompt malaria care seeking. The message about the complementariness of SMoTS as a malaria strategy was further stressed during social mobilisation to encourage continued use of LLINs and prompt malaria care seeking. The findings suggest that overall, the SolarMal project did not induce a negative effect of the innovation on the uptake of existing malaria strategies. The continuation of LLIN use and recommended malaria treatment seeking was likely contributed to by the social mobilisation component of the SolarMal intervention as well as a mass distribution of LLINs campaign, suggesting the need for a strong continuous demand generation exercise. The number of respondents who reported that mosquito densities had reduced was much higher at the end of the research phase confirming that the recorded entomological changes (that showed SMoTS had proved effective in controlling mosquitoes) had also been experienced by residents.

Chapter 6 investigated whether the community preferred individual or cooperative solutions for organising the sustainability components of SMoTS, and whether and how known social dilemma factors could be recognised in the reasoning of actors. The findings of the explorations of sustainability of installed SMoTS beyond the research period did not portray a promising picture. While residents were unanimous that they would like to continue enjoying the benefits of SMoTS (especially house electrification), it appeared that residents preferred largely individual approaches. Yet the individual approaches suggested by residents for sustaining SMoTS may be realistic for sustaining only the lighting component. Sustaining the mosquito control component, which is what would impact malaria, requires more resources (than the lighting component) and may be better facilitated by more collective undertakings by residents. Residents expressed concerns about working collectively with others that seemed to suggest that the situation had features of a social dilemma.

Chapter 7 synthesises the main findings. Subsequently, this results in the overall conclusions of the thesis that are discussed within the broader debates on research and policy. This thesis shows that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but required new social organisational arrangements to go with it. The intervention was a composite of which the technical component was one and focussing on it without the others may have negative implications for effectiveness. By implication, the scaling up of SMoTS will also require scaling-up the intervention process and social organisation that played a role in its effectiveness in the trial setting. This thesis also demonstrates the importance of flexibility and continuous learning in multiple spheres in a complex multidisciplinary innovative intervention to control malaria. The key addition to the knowledge base for similar public health programs is that intervention design is not a one-off occurrence and neither is implementation a linear process. Social science research was a core component in this process and the process required not only integrating social inquiry into the design, but also into planning, implementation, and monitoring. This contributed to ensuring that flexibility and adaptability to the local realities were built into the SolarMal intervention and contributed to the success of the intervention. Rather than project management, persons involved in rolling-out innovations should perhaps focus on adaptive and proactive management and on facilitating change. While managing emphasises control and certainty, an innovation process requires flexibility to allow continuous adaptations which characterise the process. In practice, this means keeping attuned to perceiving signals, analysing feedback loops and using those signals to mitigate what is not going well or amplify what is going well.

ESBL Evaluation framework
Bondt, N. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. - \ 2016
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-020) - ISBN 9789462578517 - 45 p.
extended spectrum beta-lactamases - livestock - epidemiology - animal welfare - animal health - public health - food safety - risk management - verbreed spectrum bèta-lactamases - vee - epidemiologie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - volksgezondheid - voedselveiligheid - risicobeheersing
Extended-spectrum bèta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria have become increasingly common in animals and humans. The goal of the presented ESBL evaluation framework is to help policy makers to evaluate the effectiveness of possible interventions aimed to reduce ESBL levels in livestock. An objective-driven ESBL policy approach (i.e., setting more clear and stringent objectives, for example maximum ESBL prevalence on national level) is preferable since much is unknown about other potential relevant measures and moreover the accountability of individual agents is hampered, which are both requisites for a measure-driven policy approach. In addition, for the nearby future, an additional measure is to extend the ban on some other antibiotics that are related to ESBLs.
Bio-filtration of helminth eggs and coliforms from municipal sewage for agricultural reuse in Peru
Yaya Beas, R.E. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; Jules van Lier; Katarzyna Kujawa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461734945 - 187 p.
waste water treatment - waste water treatment plants - anaerobic treatment - helminth ova - anaerobic conditions - filtration - public health - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties - anaërobe behandeling - wormeneitjes - anaërobe omstandigheden - filtratie - volksgezondheid

