Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Anaerobic manganese- or iron-mediated pharmaceutical degradation in water
Liu, Wenbo - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Alette Langenhoff; Nora Sutton. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432214 - 235
drugs - biodegradation - anaerobic conditions - manganese oxides - iron oxides - removal - water pollution - geneesmiddelen - biodegradatie - anaërobe omstandigheden - mangaanoxiden - ijzeroxiden - verwijdering - waterverontreiniging

Pharmaceutical compounds, originating mainly from industrial production and public consumption, are detected at extremely low levels (ng·L-1 –µg·L-1) in groundwater, surface water, and wastewater. So far, the adverse effects of pharmaceuticals and their intermediates have been widely reported, and include toxicity to humans and ecosystem, and enhancement of antimicrobial resistance. These effects call for the elimination of pharmaceuticals from water. This can be done by both abiotic and biotic degradation in the presence of oxygen (aerobic conditions) or in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic conditions). The technologies under anaerobic conditions are generally more sustainable and attractive because they require less energy and produce less pollutants, such as greenhouse gas, compared to technologies under aerobic conditions. Anaerobic degradation with metal oxides such as manganese (Mn) or iron (Fe) oxides has clear advantages in both drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment. Therefore, anaerobic degradation of pharmaceuticals in water with Mn or Fe is promising to study and develop into applicable techniques. This thesis investigates the feasibility of anaerobic degradation of pharmaceuticals in Mn- and Fe-mediated systems via both abiotic removal processes and by biodegradation. In Chapter 1, the scientific and technological motivation of the thesis is proposed.

Applications and scientific developments of Mn- or Fe-based technologies to remove pharmaceuticals from water are reviewed and discussed in Chapter 2. Based on the removal mechanisms found in nature and technical systems, these Mn- or Fe-based technologies can be classified into 3 groups – physico-chemical removal, chemical removal, and biologically-related removal. A review of previous research indicates that pharmaceutical removal with Mn- or Fe-based technologies from water is efficient, and the removal efficiency varies whit the different technologies applied. Positive and negative aspects of these processes, such as (non-)specificity, treatment conditions, formation of and effects of intermediates and by-products, and effects of Mn or Fe compounds were evaluated. Based on that, new and promising Mn- or Fe-based technologies are proposed as future potential effective and sustainable pharmaceutical removal technologies. Among these proposed technologies, the dissimilatory Mn or Fe reduction is identified as a most attractive, sustainable, and low-cost technology because this novel technology requires neutral conditions and the bacteria involved are able to completely mineralize the pharmaceuticals.

The anaerobic biodegradation of pharmaceuticals coupled to dissimilatory Mn(IV) or Fe(III) reduction is tested with different types of Mn(IV) and Fe(III) (Chapter 3). With a mixture of adapted sediment to metoprolol and chemically synthesized Mn(IV), anaerobic biodegradation with amorphous, chemically synthesized Mn(IV) can effectively remove caffeine (26%) and naproxen (52%) after 42 days of incubation. Further experiments with Mn(IV) obtained from drinking water treatment plants show that this type of Mn(IV) can be used to remove metoprolol and propranolol, with respectively 96% and 31% after 72 days of incubation. The inoculum can also use Fe(III) as alternative electron acceptor to degrade metoprolol. Results show that metoprolol degradation with insoluble chemically synthesized Fe(III) and soluble Fe(III)-citrate reaches 57% and 52%, respectively. No significant removal is observed in all the abiotic controls, showing that the biodegradation is the main removal mechanism in pharmaceutical removal with Mn(IV) or Fe(III).

Abiotic removal of selected pharmaceuticals with MnO2 is compared under aerobic conditions and anaerobic conditions (Chapter 4). Results show that anaerobic conditions promote diclofenac removal, while it inhibits removal of metoprolol and propranolol. In demineralized water (demiwater), diclofenac removal under anaerobic conditions is 78%, and higher than the 59% found under aerobic conditions. In 50 mM phosphate buffer, and under aerobic conditions, the diclofenac removal achieves complete removal. Under anaerobic conditions the observed removal is similar as in demiwater. Preliminary investigation shows that diclofenac removal with MnO2 under anaerobic condition is better at acidic pH (pH 4 – 5) and the removal is higher when applying amorphous MnO2 compared to applying crystalline MnO2. The key factors determining the extent of pharmaceutical removal with MnO2 under anaerobic conditions are the following: the chemical structure and molecular properties of the pharmaceuticals, and the properties and activity of reactive sites on the MnO2 surface.

