Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Mining water governance : everyday community-mine relationships in the Peruvian Andes
Sosa Landeo, Milagros - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436762 - 200
mining - water policy - governance - water rights - water management - rural communities - local population - water resources - andes - peru - mijnbouw - waterbeleid - waterrechten - waterbeheer - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plaatselijke bevolking - watervoorraden

This thesis documents as well as questions how the presence of large mining operations in Andean regions of Peru alters social and natural landscapes. Taking conflicts over water as a useful entry-point for the analysis, it explores and unravels the dilemmas and challenges faced by the main conflicting actors: rural communities and mining companies. Through an in-depth analysis of how the actors navigate these challenges, focusing on those related to water, the thesis sets out to understand what happens with water in contexts of mineral extraction. It traces changes in how water is accessed, controlled and governed, and by whom. By making the complex character of water politics in mining contexts explicit, the thesis sheds light on how mining reconfigures water governance arrangements, while also contributing to wider debates about water governance in contexts characterized by huge power differences.

Estimation of soil water storage change from clay shrinkage using satellite radar interferometry
Brake, Bram te - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Sjoerd van der Zee; R.F. Hanssen, co-promotor(en): Martine van der Ploeg; G.H. de Rooij. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431637 - 123
soil water - water storage - satellite imagery - satellites - interferometry - shrinkage - clay - water management - water policy - bodemwater - wateropslag - satellietbeelden - satellieten - interferometrie - krimp - klei - waterbeheer - waterbeleid

Measurements of soil water storage are hard to obtain on scales relevant for water management and policy making. Therefore, this research develops a new measurement methodology for soil water storage estimation in clay containing soils. The proposed methodology relies on the specific property of clay soils to shrink when drying and to swell when (re-)wetted, and the capabilities of a remote sensing technique called satellite based radar interferometry (InSAR) to measure centimetre to millimetre scale displacements of the soil surface. The objective of this thesis was to develop the application of InSAR for soil water storage change estimation on the field scale to regional scale. Two relations are investigated: 1) the relation between water storage change and surface elevation change as a result of swelling and shrinkage of a clayey soil; and 2) the relation between these surface elevation changes and InSAR phase observations.

The shrinkage potential of the soil is very important for successful application of radar interferometry to measure vertical deformation as a result of swelling and shrinkage of clay. Therefore, the shrinkage potential and the water storage change-volume change relation (called the soil shrinkage characteristic, SSC) have been quantified in the laboratory for clay aggregates from the study area in the Purmer, the Netherlands. The clay content of the sampled soil ranged from 3.4 to 23.6%. The aggregates had moderate shrinkage potential over the soil moisture content range from saturation to air-dryness. Shrinkage phases were distinguished based on the portion of water content change that was compensated by volume change. Approximately 40-50% of water was released in the normal shrinkage phase, where loss of water is fully compensated by volume change. However, the residual shrinkage phase, where volume change is smaller than water content change, started at approx. 50% normalized soil moisture content (actual moisture content with respect to the moisture content at saturation).

In case of normal shrinkage, soil water storage change can be directly derived from soil volume change. If additionally, clay shrinkage is isotropic, the soil water storage change can be derived from vertical shrinkage measurements. The range of normal and isotropic shrinkage has been assessed in a drying field soil in the study area. To do so, soil water storage change was derived from soil moisture content sensors and groundwater level, and volume change estimates were obtained from soil layer thickness change measurements by ground anchors. Unlike for the aggregates, normal shrinkage was not observed for the field soil, but rather a large degree of linear (basic) shrinkage was observed. In the upper soil layers in the field, normalized soil moisture content below 50% has been observed when drying out. Based on the aggregate SSC, this indicates the occurrence of residual and zero shrinkage in this situation, resulting in less than normal shrinkage when the total unsaturated zone is considered. The water content change-volume change relation thus depends on the scale considered. It was also found that the relation depends on drying intensity, from comparison between shrinkage in a period with prolonged drying and shrinkage in a period with alternating drying end re-wetting.

For the field soil, volume change larger than soil water storage change was observed when assuming isotropic shrinkage. This unrealistic result made clear that the assumption of isotropic shrinkage is invalid. Therefore a correction of the shrinkage geometry factor rs, including dependence of shrinkage geometry on soil moisture content, has been proposed. This correction yielded rs-values between 1.38 and 3. Dynamics of subsidence porosity (i.e. vertical shrinkage) calculated from the aggregate SSC, and comparison with surface elevation change data from the field study also indicated rs-values smaller than 3. Values of rs below 3, indicate that vertical shrinkage (subsidence) is dominant over horizontal shrinkage (cracking).