Where fresh water resources are scarce, treated wastewater becomes an attractive alternative for agricultural irrigation. However, the presence of large amounts of pathogens, even in treated wastewater, constraints its productive use, which is aggravated when sanitation and public health are poor. Among pathogenic indicators, helminth eggs are one of the most persistent microorganisms in treated effluents that may survive for several months in the irrigated fields. Application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors could contribute to decrease the pathogenic content in wastewater due to physical and biological interactions with the anaerobic sludge bed, such as filtration and entrapment. In this thesis, the potential of the anaerobic sludge bed to particularly remove helminth eggs, was investigated in four phases. In the first phase, a temperature of 4° C was fixed in the UASB reactors in order to reduce the biological activity of the sludge. Hence, the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity at different upflow velocities was studied. This phase of the research was performed in two experiments. The first one using latex beads, simulating helminth eggs, and the second one using real helminth eggs, predominating in Peruvian wastewater. First experimental results show that increasing the upflow velocity led to a decrease in the removal efficiency of latex beads. At the lowest upflow velocity of 0.3 m·h−1, 100% removal of latex beads was reached. At an upflow velocity higher than 1 m·h−1, the removal efficiency dropped under 90 %. The degree of stabilisation of the sludge nor the sludge bed volume did not have a significant effect. Second experiment's results show that with upflow velocities below 1.5 m·h−1 real helminth eggs removal is greater than 70 %. Simultaneously tested, total and faecal coliforms removal was less than 83 %. The most common helminth eggs species found in the studied wastewater were Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris spp. and Strongyloides spp. The second phase was performed using two lab-scale UASB reactors at average ambient temperatures between 16.7 °C and 28.5 °C in the city of Lima (Peru). Ascaris suum eggs originating from infected pigs were selected as model organisms, considering their similarity, in terms of size and morphology, with Ascaris lumbricoides, a human pathogen. The sludge filtration capacity was determined, applying upflow velocities between 0.09 and 0.68 m·h−1. Average helminth eggs removals varied between 26 and 93 %, depending on upflow velocity and sludge bed height. 93 % removal was achieved when applying an upflow velocity of 0.09 m·h−1 and a sludge bed height reaching 19-25 % of the total reactor height. The third phase was conducted to test the effect of lower operational temperatures in the UASB reactor on the pathogen removal from domestic wastewater. Thus, a lab scale UASB reactor in the city of Puno (Peru), treating wastewater with temperatures varying between 11.3 and 14.3 °C for a period of 22 weeks after the start-up of the reactor, was used. Upflow velocities varied between 0.12 and 0.41 m·h−1. Results confirmed outcomes of the first phase of this research concerning helminth eggs removal, and consequently show that the sludge bed filtration capacity varied between 89 and 95 %. Faecal coliform removal varied between 0.9 and 2.1 log10 and E. coli removal between 0.8 and 1.6 log10. In general, removal efficiencies regarding helminth eggs and faecal coliforms, are not sufficient to comply with reuse standards. Finally, the capacity of Down Flow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors for removing faecal coliforms from domestic UASB reactor effluent for agricultural reuse in developing countries was investigated. Applied reactors were the cube type DHS (G1) without recirculation, the cube type DHS (G1) with recirculation and the curtain type DHS (G2). Results reveal an average faecal coliform removal of 4.74, 3.42 and 1.25 log10 respectively. These results comply with categories A, B and C of WHO (1989) standards, correspondingly. Therefore, treatment trains consisting of UASB-DHS reactors can possibly be applied when agricultural reuse is contemplated.