Applying MnO2 under anaerobic conditions to remove diclofenac from water is further investigated (Chapter 5). Results show that increasing the temperature from 10 to 30°C leads to an increase in the diclofenac removal, whereas further increase of temperature to 40°C results in a decrease in the removal. The latter effect is possibly due to Ostwald ripening and/or aging processes. Increasing the amount of MnO2 increases the diclofenac degradation, as this provides more reactive sites for diclofenac conversions. Further shifting the molar ratio of MnO2 and diclofenac from 2200:1 to 8900:1, however, does not further increase diclofenac removal, probably due to limited oxidation capacity of MnO2. The presence of metal ions strongly inhibits the diclofenac removal following the order of Mn2+> Ca2+ ≈ Mg2+ >Fe3+. The metal ions appear to adsorb onto the MnO2 surface and compete with diclofenac for reactive sites. Phosphate has a diverse effect on diclofenac degradation: low concentrations inhibit and high concentrations promote the removal. The humic acids significantly promotes diclofenac removal, probably caused by affecting MnO2 reactive surface sites.

To reuse the Mn or Fe during pharmaceutical removal under anaerobic conditions, biological production of Mn(IV) or Fe(III) is investigated under oxygen-limiting conditions, or with nitrate as electron acceptor (Chapter 6). Mn(IV) is successfully produced with Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria under O2-limiting conditions, and the produced Mn(IV) is amorphous. Pharmaceutical removal with the Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria is not observed. In abiotic pharmaceutical removal, using Mn(IV) from a drinking water production plant, is effective to remove metoprolol and propranolol. The successful production of Fe(III) is also observed under NO3--reducing conditions via biological processes. The biologically produced Fe(III) is also amorphous. There is no significant removal of pharmaceuticals coupled to the biological Fe(III) production. When comparing the biologically produced Fe(III) and other types of Fe(III), only Fe(III) from a drinking water production plant and one Fe(III)-based sorbent can remove propranolol.

Finally, the outcomes of this thesis are discussed and provide insights into the application of anaerobic degradation of pharmaceuticals with mediation of Mn and Fe oxides (Chapter 7). The removal mechanisms include adsorption, chemical oxidation, and biodegradation and are identified to contribute to the different removal processes. The anaerobic Mn(IV)- and Fe(III)-mediated pharmaceutical degradation processes are evaluated on the basis of removal performance, environmental and operational conditions, sustainability of the processes, as well as the Mn and Fe types involved. Results described in this thesis provide a proof of principal for anaerobic Mn(IV)- or Fe(III)-mediated degradation in removing pharmaceuticals from water. To translate the process into a pharmaceutical removal technology for water treatment, three steps are proposed including (1) exploring the limits of anaerobic Mn- or Fe-mediated pharmaceutical degradation processes; (2) simulating the process in practice with a controlled systems, and (3) translating the processes to a pilot-scale system before a full-scale application. In addition, research topics are identified that can help to meet these challenges in the future. In summary, anaerobic Mn(IV)- or Fe(III)-mediated systems can remove pharmaceuticals from water through both abiotic removal and biotic degradation. These are promising processes which can be developed into a robust, sustainable, affordable, and environmentally friendly technology to remove pharmaceuticals from water.

Marine communities : governing oil & gas activities and cruise tourism in the Arctic and the Caribbean
Bets, Linde K.J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Jan van Tatenhove; Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Machiel Lamers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436571 - 207
oil and gas industry - oil spills - governance - international tourism - pollution by tourism - tourism impact - marine areas - marine environment - water pollution - environmental policy - caribbean - caribbean sea - arctic ocean - arctic regions - olie- en gasindustrie - olieverontreinigingen - internationaal toerisme - verontreiniging door toerisme - impact van toerisme - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - milieubeleid - caribisch gebied - caribische zee - noordelijke ijszee - arctische gebieden

Oceans and seas are among the most ecologically vital and socio-economically important systems on the planet. Despite the acknowledged pristine nature of the marine environment, there is a growing interest in exploring the sea for human use such as offshore wind production, extraction of sand, oil and gas, deep sea mining, gene mining and aquaculture. This is the result of, among other things, the food and energy needs of the growing world population, globalisation processes and technological innovation. This intensified use of the sea has led to new governance initiatives to address the resulting environmental effects and risks for the marine environment.