Satellite based radar interferometry was applied to measure vertical deformation resulting from clay shrinkage, and evaluate the potential for soil water storage change estimation on the field scale to regional scale. Phase differences between adjacent fields were observed in interferograms over the Purmer area which were hypothesised to be caused by relative motion of the surface level. The combination of a sequence of interferograms covering short time intervals and measurements of soil surface elevation changes in time from ground anchors, indeed revealed similar dynamics in both data. Relative changes between fields in winter were explained by a different effect of frost heave in a bare soil and in a soil permanently covered by grass. Noise in interferograms over agricultural fields was successfully reduced, by multilooking over entire fields. The effect of soil type and land use on phase observation was qualitatively assessed, indicating that agricultural crop fields offer the best phase estimates in winter, while grass fields are more coherent in summer. The results underline the need for careful selection of agricultural fields or areas to base InSAR analysis on.

The differential analysis between fields was extended to time series analysis of phase, to obtain deformation estimates with respect to a stable reference, including correction for unwanted phase contributions and temporal phase unwrapping. The correction of unwanted phase contributions specifically included the soil moisture dielectric effect. This effect was considered by predicting interferometric phase based on in situ measured soil moisture contents. The soil moisture dielectric effect was shown to be much smaller than shrinkage phase in our case study. A simple model was developed to estimate vertical shrinkage, using assumption on shrinkage behaviour (normal and isotropic shrinkage) and an approximation of water storage change from precipitation and evapotranspiration data. Using this model, temporal phase unwrapping results were corrected. The corrections for soil moisture dielectric phase and the correction of phase unwrapping both improved vertical shrinkage measurements from InSAR.

The results in this thesis make clear that vertical clay shrinkage can be estimated from InSAR. At the same time, these results show that clay shrinkage is a considerable phase contribution to interferometric phase and can therefore cause unwrapping and interpretation errors when not accounted for. To estimate vertical clay shrinkage from InSAR, a shrinkage model including assumptions of normal and isotropic shrinkage, proved useful in the phase unwrapping procedure in this case study. However, using the same assumptions to compute water storage change from these InSAR estimates, will in many cases produce inaccurate results. Therefore, in order to use InSAR for estimating soil water storage change in clay soils, the soil shrinkage characteristic, soil moisture dependency of the shrinkage geometry factor, and the effect of variable drying and wetting conditions, need to be considered.

Bringing in the tides. From closing down to opening up delta polders via Tidal River Management in the southwest delta of Bangladesh
Staveren, M.F. van; Warner, J.F. ; Shah Alam Khan, M. - \ 2017
Water Policy 19 (2017)1. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 147 - 164.
Bangladesh - controlled flooding - delta management - hydraulic engineering - policy pendulum swing - Tidal River Management - water policy
The southwest coastal delta of Bangladesh is not only geographically home to a dynamic interplay between land and water, and between fresh surface water and saline tides, but also to contentious debates on flood management policy and hydraulic engineering works. It has been argued that dealing with delta floods in this region boils down to adopting either open or closed approaches. This paper longitudinally structures the open-or-closed debate based on a number of emblematic water management projects in the region. Departing from a typical open wetland history, river and polder embankments increasingly started to constrain flood dynamics. Upheaval among rural populations in response to the negative impacts of hydraulic engineering plans and works coalesced in efforts to restore open approaches, synthesized in the Tidal River Management concept. Its resemblance to historic overflow irrigation is often used politically as a yardstick to challenge the dominant hydraulic engineering paradigm. This paper argues that dealing with floods in Bangladesh requires plans, policies and projects formulated against the historic background of complex interactions among social processes, environmental dynamics and technological interventions: a lesson to be incorporated in on-going policy-making processes and long-term delta management plans.
Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices
Wanvoeke, M.J.V. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen; Charlotte de Fraiture, co-promotor(en): J.P. Venot. - Wageningen University : Wageningen - ISBN 9789462576117 - 144
irrigatie - irrigatiesystemen - kosten - waterbeheer - waterbeleid - druppelbevloeiing - burkina faso - irrigation - irrigation systems - costs - water management - water policy - trickle irrigation

Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security, solve water scarcity and reduce poverty. Already for more than ten years, development cooperation donors, policy makers, and kit designers have invested in the technology, funded its dissemination, and encouraged farmers to adopt it. Yet, there are only very few farmers who are using the technology in their fields. This study shows that this is because the funds for paying the technology mostly do not come from them, but from external donors. For LCDI promoters and disseminators, LCDI is also importantly a tool to survive or make profits. For this, they need to continuously re-assert the success of the technology through reports and stories. Farmers agree to play this game, as they hope and do receive other benefits by associating themselves with LCDI projects.