Groen voor gezondheid: wat hebben gezondheidsprofessionals nodig? : Achtergronddocument
Hermans, C.M.L. ; Lemmens, L. ; Postma, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2665) - 49
natuur - openbaar groen - gezondheid - volksgezondheid - omgevingspsychologie - perceptie - welzijn - stress - lichamelijke activiteit - beweging - nature - public green areas - health - public health - environmental psychology - perception - well-being - physical activity - movement
Natuur werkt positief op gezondheid en welbevinden van mensen. De werkingsmechanismen achter deze positieve relatie zijn bekend: stress vermindert, lichamelijke activiteit neemt toe, de sociale cohesie in de buurt verbetert. Toch wordt natuur nauwelijks ingezet door professionals uit de eerste lijn of publieke gezondheid. Wat belemmert hen en wat zijn de oplossingen?
Hoe kun je te dik en toch gezond zijn?
Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2015
Universiteit van Nederland
overgewicht - lichaamsgewicht - quetelet index - obesitas - gezondheid - volksgezondheid - buikvet - lichaamsvet - fysiologie - overweight - body weight - body mass index - obesity - health - public health - abdominal fat - body fat - physiology
Je kijkt naar beneden en ziet dat er zich in de loop der jaren wat vet is gaan ophopen rondom je middel. Waarom is het gevaarlijk om juist daar teveel vet te hebben? Renger Witkamp (Wageningen UR) legt uit hoe het nu precies zit met de gevaren van die extra kilootjes en of het per definitie ongezond is om wat dikker te zijn.
Pathogen removal using saturated sand colums supplemented with hydrochar
Chung, J.W. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Piet Lens, co-promotor(en): J.W. Foppen. - Leiden : CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9789462574977 - 156 p.
drinkwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - biochar - biomassaconversie - pyrolyse - micro-organismen - gezondheidsgevaren - volksgezondheid - drinking water - waste water treatment - biomass conversion - pyrolysis - microorganisms - health hazards - public health
Onderzoek naar aanwezigheid van legionella in biologische luchtwassers bij stallen
Melse, R.W. ; Schalk, J.A.C. ; Bartels, A.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 891) - 39
legionella - on-farm research - luchtreinigers - huisvesting, dieren - luchtfilters - veehouderij - volksgezondheid - dierenwelzijn - air cleaners - animal housing - air filters - livestock farming - public health - animal welfare
In an earlier study it was concluded, based on literature and interviews, that biotrickling filters might be responsible for airborne transmission of Legionella bacteria. Risk factors in this type of systems are recirculating of trickling water with a pH close to neutral and the use of spray nozzles and fans. Under the right conditions, temperatures supportive for Legionella growth might be found in the scrubbing water. In order to investigate this risk, measurements were done at 36 animal houses where biotrickling filters were operated for exhaust air treatment. The investigation was performed in August and September because in several years the number of reports of Legionnaires’ disease significantly increased during this period in the Netherlands; during summer warming up of the water by ambient temperature is likely. In none of the samples Legionella was found. In only a few biotrickling filters the measured temperature was at such a level that growth of Legionella would be possible. It is concluded that it is unlikely that biotrickling filters at animal houses are a source of Legionella transmission to the air.
Of fats and foods
Kromhout, D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wageningen - ISBN 9789462571983 - 24
nutrition and health - heart diseases - cardiovascular diseases - fatty acids - cholesterol - disease prevention - food consumption - risk factors - public health - human nutrition research - voeding en gezondheid - hartziekten - hart- en vaatziekten - vetzuren - ziektepreventie - voedselconsumptie - risicofactoren - volksgezondheid - voedingsonderzoek bij de mens
Farewell address upon retiring as Professor of Public Health Research at Wageningen University on 16 April 2015
'Nederland is een veterinair voorbeeldland'
Vermaas, M. ; Hellebrekers, L.J. - \ 2015
Boerderij 100 (2015)38. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 16 - 18.
dierziekten - diergezondheid - infectieziekten - onderzoek - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - animal diseases - animal health - infectious diseases - research - zoonoses - public health
Ludo Hellebrekers is sinds 1 juni directeur van het Centraal Veterinair Instituut. Goede samenwerking met alle ketenpartijen en kennisgebieden is volgens hem essentieel.
Measurement protocol for emissions of bio-aerosols from animal houses = Meetprotocol voor emissies van bio-aerosolen uit stallen
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Zhao, Y. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 878) - 26
aërosolen - emissie - meetsystemen - huisvesting, dieren - landbouwschuren - landbouw en milieu - volksgezondheid - stallen - emissiereductie - aerosols - emission - measurement systems - animal housing - barns - agriculture and environment - public health - stalls - emission reduction
People living in the vicinity of newly build or enlarged livestock farms are concerned about possible effects on their health and their quality of life. This concern is mainly related to expected increasing concentrations of particulate matter (dust) in the environment and possible transmission of airborne diseases from animals to humans (zoonotic diseases). The objective of this study was to develop a measuring protocol for determining emissions of bio-aerosols from animal houses and to determine the efficiency of potential reduction systems.
I was totally there! : understanding engagement in entertainment-ducation narratives
Leeuwen, L. van - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; S.J.H.M. Putte, co-promotor(en): Reint-Jan Renes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573369 - 153
communicatie - communicatietheorie - volksgezondheid - alcoholisme - vertier - onderwijs - drinken - gedrag - psychologie - adolescenten - educatieve televisie - communication - communication theory - public health - alcoholism - entertainment - education - drinking - behaviour - psychology - adolescents - educational television