Actors involved in governing maritime activities are not necessarily located in the same geographical place and may not even be in direct contact, but they increasingly interact through global and transnational institutions or networks. Globalisation results in communities characterised by the interplay between territorially defined actors (e.g. national states, port agencies and island communities) and less territorially defined actors (e.g. mobile and transnational industries). The community literature conceptualises communities as small spatial units, homogenous social structures or sets of shared norms. These conceptualisation of communities provide insufficient insights in the type of community involved in environmental governance of maritime activities.

This thesis, therefore, presents the marine community concept as a new analytical lens for studying environmental governance of maritime activities. A marine community is a community of socio-economic and policy actors and institutions organised around a certain maritime activity that influences or will be affected by the (marine) ecosystem in which the activity occurs.

The aim of this PhD thesis is twofold: first, to understand environmental governance of maritime activities by different marine communities, and second, to understand how different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community.

The central research question is: How can the marine community concept enrich our understanding of environmental governance of maritime activities in distinct maritime settings?

1. How are marine communities organised to govern environmental problems in different sectoral and geographical settings?

2. How do marine communities develop in relation to various institutional settings, and how do different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community?

A case study methodology and cross-case comparative analysis were chosen to study the research question. The selection of cases is based on two distinct marine regions (the Caribbean Netherlands and the European Arctic) and two different maritime activities (cruise tourism and oil & gas activities). The case studies are investigated through the collection of primary data from semi- structured interviews and (participatory) observations, supplemented with secondary data from literature, policy documents, social media, and newspapers.

Chapter 2 illustrates how the marine community of liquefied natural gas production in Hammerfest transforms from a local fisheries marine community into an international oil and gas marine community in Northern Norway, driven by a discourse on economic growth. This is implemented through a strong institutional coalition between the Norwegian State and Statoil in which both actors participate in the user and policy community. Although non-governmental organisations, Sámi indigenous people, fisheries and local inhabitants of Hammerfest engage in strategic and oppositional coalitions to strive for environmental and community development related to liquefied natural gas production, the success of these coalitions is constrained by centralised decision-making by the institutional coalition.

Chapter 3 illustrates the institutional change in the marine community of oil transhipment at St. Eustatius. Since 2010, St. Eustatius is a special municipality of the Netherlands, and since 2015, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure & Environment, instead of the island government, is responsible for the environmental management of the oil terminal at St. Eustatius. The Dutch Ministry relies on Dutch and European standards for environmental management, which deviate from the standards of small islands. This structural power change, however, is not perceived as legitimate by part of the local population of St. Eustatius. This chapter analyses the reversal of the existing power relationships from strong intertwinement of the user and policy community, stereotypical of small island developing states, to the user and policy community drifting apart.

In Chapter 4, the marine community of cruise tourism at Bonaire is situated between the transnational cruise network and the local tourism industry of Bonaire. This case study analyses how two interconnected flows of cruise ships and passengers are governed by this transnational-local interplay. An important conclusion is that the transnational cruise ship flow increasingly determines the local cruise passenger flow at Bonaire. As a result, the marine community, and the user community especially, increasingly connects and adapts to the requirements of the transnational cruise network.

Chapter 5 analyses the changes in the marine community of expedition cruise tourism at Svalbard changes because of the establishment of the self-governing Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators. Collective self-governance complements regulation by the Norwegian government through the implementation of an industry code of conduct and providing access to knowledge and information, such as statistical information and a track-and-trace system for cruise ships. At the same time, the demanding information generation and provision of collective self-governance creates distance between the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators and the Governor of Svalbard in the policy community and the expedition crew in the user community. Information generation and provision becomes a challenge for sustainable cruise tourism. Once information provision requires too much time and resources, self-interest is prioritised over collective interest.

In Chapter 6 the conclusions of the thesis are drawn, based on the cross-case comparative analysis. First, the comparison of environmental governance illustrates the use of different problem-solving styles in marine regions. The islands of Bonaire and St. Eustatius (in the Caribbean Netherlands) are eager for short- term economic growth. The lack of a strong government results in a curative problem-solving style in relation to urgent environmental problems. In the European Arctic the activities are more recent. Governance, therefore, attempts to prevent problems through stakeholder involvement and informed decision-making. Second, the analysis shows that environmental governance of maritime activities depends upon the mobility of the maritime activity and consequently the level at which regulations are developed and implemented. A difference is observed between governing through transnational regulations predominantly by the user community for cruise tourism and governing through territory-bound regulations predominantly by the policy community for oil and gas.