NW European Policy-Science Working Group on Reducing Nutrient Emissions : mitigation options: Evaluating the impact of implementing nutrient management strategies on reducing nutrient emissions from agriculture in NW Europe
Boekel, E.M.P.M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2670) - 113
water quality - water management - water policy - nutrients - nutrient management - emission - agriculture - mitigation - northwestern europe - waterkwaliteit - waterbeheer - waterbeleid - voedingsstoffen - nutrientenbeheer - emissie - landbouw - mitigatie - noordwest-europa
In the northwestern part of Europe, many surface waters suffer from eutrophication through diffuse losses of nutrients from agriculture to surface water and relatively high nitrate concentrations in groundwater in nitrate vulnerable zones. A lot of research and policy has been devised to decrease these losses. The northwestern European countries (Denmark, NW Germany, Belgium (Flanders), United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands) are working together in an active policy-science working group to improve water quality by evaluating the impact of implemented nutrient management strategies. More insight into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different mitigation options under specific circumstances is needed. Therefore, each country has prepared factsheets with specific information for the top six mitigation options. Based on this information, general factsheets were made to compare the effects and cost-effectiveness of mitigation options between the NW European countries. The results are presented in this report.
Waterberging in Het Waterrijk : scenarioberekeningen naar piekberging en voorraadberging als opmaat voor een module voor anticiperend waterbeheer
Jansen, P.C. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Veldhuizen, A.A. ; Mulder, M.H. ; Kwakernaak, C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2667) - 99
waterbeheer - modellen - waterbeleid - wateropslag - gelderland - water management - models - water policy - water storage
RichWaterWorld is een netwerk van publieke partners, kennisinstellingen en bedrijven dat onderzoek doet naar innovatieve systemen voor gecombineerde waterberging en waterzuivering. Basis hiervoor is een hydrologisch model waarmee de waterhuishouding voor de komende twee weken wordt berekend en preventieve maatregelen worden voorgesteld. Het model wordt getoetst in Het Waterrijk, een gebied voor piekberging en voorraadberging in Park Lingezegen ten zuiden van Arnhem.
Navigating frames : a study of the interplay between meaning and power in policy deliberations over adaptation to climate change
Vink, M.J. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Art Dewulf. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574694 - 230
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - waterbeleid - governance - beleid - climatic change - climate adaptation - water policy - policy

Introduction

The PhD thesis is inspired by the rapid rise in political attention on climate change from 2005 onwards, followed by the media hype known as ‘climategate’ and the subsequent fall in attention afterwards. The polarisation in the public debate between so-called activists and deniers shows that climate change is a classroom example of what scholars in policy and planning define as a wicked or unstructured problem. This type of problem is characterised by a wide variety of societal understandings or frames through which new knowledge is interpreted. Governing wicked problems is a tricky process and has a history of policy conflict and controversy. In this thesis, I aim to elucidate the process and outcomes of governing adaptation to climate change. I do so by focusing on the social interactions of public and private players in governance and how they develop meanings and related policy outcomes through their frame interactions.

The thesis starts with the notion that adapting to the long-term and uncertain character of climate change results in a special type of governing, especially in the context of the little institutionalised policy domain and the wide variety of societal frames involved. Governing adaptation to climate change involves careful monitoring of policy direction, speed, and societal current in relation to scientific projections and societal sensemaking of what climate impacts might be ahead. Navigating climate change therefore metaphorically boils down to a form of dead reckoning, a systemised method of monitoring course, speed, and current through which sailors in the 15th century used to navigate their ships into the unknown.

Navigating hierarchically organised ships, however, is different from steering plural democratically organised societies. In policy sciences, this process of governing long-term policy issues in plural societies is traditionally defined as a dynamic process of both puzzling over what the issue means to society and powering to get things done. Puzzling and powering are broadly defined as interrelated; new meanings might alter actors’ positions and corresponding policy outcomes, and changing power positions might alter societal understandings of what is at stake. Processes of puzzling and powering are considered to vary across traditions of state organisation and related institutional arrangements.

In the climate adaptation governance literature however, the governance process is differently defined. Scholars define governance of adaptation to climate change as a matter of getting the knowledge system right to design the right policies, and getting the institutional system right to enforce the policies. This static approach does not show an interrelated or dynamic understanding of actor-centred processes based on sensemaking and positioning. Other scholars define climate adaptation as a matter of developing the right knowledge, creating legitimacy, or enhancing justness through deliberative or participatory approaches to governing, but seem to neglect the need for power organisation to get things done.

To be able to contribute to both the policy sciences and the climate adaptation governance literature, the thesis opens up the black box of climate adaptation governance by zooming in on the actual policy deliberations in four concrete governance cases in different institutional arrangements and traditions of state organisation. To do so, I propose frame interactions as a means for better understanding the traditionally defined interplay between processes of puzzling over meaning and powering over positions in different institutional contexts. This results in the following central research question:

In what way do frame interactions construct interplaying processes of puzzling over meaning and powering over positions in different institutional arrangements occupied with governing societal adaptation to climate change?