Summary

I was totally there!: Understanding engagement in entertainment-education narratives

By Lonneke van Leeuwen

Introduction
Narratives have the power to influence their recipients’ health behaviors. With the entertainment-education (E-E) strategy, health organizations turn this narrative power to good account by employing narratives in their health promoting campaigns. E-E programs, mostly in the form of televised narratives, have been shown to effectively encourage a variety of health-related behaviors. Because of these positive results, the E-E strategy is considered a promising communication strategy to encourage healthy behaviors. One quality of E-E narratives that has been shown to be crucial for narrative impact is the ability of E-E narratives to engage target recipients. Engaged recipients may experience four dimensions of narrative engagement (NE): narrative understanding, attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence. Although evidence is growing that NE plays a role in E-E narratives’ impact (hereafter: E-E impact), little is known about how NE leads to E-E impact and about how NE emerges in recipients of narratives.

Objective
The objective of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of NE in E-E narratives, by investigating how NE is associated with E-E narratives’ impact, and by investigating the processes that contribute to experiencing NE.

Context
The studies described in this dissertation are conducted within the context of NE in E-E narratives aiming to discourage alcohol (binge) drinking among adolescents and young adults. In 2008, the televised E-E drama series Roes (High in English) was broadcast on national television. Roes consists of 11 case stories (25 minutes each) portraying negative experiences and outcomes of adolescent protagonist(s) drinking alcohol and/or using other drugs.

Research questions
Three research questions are addressed in this dissertation:
RQ1: Does Roes discourage alcohol (binge) drinking in E-E narrative recipients?
RQ2a: Are NE dimensions associated with E-E impact on alcohol (binge) drinking?
And, if so:
RQ2b: Do negative and positive thoughts about alcohol (binge) drinking mediate associations between NE dimensions and E-E impact on alcohol (binge) drinking?
RQ3: Which psychological processes experienced during narrative reception contribute to experiencing NE dimensions?

Main findings
This dissertation has shown that Roes discouraged alcohol (binge) drinking. Viewing multiple episodes of Roes positively predicted a decrease in alcoholic drinks consumed per occasion, an increase in the intention to decrease alcohol use, and an increase in perceived normative pressure. One year after exposure, the impact on the intention to decrease alcohol use was still present. One of the Roes episodes, Verliefd (In love in English), was further examined. After the participants had viewed this episode, their beliefs relating to the negative outcomes of alcohol binge drinking (BD) were more contra-BD as compared to their beliefs prior to viewing the episode. Attitudes towards BD and willingness to engage in BD also became more contra-BD.

Then, the roles of the NE dimensions attentional focus, narrative understanding, emotional engagement, and narrative presence in E-E impact were investigated. It was shown that the NE dimensions attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence were positively associated with E-E impact. Attentional focus was associated both with stronger beliefs about the severity of the negative outcomes of BD and with a lowered intention to engage in BD. Emotional engagement and narrative presence were associated with stronger beliefs that BD leads to negative outcomes (negative outcome beliefs), and with stronger beliefs about being vulnerable to these negative outcomes (vulnerability beliefs). Surprisingly, the NE dimension narrative understanding was associated with increased willingness to engage in BD.