In the second part of the conclusion, marine communities as a governance arrangement is discussed in relation to theories on governance modes and shifts, policy styles and mobilities. In the first place, changes in governance modes illustrate a shift towards more contemporary modes, such as open co-governance and self-governance, with St. Eustatius being the exception because of its political situation. In this thesis the complexity of governance is further structured according to two analytical dimensions: the governance style, ranging from reactive to proactive, and the governance process, which distinguishes governance of the marine community from governance through the marine community. In the analysis it becomes clear that the spatial scale of the maritime activity is crucial as it defines the mobility of the activity and the marine community. Therefore, the thesis concludes that the maritime activity has a larger influence on environmental governance than the marine region. The chapter ends with methodological reflections, future research and policy implications for the new concept of marine community.

Quantifying the impact of socioeconomic development and climate change on Escherichia coli concentrations in the Pakistani Kabul River
Iqbal, Shahid - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Nynke Hofstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434478 - 183
escherichia coli - rivers - climatic change - socioeconomics - water quality - regression analysis - water pollution - health - rivieren - klimaatverandering - sociale economie - waterkwaliteit - regressieanalyse - waterverontreiniging - gezondheid

Clean water is indispensable for the sustenance of life and maintenance of health. However, water quality is threatened by changes in socio-economic developments (population growth, urbanisation, livestock increase and sanitation) and climate (surface air temperature and precipitation patterns). Major water quality contaminants include microorganisms, such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia Coli (E.coli) and pathogens. Microbial contamination poses serious health risks in developing countries like Pakistan, where people do not have access to clean water due to lack of waste water treatment and thorough manure management. Therefore, to reduce the present and future health risk, it is important to understand the impacts of socio-economic development and climate-change on microbial fate and transport in surface water resources in the Kabul River Basin in Pakistan.

The objective of this study is quantifying the impact of socio-economic development and climate change on E.coli concentrations in the Pakistani Kabul River. To reach the objective, I sampled E.coli concentrations at several locations in Kabul River, applied statistical and process based modelling, developed future global change scenarios and analysed the impact of these scenarios on E.coli concentrations. I focus on E.coli rather than pathogens, because sampling of pathogens and its chemical analysis are expensive. Kabul River Basin is a tributary of the Indus river and is located in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas (HKH) and suffers from floods every year. The population suffers from a high risk of waterborne diseases. The water is contaminated by direct sewage inputs from large cities, like Peshawar, direct manure inputs from animal sheds along the river and indirect manure inputs from the land.

Kabul River Basin is subjected to hazardous levels of microbiological pollution. The concentration of micro-organisms is influenced by hydro-climatic variables, such as water and surface air temperature, precipitation and discharge. However, the net effect of these variables remains thus far unclear. High concentrations of E.coli were found in the main stream and its tributaries (Chapter 2). Samples were collected along the Kabul river and drinking water samples from the city of Nowshera (April 2013 to July 2015) and all surface water samples violate the bathing water criteria and all drinking water samples violate the drinking water criteria. The correlation between hydro-climatic variables and E.coli concentration was analysed. Water temperature and surface air temperature were positively correlated, most likely because high temperatures coincide with high precipitation and discharge. Precipitation and river discharge data were also positively correlated with E.coli concentrations. This shows that precipitation, which increases the surface runoff, transports E.coli and other waterborne pathogens to the river nearby (correlation with precipitation) and further upstream (correlation with discharge). A regression model was also applied that explained 61% of the E.coli variability in surface water and 55% of E.coli variability in drinking water resources, even when other factors, such as location and land-use variables are ignored (Chapter 2).