Research design

To investigate and compare the frame interaction processes in different institutional arrangements and state traditions, I started with a distant view towards frame developments in official water policy proposals over time. Using longitudinal frame analysis, I discussed these developments against the backdrop of a rise and fall in societal attention to climate change. Subsequently, I systematically assessed the scholarly approaches in making sense of climate adaptation governance. Inspired by both the developments in official policy framing over time and the different theoretical approaches to governance of adaptation to climate change, I opened the black box of frame developments and frame interactions in concrete governance practices. I adopted explorative case study research to get an in-depth understanding of the governance processes. By participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, and longitudinal frame analysis of policy deliberations in four different case studies, I was able to get in-depth understanding of governance processes in different institutional contexts. Because my research was embedded in the Dutch research programme Knowledge for Climate, which centres on climate adaptation governance challenges in the Dutch context, I took this Dutch context as my point of departure. The lowland delta nature of most of the Dutch territory makes the country potentially vulnerable to climate- related issues. Climate change poses governance challenges to delta regions in general, for which the Dutch delta might be an interesting illustration and an interesting case for academic inspiration and cross-national comparison.

In terms of institutional arrangements, Dutch adaptation to climate change empirically shows continuities as well as discontinuities with the traditional Dutch cornerstone of dealing with collective action problems through poldering. In two selected case studies, climate adaptation is mainstreamed in existing poldering approaches and follows what is traditionally defined as a neo-corporatist state tradition. In neo-corporatism, a limited number of traditionally defined organised interests negotiate with the state in an institutionalised fashion. One selected case study shows signs of discontinuity with this traditional approach, allowing for more ad hoc deliberation with a much wider and less organised array of stakeholders and societal actors, known as deliberative governance. This approach follows the pleas in the contemporary climate adaptation governance literature for more participation. To understand the implications of state traditions for framing processes, I compare the selected case studies with a fourth selected case study of a similar deliberative governance initiative in the pluralist state tradition of the UK. Pluralism entails less state involvement in policymaking, but more central coordination of societally initiated policy actions through national legislation.

Findings

From a distant view, I show how policy frames evolve over time as an ongoing long-term conversation between policy proposals. Zooming in on four case studies reveals a wide array of frames in governance processes, which can be classified according to the scales addressed in the frames, and the nature of the issues framed. In relation to framing the nature of the issue, two archetypical frames can be defined: technical frames and political frames. Frame interactions shape learning processes, but due to the inclusion and exclusion effect of frames they can never be viewed without more conflict-based notions on policymaking. Counterintuitively, technical frames appear to change power positions, but, in the same counterintuitive way, political frames allow for puzzling over roles and responsibilities as well. Therefore, the thesis shows how meaning alters power positions and frame interactions affect substantial and relational outcomes. I show how these insights complicate what I define as the system assessment approach, which is dominant in the climate adaptation governance literature. Frames appear to do things in climate adaptation governance processes, from which I conclude that frames navigate climate adaptation.

In addition to frame interactions as a puzzling and powering interplay, I show how a second interplay might be defined between institutions and frame interactions. Different institutional arrangements yield different frame interactions and outcomes. Institutional arrangements determine the rules of what can be defined as a framing game over wicked problems. Institutions also determine who is playing what framing game and therefore determine player dependencies. Institutions interplay with frame interactions, and may create the preconditions for effectively navigating the wide array of frames in climate adaptation governance. Without institutional demarcation of roles and responsibilities, the framing game might allow for new players and knowledge, but risks becoming gratuitous. In little institutionalised deliberative governance contexts without central coordination, frame interactions are likely to yield a dominant self-referential technical framing which empowers experts and promises technical efficiency solutions to a wicked problem. These contexts might yield the preconditions for what I define as a political bystander effect in deliberative governance. In addition, I show how state traditions play a role in what institutional arrangements yield what type of frame interactions. Therefore, I conclude that institutional arrangements in combination with state traditions play a role in how the variety of climate adaptation frames can be navigated.

These findings point towards my most important recommendations. For future research, I would suggest further investigation of: (1) the possible emergence of a dominant technical framing in deliberative governance; (2) the extent to which this framing might point towards what other scholars have labelled self-reinforcing frames; (3) related political bystander effects in specific combinations of governance arrangements, policy issues, and state traditions. In relation to that, my most important recommendations to policymakers are: (1) be aware of the variety of frames in governance, (2) be aware of state traditions, (3) choose the right institutional arrangement, and (4) be modest in depoliticising wicked problems. In general, my recommendation would be to frame climate adaptation as an ongoing process of dead reckoning, which allows for explaining uncertain events, anticipating changing societal currents, and learning-by-doing.