No evidence was found that negative thoughts about BD mediated associations between NE dimensions and E-E impact. Relations between NE dimensions, positive thoughts about BD, and E-E impact could not be investigated: only one participant reported a positive thought about BD in response to Verliefd. Based on these findings we conclude that attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence are important for E-E impact, and that thoughts about BD do not play a role therein.

Because NE dimensions were found to be associated with E-E impact, it was investigated which psychological processes contribute to NE dimensions. Negative thoughts about the perceptual persuasiveness of Verliefd negatively associated with emotional engagement and narrative presence. Furthermore, it was shown that enjoyment of Verliefd was a strong contributor to NE, mainly through contributing to attentional focus. Another strong contributor to NE was narrative realism, mainly through contributing to narrative understanding. Finally, personal relevance, character involvement, and perceived severity contributed mainly through emotional engagement.

This dissertation shows that E-E narratives can be an effective health communication strategy to discourage alcohol (binge) drinking in young people. Furthermore, this dissertation provides health communication researchers and media psychologists with insights into the role of NE in E-E impact, and offers E-E developers practical recommendations about how to create engaging and impactful E-E narratives.

Transmissie van Mycobacterium bovis tussen mens en dier
Vries, G. de; Beer, J. de; Bakker, D. ; Soolingen, D. - \ 2015
Infectieziekten bulletin 26 (2015)5. - ISSN 0925-711X - p. 103 - 106.
mycobacterium bovis - rundveeziekten - rundveehouderij - volksgezondheid - mycobacterium tuberculosis - tuberculose - zoönosen - diergezondheid - cattle diseases - cattle husbandry - public health - tuberculosis - zoonoses - animal health
Nederland is officieel vrij van rundertuberculose. Toch komt af en toe nog Mycobacterium bovis-tuberculose voor bij relatief jonge autochtone Nederlanders. Ook zijn er recent nog wel boviene-uitbraken geweest. Dat roept de vraag op of er ook nu nog transmissie is van M.bovis tussen mens en dier. Daarom zijn in een studie de DNA fingerprints van patiënten met M.bovis en van dieren met rundertuberculose met elkaar vergeleken.
Technieken voor reductie van bio-aerosol emissies uit stallen
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Hagenaars, T.J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 828) - 31
aërosolen - emissiereductie - broeikasgassen - stallen - veehouderij - bedrijfssystemen - intensieve veehouderij - gezondheidsgevaren - volksgezondheid - aerosols - emission reduction - greenhouse gases - stalls - livestock farming - farming systems - intensive livestock farming - health hazards - public health
Sinds de uitbraken van besmettelijke veeziekten zoals de vogelgriep (AI) en vooral Q-koorts is er bij de Nederlandse bevolking een toegenomen bezorgdheid over de negatieve effecten van de veehouderij op de gezondheid van de mens. Gezondheidsproblemen kunnen ontstaan als gevolg van bepaalde micro-organismen, maar ook als gevolg van bepaalde componenten afkomstig van microorganismen. Deze kiemen en kiemcomponenten kunnen op zichzelf staande deeltjes in de lucht vormen, maar zijn vaak onderdeel van grotere stofdeeltjes. Stofdeeltjes die geheel of gedeeltelijk een biologische oorsprong hebben noemen we bio-aerosolen. Het doel van dit onderzoek is te inventariseren welke technieken potentie hebben om de emissie en/of de verspreiding van bio-aerosolen (met kiemen en kiemcomponenten) te reduceren en tevens te inventariseren welke daaruit direct beschikbaar zijn voor de praktijk. In dit rapport wordt vooral ingegaan op generieke methoden om de emissie van bio-aerosolen te reduceren.
Processen en factoren die van invloed zijn op de emissie van bio-aerosolen uit stallen
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Yang Zhao, Yang ; Dekker, A. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 829)
aërosolen - emissie - volksgezondheid - gezondheidsbescherming - intensieve veehouderij - landbouwkundig onderzoek - rundvee - huisvesting van rundvee - nederland - aerosols - emission - public health - health protection - intensive livestock farming - agricultural research - cattle - cattle housing - netherlands
In the Netherlands there are some regions with very high animal densities. From the sixties in the last century intensive livestock production has expanded largely, especially in the South and East of the Netherlands. The objective of this desk study was to describe the processes and factors that influences the formation and emission of bioaerosols. Based on this report priority and support can be given to those studies that help to prevent emission of pathogens from animal houses.
Resultaten melk- en grasmonitoring en kwaliteitscontroles 2014 : Landelijk Meetnet Radioactiviteit in Voedsel
Onstenk, C.G.M. ; Brandhoff, P.N. ; Vos van Avezathe, A. ; Bourgondien, M.J. van; Peters, R.J.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2015.004) - 27
gewasmonitoring - melkkwaliteit - monitoring - radioactiviteit - melkveehouderij - radionucliden - weipoeder - gammaspectrometrie - voedselbesmetting - voedselveiligheid - volksgezondheid - crop monitoring - milk quality - radioactivity - dairy farming - radionuclides - dried whey - gamma spectrometry - food contamination - food safety - public health
Het Landelijk Meetnet Radioactiviteit in Voedsel (LMRV) dient als bewaking voor de voedselproductie en wordt ingezet in het nationale monitoringsprogramma, met name voor de monitoring van radioactiviteit in melk. In dit jaarrapport worden de resultaten van de melk- en grasmonitoring, en van de kwaliteitscontroles van de voedselmonitoren in 2014 gepresenteerd.
Unravelling the genetics of iron status in African populations : candidate gene association studies
Gichohi-Wainaina, W.N. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann; Edith Feskens, co-promotor(en): Alida Melse-Boonstra; G.W. Towers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572102 - 198
ijzergebrekanemie - voeding - genetische factoren - eiwitten - volksgezondheid - voeding en gezondheid - populaties - afrika - iron deficiency anaemia - nutrition - genetic factors - proteins - public health - nutrition and health - populations - africa