To better understand the hydrology in the basin, the current and future flows of Kabul river were modelled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which serves as a basis for the process-based E.coli model. Flash floods occur every year in the basin as a result of increased discharge due to snow and glacier melt together with monsoon precipitation. The Kabul River Basin is one of the most vulnerable regional basin to climate change. The hydrological model was calibrated and validated for the full Kabul River Basin and performed well (NSE equals 0.77 and 0.72 respectively). Flood frequency and expected return period were analysed for a contemporary period (1981-2000) and two future periods (i.e. 2031-2050 and 2081-2100) using the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios based on four bias-corrected downscaled climate models (Chapter 3). The flood frequency analysis shows that the present day’s one-in-a-fifty year event could occur between once in every 3 year (EC-EARTH and MIROC climate-models) and once in every 24 years (IPSL climate-model). This study presents climate-change impact assessment in the Kabul River Basin. The selected approach is in general well accepted in the scientific community and the results can be useful in flood management in the region. Outcomes of this study can be helpful for regions that have similar hydro-climatological conditions.

To better understand the fate and transport of bacteria from land to water resources and to assess source contribution, the SWAT model was calibrated and validated for E.coli. Our study is the first bacterial modelling study for the Kabul River Basin (Chapter 4). The simulated concentrations have slightly lower variability than the observed concentrations. The model performance could be improved further by using more input E.coli data, but the current model results agree well enough with our measured E.coli concentrations (NSE equals 0.69 and 0.66 for calibration and validation respectively). Based on the pathogen source estimations, point (direct) sources are identified to be the most important microbial pollution sources. Pollution from upstream areas is also important, while non-point (diffuse) sources play a role mostly during the periods with high discharge. Our study underlines the importance of wastewater treatment and manure management both in and upstream of the study area. Studies like ours were lacking in developing countries like Pakistan and can be used for scenario analyses in the region (Chapter 4). The model can be useful in microbial water quality assessments in other watersheds and for pathogenic microorganisms, such as Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus.

The calibrated and validated SWAT bacterial model (Chapter 4) was used to assess E.coli concentrations in a comprehensive scenario analysis (Chapter 5). We developed two future scenarios based on state-of-the-art approaches, using the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), RCPs and own assumptions in line with the SSP storylines. We took the modelled E.coli concentrations from Chapter 4 as baseline scenarios and defines two future scenarios as Scenario_1 (sustainability scenario) and Scenario_2 (uncontrolled scenario). These scenarios represent different socio-economic development and climate change. The two scenarios were developed by combining SSP1, a sustainable, equitable and environmentally focussed world with RCP4.5 (limed climate change) in Scenario_1, and SSP3 (a divided world, with no interest in the environment) with RCP8.5 (strong climate change) in Scenario_2. Currently, no wastewater treatment plant exists in the basin, because the 2010 floods destroyed the available plants. We assumed excellent and poor wastewater and manure treatment for 2050s and 2100s for Scenario_1 and Scenario_2 respectively, in line with the storylines. Scenario_2 resulted in higher E.coli concentrations compared to the baseline scenarios due to high population growth, poor wastewater and manure treatment and land-use changes. However, microbial water quality was found to improve under Scenario_1. This was achieved by implementing improved and technologically advanced wastewater treatment and manure management. Future concentrations were found to be between 0.6% and 7% of the baseline concentrations depending on the treatment technology used (Chapter 5). This study highlights the need for substantial improvements in wastewater and manure treatment systems in the Kabul River Basin to assure future E.coli concentrations in water sources will be within the limits of WHO and US-EPA regulations for drinking and bathing water quality. The primary treatment facility that is currently installed is a good start, but insufficient to strongly reduce concentrations. Hence major investments are required to install technologically advanced wastewater treatment and manure treatment plants to cut-down the current contamination level of Kabul river.

My PhD thesis provides a base for devising optimal coping strategies that are essential for the sustainability of hydrological resources under socio-economic developments and climate-change impacts. The results of our research are helpful to further assess alternative water quality management options. The outcomes of this study also increase the knowledge in the field of microbial fate and transport in water resources in a developing country like Pakistan, where such studies are lacking. A limited number of previous studies on global change impacts on microbial contamination of surface water in other areas of the world focused only on the climate-change impacts on microbial water quality. This is the first study to evaluate the influence of combined socio-economic and climate-change impacts on E.coli concentrations in the Kabul River Basin. The developed SWAT model and scenario analysis can be used for other contaminants, such as nutrients, pesticides and heavy metals. Our study can be a first step to improve water quality of the Kabul River Basin by providing tools for water managers and health specialists to improve the water quality and reduce the risks related to the use of contaminated water resources. This study will be useful not only in this region, but also for other regions of the world with similar microbial water contamination issues.