Ems-Dollard primary production research Concise summary
Brinkman, A.G. ; Jacobs, P. ; Jak, R.G. ; Riegman, R. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES Wageningen UR (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C163/14) - 78
kaderrichtlijn water - waterbeleid - waterkwaliteit - modder - troebelheid - ecologie - eems - eems-dollard - water framework directive - water policy - water quality - mud - turbidity - ecology - river ems
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU member states to achieve good ecological and chemical status of all designated water bodies (rivers, lakes, transitional and coastal waters) by 2015. Therefore Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst has initiated the project ‘Research mud dynamics Ems Estuary’ . The aim of this project, carried out by Deltares and IMARES, is to (1) improve our knowledge on the mud dynamics in the Ems Estuary, (2) to identify the reasons for the increase in turbidity and (3) to quantify measures to improve the ecological status of the estuary.
Ems-Dollard primary production research: Full data report
Brinkman, A.G. ; Riegman, R. ; Jacobs, P. ; Kuhn, S. ; Meijboom, A. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES Wageningen UR (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C160/14) - 297
kaderrichtlijn water - richtlijnen (directives) - waterbeleid - waterkwaliteit - modder - troebelheid - ecologie - eems - eems-dollard - water framework directive - directives - water policy - water quality - mud - turbidity - ecology - river ems
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU member states to achieve good ecological and chemical status of all designated water bodies (rivers, lakes, transitional and coastal waters) by 2015. Therefore Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst has initiated the project ‘Research mud dynamics Ems Estuary’ . The aim of this project, carried out by Deltares and IMARES, is to (1) improve our knowledge on the mud dynamics in the Ems Estuary, (2) to identify the reasons for the increase in turbidity and (3) to quantify measures to improve the ecological status of the estuary.
Water, Power and Identity. The cultural politics of water in the Andes
Boelens, R.A. - \ 2015
New York : Earthscan (Earthscan Studies in Water Resource Management ) - ISBN 9780415719186 - 365
waterrechten - waterbeleid - watervoorraden - hulpbronnenbeheer - governance - politiek - water - andes - water rights - water policy - water resources - resource management - politics
This book addresses two major issues in natural resource management and political ecology: the complex conflicting relationship between communities managing water on the ground and national/global policy-making institutions and elites; and how grassroots defend against encroachment, question the self-evidence of State-/market-based water governance, and confront coercive and participatory boundary policing ('normal' vs. 'abnormal'). The book examines grassroots building of multi-layered water-rights territories, and State, market and expert networks' vigorous efforts to reshape these water societies in their own image - seizing resources and/or aligning users, identities and rights systems within dominant frameworks. Distributive and cultural politics entwine. It is shown that attempts to modernize and normalize users through universalized water culture, 'rational water use' and de-politicized interventions deepen water security problems rather than alleviating them. However, social struggles negotiate and enforce water rights. User collectives challenge imposed water rights and identities, constructing new ones to strategically acquire water control autonomy and re-moralize their waterscapes. The author shows that battles for material control include the right to culturally define and politically organize water rights and territories.
Betere bescherming drinkwaterbronnen door gebiedsdossiers én gebiedsaanpak
Eijk, H. van; Boerefijn, M. ; Schipper, P.N.M. ; Wuijts, S. - \ 2015
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 44 (2015)15. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 19 - 21.
watervoorziening - drinkwater - waterwingebied - grondwaterwinning - beschermingsgebieden - waterbeleid - utrecht - water supply - drinking water - water extraction area - groundwater extraction - conservation areas - water policy