Abstract

Background: Investigating the manner in which genetic and environmental factors interact to increase susceptibility to iron deficiency, has the potential to impact on strategies to overcome iron deficiency as well as the development of biomarkers to monitor iron status in populations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms or genetic variants that may affect the composition and hence the functionality of proteins involved in iron metabolism have been the subject of recent genetic association studies. However, these investigations have not yet been carried out in African populations that differ genetically from populations of European ancestry and which bear the highest burden of iron deficiency. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the genetics of iron status in African populations using a candidate gene approach.

Methods: In order to evaluate the association between identified TMPRSS6 gene variants and iron status we conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses. We primarily searched the literature using the HuGE Navigator, Pubmed and Scopus databases for primarily genome wide association studies. Fixed effects meta-analysis was used to obtain summary estimates. Associations between reported variants and iron status as well as gene-gene and variant interactions that influence iron status were investigated in a female black South African cohort (n=686; range 32–86 years) which were part of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Concentrations of haemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor and body iron stores were determined. Thirty SNPs were genotyped and passed all quality criteria. To investigate whether previously identified associations in populations of European ancestry are replicated in populations of African ancestry, we conducted candidate gene association studies. Twenty iron status-associated variants in 628 Kenyans, 609 Tanzanians, 608 South Africans and 228 African Americans were genotyped and associations investigated using haemoglobin and serum ferritin as outcome measures. Finally, we assessed the effect of TNF-α allele variants (TNF‒1031, TNF‒308) on malaria rates, the severity of malaria as indicated by haemoglobin concentrations at the time of presentation with febrile episodes and the association between Plasmodium infection and haemoglobin concentration in symptomless parasite carriers. We used data from a placebo-controlled trial which consisted of 612 Tanzanian children aged 6–60 months. Cox regression models were used in the primary analysis to account for multiple episodes per child.