De afgelopen jaren hebben het Rijk en de provincies onderzocht hoe ze drinkwaterbronnen beter kunnen beschermen. Inmiddels is landelijk besloten om gebiedsdossiers in te zetten voor het halen van de doelen van de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW). Afgesproken is om vóór 2015 voor iedere winning een gebiedsdossier op te stellen. Dit helpt om in ruimtelijke planvorming het belang van schoon drinkwater zwaarder mee te laten wegen, de bewustwording van een winning bij de regionale partijen te vergroten en actoren aan te zetten om afspraken te maken over lokale maatregelen. De Provincie Utrecht gebruikt dit moment om haar dossiers te vernieuwen en de gebiedsaanpak te verstevigen. Daar werden twaalf jaar geleden al voorlopers van gebiedsdossiers opgesteld voor kwetsbare winningen. De ervaring in Utrecht leert dat zulke dossiers pas gaan leven als ook structureel met de betrokken partijen gewerkt wordt aan een gebiedsaanpak.
Water en natuur : een mooi koppel
Hattum, T. van; Kwakernaak, C. ; Cleef, R. van - \ 2015
H2O online (2015)15-3-2015.
waterbeleid - veiligheid - natuurbeleid - watervoorziening - wateropslag - natura 2000 - klimaatverandering - water policy - safety - nature conservation policy - water supply - water storage - climatic change
Nederland staat voor forse opgaven op het gebied van waterveiligheid en zoetwatervoorziening. Er worden de komende jaren miljarden euro’s geïnvesteerd om die opgaven te realiseren. Juist nu liggen er dan ook grote kansen voor slimme combinaties van water- en natuuropgaven. Wat is er voor nodig om die kansen maximaal te benutten? In opdracht van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken deed Alterra hier onderzoek naar. Dit artikel vat de belangrijkste bevindingen en aanbevelingen uit deze studie samen
Actieve biologische Monitoring Zoete Rijkswateren: microverontreinigingen in zoetwatermosselen - 2015
Kotterman, M.J.J. - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (IMARES / Rapport C085/15) - 37
monitoring - waterbeheer - waterbeleid - watersystemen - mytilidae - chemicaliën - biologische monitoring - microbiële besmetting - waterverontreiniging - mossels - binnenwateren - water management - water policy - water systems - chemicals - biomonitoring - microbial contamination - water pollution - mussels - inland waters
Rijkswaterstaat van het Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu is in 1992 gestart met de uitvoering van het monitoringprogramma “Monitoring Zoete Rijkswateren”. Dit vormt een onderdeel van de “Monitoring van de Waterstaatkundige Toestand des Lands” (MWTL). Doelstellingen van de metingen zijn: - het signaleren van langjarige ontwikkelingen in de biologische toestand van watersystemen (trend). - periodieke toetsing van de toestand aan criteria die voortvloeien uit de toegekende functies van wateren (controle). De opdracht is gebaseerd op het werkdocument “Actieve monitoring chemische stoffen zoetwatermosselen, projectplan chemisch meetnet MWTL 2014”, van 28 augustus 2014 en is uitgevoerd door IMARES. De uit te voeren werkzaamheden betroffen het bemonsteren van zoetwatermosselen en het analyseren van microverontreinigingen daarin. Dit rapport bevat zowel de analyseresultaten van quaggamosselen uit het oorspronkelijke onderzoek in 2014, als ook de resultaten van het aanvullende onderzoek betreffende driehoeksmosselen en quagga’s uit het Spaarne; op tijdstip 0 (niet uitgehangen) en tijdstip 1 (na uithangen, alleen locatie Keizersveer).
Integraliteit in het Deltaprogramma: verkenning van knelpunten en mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Keessen, A.M. ; Groothuijse, F. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 26
meervoudig gebruik - hoogwaterbeheersing - waterbeleid - besluitvorming - governance - kosten-batenanalyse - financieren - multiple use - flood control - water policy - decision making - cost benefit analysis - financing
De doelen van dit verkennende onderzoek zijn er twee. Het identificeren van knelpunten voor het integraal uitvoeren van het Deltaprogramma en toekomstige beslissingen daarin. Het verkennen van innovatieve oplossingsrichtingen om met die knelpunten om te gaan. De rapportage is tot stand gekomen door een bureaustudie, aangevuld met een bijeenkomst met PBL experts op het gebied van integraliteit. en een leertafel waar prominente wetenschappers en beleidsmakers zich hebben gebogen over mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen.
€ureyeopener 2.1: zoetwatervoorziening Zuidwestelijke Delta en Rijnmond-Drechtsteden
Schipper, P.N.M. ; Janssen, G.M.C.M. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Massop, H.T.L. ; Kselik, R.A.L. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Stuyt, L.C.P.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2510) - 25
watervoorziening - zoet water - verzilting - waterbeleid - waterbeheer - waterbalans - maatregelen - modellen - watergebruik - akkerbouw - veehouderij - kustgebieden - zeeland - zuid-holland - water supply - fresh water - salinization - water policy - water management - water balance - measures - models - water use - arable farming - livestock farming - coastal areas