Results: In our systematic review we included eleven studies on Caucasian populations, four on Asian populations and one study on an African-American population. Differences in minor allele frequencies (MAF) of 8 TMPRSS6 SNPs (rs855791, rs4820268, rs2111833, rs1421312, rs228921, rs228918, rs228919 and rs575620) across ethnic groups were observed; with the MAF of rs855791 being significantly higher in Asian populations than in Caucasians (0.55 vs 0.42). In the meta-analysis, the A allele of rs855791 was associated with lower haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in all populations. This allele was also associated with increased serum transferrin receptor and transferrin concentrations. We observed similar associations for the G allele in rs4820268. In general, minor allele frequencies (MAF) from females in the PURE population were lower compared to those of males and females of European ancestry populations in the 1000 Genomes Project. In the TF gene, the SNP rs1799852 was associated with decreased serum ferritin (p=0.01) and body iron concentrations (p=0.03) and increased serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations (P=0.004), while rs3811647 was associated with transferrin receptor and body iron (both P=0.03) in a U-shaped manner. The chromosome 6 SNP allele combination (AAA) consisting of rs1799964 and rs1800629 both in TNF α and rs2071592 in NFKBIL1 was associated with higher odds for low serum ferritin concentrations (serum ferritin<15µg/L; OR:1.86 (95%-CI, 1.23-2.79)). The chromosome 22 SNP allele combination (GG) consisting of rs228918 and rs228921 in the TMPRSS6 gene was associated with lower odds for increased sTfR concentrations (sTfR>8.3mg/L; OR:0.79 (95%-CI,0.63-0.98). We successfully replicated reported significant associations with lowered haemoglobin concentrations for two loci in TMPRSS6 namely rs2413450 and rs4820268 and with increased haemoglobin concentrations for one locus in TF (rs3811658) when analysing the four populations of African ancestry. When ferritin was considered as an outcome measure, we replicated associations with increased ferritin concentrations in two loci namely, rs228918 in TMPRSS6 and rs1525892 in TF. No other significant associations were determined. Malaria rates were higher in Tanzanian children with the TNF‒1031CC genotype (rs1799964) compared to the AA genotype (crude hazard ratio (HR), 95%CI: 1.41 [1.01‒1.97], adjusted HR 1.31 [0.97‒1.76]y) but were lower in those with the TNF‒308AA genotype (rs1800629) (adjusted HR 0.13 [0.02‒0.63]) compared to those harbouring the wild type homozygous genotype.

Conclusions: This thesis demonstrates previously observed associations between TMPRSS6 gene variants and haemoglobin concentrations in European ancestry populations are replicated in African populations. Replication of results in other loci previously associated with iron status in European ancestry populations was not achieved. Additionally, minor allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with iron status are generally higher in European ancestry cohorts compared to those of African ancestry populations. The lack of association of reported variants may indicate that novel loci are responsible for the heritability of iron status in African populations. We have additionally observed that TNF α variants increase malaria severity. Malaria is a major cause of iron deficiency in malaria endemic areas. Our finding emphasizes that to alleviate iron deficiency in malaria endemic areas prevention and treatment of malaria is necessary. This thesis highlights the need to conduct genetic association studies in African populations where iron deficiency is of utmost public health significance. In addition, investigations into the genetics of iron status are bound to contribute towards the development of biomarkers that are useful in the determination of iron status in areas of high inflammation burden.