Het veiligstellen van de toekomstige zoetwatervoorziening in de Zuidwestelijke Delta en Rijnmond-Drechtsteden (ZWD-RD) kan op verschillende manieren worden geëffectueerd. Elke maatregel, die hiertoe wordt overwogen, beïnvloedt het chloridegehalte van het polderwater en daarmee de kwaliteit van het beregeningswater voor de landbouw en de ecologische kwaliteit. De huidige zoetwatervoorziening en een reeks maatregelen zijn voor de ZWD-RD gekwantificeerd met behulp van €ureyeopener 2.1, een beleidsondersteunend model dat is ontwikkeld voor beantwoording van vragen over de zoetwatervoorziening door Alterra, Deltares, het LEI en De Bakelse Stroom. €ureyeopener 2.1 is toegespitst op de situatie in de ZWD-RD. Gebruikers kunnen tijdens overleggen met stakeholders (interactief) beoogde maatregelen invoeren; het model berekent dan per omgaande de effecten (waterbehoeften, zoutgehalten regionale wateren, fysieke opbrengstveranderingen landbouw) en ook de directe kosten van de maatregelen. In deze rapportage wordt het model beschreven, en de manier waarop, aan de hand van werksessies met actoren in de regio, de uitkomsten van het model zijn getoetst en het model op onderdelen is verbeterd.
Water en natuur: een mooi koppel! : onderzoek naar de succesfactoren, belemmeringen en kansen voor het meekoppelen van water- en natuuropgaven
Hattum, T. van; Kwakernaak, C. ; Tol-Leenders, T.P. van; Roelsma, J. ; Broekmeyer, M.E.A. ; Schmidt, A.M. ; Hartgers, E.M. ; Nysingh, S.L. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2533) - 69
waterbeleid - veiligheid - natuurbeleid - watervoorziening - wateropslag - natura 2000 - klimaatverandering - gebiedsontwikkeling - regionale planning - water policy - safety - nature conservation policy - water supply - water storage - climatic change - area development - regional planning
Nederland staat de komende jaren voor forse opgaven op het gebied van waterveiligheid, zoetwatervoorziening, waterkwaliteit en natuur. Daarbij is het belangrijk bij deze investeringen ambities te laten ‘meekoppelen’ om zo meer maatschappelijk rendement te halen. In opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft Alterra een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de succesfactoren en belemmeringen van het mee-koppelen van water- en natuuropgaven. Op basis van interviews met diverse vertegenwoordigers van rijksoverheid, provincies, waterschappen, bedrijfsleven en natuurorganisaties zijn de belangrijkste succesfactoren en belemmeringen in beeld gebracht, die zijn vertaald naar aanbevelingen om het meekoppelen van water- en natuuropgaven te stimuleren.
Los Nuevos Sujetos del Agua: Organización social y la democratización del agua en los Andes ecuatorianos
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2014
Quito : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) (Agua y sociedad 20) - ISBN 9789942091857 - 251
waterrechten - waterverdeling - waterbeleid - watervoorraden - waterbeheer - sociale verandering - democratisering - boerenorganisaties - ecuador - water rights - water distribution - water policy - water resources - water management - social change - democratization - farmers' associations
Meerwaarde van innovatieve dijkconcepten in de Zuidwestelijke Delta
Tangelder, Marijn - \ 2013
dykes - reinforcement - coastal management - sand suppletion - innovations - water policy - south-west netherlands
Aguas Robadas: despojo hídrico y movilización social
Arroyo, A. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2013
Quito : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) (Agua y sociedad : Sección justicia hídrica 19) - ISBN 9789942091543 - 391
waterbeheer - waterbeleid - recht - waterrechten - politieke bewegingen - duurzame ontwikkeling - justitie - wetgeving - latijns-amerika - ontwikkelingslanden - wereld - water management - water policy - law - water rights - political movements - sustainable development - justice - legislation - latin america - developing countries - world
Water, food and markets : household-level impact of irrigation water policies and institutions in northern China
Zhang, L. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte; X. Shi, co-promotor(en): Nico Heerink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735751 - 143
ontwikkelingseconomie - huishoudens - irrigatiewater - waterbeleid - watergebruik - watergebruiksrendement - instellingen - noord-china - china - azië - landbouwhuishoudens - platteland - development economics - households - irrigation water - water policy - water use - water use efficiency - institutions - northern china - asia - agricultural households - rural areas

Water is increasingly becoming a limiting factor for sustainable economic growth and development, particularly in developing countries. Besides technical innovations, water institution reforms may contribute to improving water allocation decisions. Appropriately designed water institutions can motivate water users to conserve and use water efficiently for irrigation and other uses.

In northern China, growing demands on agricultural water due to relatively low water availability and increasing grain production are putting more and more pressure on improving water resource management. The Ministry of Water Resources of the P.R. China has initiated a number of pilot projects to gain experience with the development of water-saving irrigation systems. These pilot projects focus on the construction of engineering systems as well as institutional innovations in water resource management. Analysing the household-level effects of the implemented measures is hence of great importance for further policy development.

The project ‘Building a Water-saving Society in Zhangye City’, initiated early 2002 in Zhangye City in northwest China, is the first pilot project of this kind in China. It provides a unique opportunity to examine the economic effects of changes in water policies and institutions. Minle County, the research area for this study, is located within Zhangye City. A large potato processing company was established in Minle County in 2008. After the factory started its activities, the local government intervened in the allocation of irrigation water within the region by assigning more water to a specific variety of potatoes (i.e. Atlantic potatoes) that the factory needs for processing. This further makes Minle County an interesting case for analysing the link between output market development and institutional change in irrigation water management.

The general objective of this study is to empirically investigate the household-level impacts of policies and institutional changes in irrigation water use. From this general objective, the following four specific objectives are defined and analysed in separate chapters. 1) To examine the impact of the institutional setup of Water Users Associations (WUAs) on productivity of irrigation water use by the WUA member households, based on a user-based resource governance framework. 2) To analyse the effects of a policy affecting the availability of water for different crops on farmers’ acreage allocation among crops. 3) To evaluate the internal valuation (i.e. marginal value) of irrigation water, before and after the introduction of the water policy as explained above. 4) To investigate the effects of output market development on irrigation water trading.

The information used for the empirical analyses mainly comes from two surveys that were carried out in Minle County in May 2008 and May 2010. These surveys cover information for the years 2007 and 2009, that is before and after the potato processing factory became operational. A stratified sampling approach was used for selecting the households and WUAs to be interviewed in the surveys. Additional interviews were held by the author in August 2010 with the Water Management Bureaus (WMBs) that are responsible for water allocation within the seven irrigation areas in Minle County.

Chapter 2 investigates the underlying causes of differences in WUA performance by analysing the impact of WUA characteristics on the productivity of irrigation water use. Total crop production value and household income obtained from crop production, both expressed per m3 of water, are used as dependent variables in the empirical analysis. The explanatory variables in the analysis are derived from an established user-based resource governance framework, that specifies the conditions under which user groups are expected to sustainably govern common-pool resources. These conditions are grouped into resource characteristics, group characteristics, relationships between resources and user groups, and the external environment (markets, technology). Applying a random intercept model, the estimation results show that group characteristics, particularly group size and number of water users groups, and the existing pressure on available water resources are important WUA characteristics explaining water productivity.

Chapter 3 analyses the impact of the local government intervention in irrigation water allocation on farmers’ crop planting decisions. A system of unconditional crop acreage demand functions depending on prices of variable inputs, levels of quasi-fixed inputs and prices of outputs is estimated. Two hypotheses are tested: Firstly, the government intervention results in an increase in land allocated to Atlantic potatoes and a decrease in land allocated to other crops; Secondly, among the alternative crops (i.e. other crops than Atlantic potatoes), the water policy is expected to cause a relatively small response for grain crops, because grains are mainly used for domestic consumption. The empirical results do not support the first hypothesis. The increased water allocation to Atlantic potatoes does not significantly affect the land allocated to this crop, because its planting decisions are mainly taken by village leaders instead of households. Instead, the intervention results in a shift from planting potatoes towards grains with relatively low water requirements.The second hypothesis is partly supported by the empirical results. The estimated impact of the government intervention is found to be stronger for local potato varieties than for grains, but the impact on the area planted with cash crops does not differ significantly from zero. Output prices seem to play a more important role in cash crop planting decisions than the water allocation intervention.

Chapter 4 examines the economic valuation (i.e. marginal value) of irrigation water, before and after the local government intervention in water allocation. To accomplish this, a system of translog production functions is estimated. Two hypotheses are tested: Firstly, the valuation of irrigation water is expected to be equal across different crops before the start of the new water policy. And secondly, valuation of irrigation water is expected to be lower for Atlantic potatoes as compared to the alternative crops after the water policy change. The empirical results do not support the first hypothesis. The valuation of irrigation water used on grain crops is very low, and is even below the actual water prices charged to farm households. This is probably due to self-consumption of grain by households, and to government subsidies for grain farmers that are based on the planted area with grains. The second hypothesis is supported by the empirical results, except for grains. The valuation of irrigation water used on Atlantic potatoes is lower than the value of water used on other (non-grain) crops. Moreover, the returns for irrigation water used on other crops are higher in the year after the water allocation intervention than in the year before the intervention.

Chapter 5 aims to provide insights into the impact of output market development on the trading of water use rights by farm households. Theresults of the two farm household surveys indicate that water markets have emerged at a small scale in response to the development of the potato market in Minle County. Observed water trade in the second survey, that was held after the establishment of the potato processing factory, consists mainly of the exchange of water without payment between relatives or neighbours, and seems to be meant to improve the timing of water applications to crops with different seasonal water requirements. Those who have started trading water rights tend to have more land with water use rights than other potato farmers. High transaction costs and information asymmetry between the government and water users, however, severely constrain the trading of water use rights in the region.

Chapter 6 summarizes and integrates the main findings, discusses the policy implications and the limitations of the research, and presents some suggestions for further research.

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