Inventarisatie zoönosen bij het paard in Nederland
Swanenburg, M. ; Vos, C.J. de; Visser, E.K. ; Nodelijk, G. - \ 2014
Lelystad : CVI Wageningen UR (CVI report 14/CVI0155) - 62
dierenwelzijn - paarden - ziekten - diergezondheid - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - risicoschatting - inventarisaties - ziekteoverdracht - animal welfare - horses - diseases - animal health - zoonoses - public health - risk assessment - inventories - disease transmission
Het ministerie van EZ heeft laten onderzoeken of het paard in Nederland een rol speelt bij het ontstaan van infectieziekten die kunnen worden overgedragen van dieren op mensen (zoönosen).
Pesticide risk production pogramme : feasibility study of the proposed pesticide registration and post-registration processes
Bremmer, J. ; Dhuga Chaka, K. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Mammo, B. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Memorandum / LEI 14-109) - 41
gewasbescherming - chemische bestrijding - milieueffect - ethiopië - residuen - richtlijnen (guidelines) - haalbaarheidsstudies - registratie - tuinbouwgewassen - risicoanalyse - volksgezondheid - pesticiden - plant protection - chemical control - environmental impact - ethiopia - residues - guidelines - feasibility studies - registration - horticultural crops - risk analysis - public health - pesticides
Report on developing guidelines and procedures for the pesticide registration in Ethiopia in a scientifically underpinned way and as specific as possible for Ethiopian conditions. It covers the aspects of efficacy assessment, human health risk assessment as well as environmental risk assessment. It aims to develop the capacity at the APHRD to apply these guidelines and procedures. The Work package will result in an evaluation manual plus software tool for the Animal and Plant Health Regulatory Directorate (APHRD) of the Ministry of Agriculture of Ethiopia. The user-friendly software tool operationalises the guidelines and procedures for human health risk assessment and environmental risk assessment; all basic pesticide data can be entered in it and these will be used for the risk estimates.
Rapportage onderzoeksproject Genieten aan tafel : een toegepast onderzoek naar maaltijdbeleving in verpleeghuizen
Zeinstra, G.G. ; Atten, M.N. van; Ziylan, C. ; Boelsma, E. ; Peppelenbos, H.W. ; Brok, P. den - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food &amp; Biobased Research 1483) - ISBN 9789462570535 - 86
verpleeghuizen - ouderenvoeding - ouderen - perceptie - volksgezondheid - ziektepreventie - maaltijden - nederland - ondervoeding - voedselconsumptie - nursing homes - elderly nutrition - elderly - perception - public health - disease prevention - meals - netherlands - undernutrition - food consumption
Er komen steeds meer ouderen in Nederland. Zij doen over het algemeen een groter beroep op de gezondheidszorg, wat tot stijgende zorgkosten leidt en een lagere kwaliteit van leven. Eten en drinken speelt een belangrijke rol bij de preventie van ziekte. Hoewel er steeds meer aandacht is voor de voedingsstatus van ouderen en screeningsprocedures steeds meer toegepast worden, laten de laatste metingen in Nederland zien dat 17% van de cliënten in instellingen ondervoed is en dat 28% risico loopt op ondervoeding. Om ziekte en daarmee verhoogde zorgkosten te voorkomen, en om de kwaliteit van leven te optimaliseren, is preventie van ondervoeding bij ouderen noodzakelijk. Het onderzoek ‘Genieten aan tafel’ beoogde de maaltijdbeleving van verpleeghuiscliënten te optimaliseren, met als doel om eetlust, voedingsstatus, functionele status en kwaliteit van leven te verbeteren en zo zorgkosten te verminderen.
De waarden van de groene stad
Timmermans, W. ; Cilliers, J. ; Slijkhuis, J. - \ 2014
Velp : Hogeschool van Hall Larenstein (Planning by surprise ) - ISBN 9789068240351 - 48
planning - landschapsarchitectuur - openbaar groen - volksgezondheid - stedelijke gebieden - economische evaluatie - groenbeheer - utrecht - landscape architecture - public green areas - public health - urban areas - economic evaluation - management of urban green areas
Groen zorgt voor een gezonde, leefbare, rendabele, schone en mooie stad, maar is ook economisch interessant voor de stad als vestigingsklimaat van bedrijven. In het Europese project Value (Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban Economy) hebben tien partners van 2008 tot 2012 samengewerkt om bewijs te verzamelen van de economische meerwaarde die groen heeft voor steden. VHL op zijn beurt, onderzocht planningsmethoden over economische meerwaarde van het stadsgroen. In samenwerking met de gemeente Amersfoort is dit via experimenten in praktijk gebracht.
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