Mobiele waterzuivering glastuinbouw
Ruijven, Jim van; Os, Erik van; Vermeulen, Peter - \ 2017
Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1424) - 54 p.
kassen - glastuinbouw - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - waterverontreiniging - afvoer - zuiveren - waterzuivering - oppervlaktewater - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - substraten - cultuur zonder grond - mobiele uitrusting - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - waste water treatment - waste water - water pollution - discharge - purification - water treatment - surface water - surface water quality - plant protection - pesticides - substrates - soilless culture - mobile equipment
Application of a mobile unit for discharge water purification is one of four options to apply to the purification obligation per 1-1-2018. Depending on the amount of discharge, future water strategy and investment options, mobile purification can be an interesting option. The amount of discharge water varies with crop, irrigation strategy and quality of the irrigation water and is between 122 and 3.340 m3/ha/year for surveyed companies. About 65% of greenhouse companies discharges
Herkomstanalyse gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in het grondwater van de Provincie Drenthe : meetperiode 2002-2007
Kruijne, Roel ; Groenwold, Jan - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2815) - 41
pesticiden - grondwater - monitoring - uitspoelen - waterverontreiniging - drenthe - nederland - pesticides - groundwater - leaching - water pollution - netherlands
In 2008 heeft WEnR-Alterra een analyse gegeven van de mogelijke herkomst van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen die in de jaren 2002, 2004, 2006 en 2007 zijn aangetroffen in het grondwater van de Provincie Drenthe. Ruim de helft van de geanalyseerde gewasbeschermingsmiddelen is niet (meer) toegelaten op de Nederlandse markt. Veel stoffen hebben een brede toepassing (gehad) in meerdere sectoren en daarnaast ook buiten de landbouw. De breedte van deze toepassingen en de wijzingen in de tijd beperken de mogelijkheid om het voorkomen van een stof in verband te brengen met een specifiek gebruik. Uit regionale berekeningen blijkt dat het grondwater in de Provincie Drenthe als geheel minder kwetsbaar is voor uitspoeling van stoffen dan het grondwater in Nederland. Uit berekeningen met lokale invoergegevens blijkt, dat de meest kwetsbare locaties voor uitspoeling van de stof bentazon zijn oververtegenwoordigd in de bemonstering.
Fate of nano- and microplastic in freshwater systems: A modeling study
Besseling, Ellen ; Quik, Joris T.K. ; Sun, Muzhi ; Koelmans, Bart - \ 2017
Environmental Pollution 220 (2017)Part A. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 540 - 548.
microplastics - particles - water pollution - water quality - sedimentation - fresh water - hydrodynamics - deeltjes - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - sedimentatie - zoet water - hydrodynamica
Riverine transport to the marine environment is an important pathway for microplastic. However, information on fate and transport of nano- and microplastic in freshwater systems is lacking. Here we present scenario studies on the fate and transport of nano-to millimetre sized spherical particles like microbeads (100 nm–10 mm) with a state of the art spatiotemporally resolved hydrological model. The model accounts for advective transport, homo- and heteroaggregation, sedimentation-resuspension, polymer degradation, presence of biofilm and burial. Literature data were used to parameterize the model and additionally the attachment efficiency for heteroaggregation was determined experimentally. The attachment efficiency ranged from 0.004 to 0.2 for 70 nm and 1050 nm polystyrene particles aggregating with kaolin or bentonite clays in natural freshwater. Modeled effects of polymer density (1–1.5 kg/L) and biofilm formation were not large, due to the fact that variations in polymer density are largely overwhelmed by excess mass of suspended solids that form heteroaggregates with microplastic. Particle size had a dramatic effect on the modeled fate and retention of microplastic and on the positioning of the accumulation hot spots in the sediment along the river. Remarkably, retention was lowest (18–25%) for intermediate sized particles of about 5 μm, which implies that the smaller submicron particles as well as larger micro- and millimetre sized plastic are preferentially retained. Our results suggest that river hydrodynamics affect microplastic size distributions with profound implications for emissions to marine systems.
River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions
Strokal, Maryna - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Carolien Kroeze, co-promotor(en): S. Luan; Lin Ma. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579729 - 226
cum laude - nutrients - rivers - coastal water - models - eutrophication - coastal areas - water pollution - china - voedingsstoffen - rivieren - kustwateren - modellen - eutrofiëring - kustgebieden - waterverontreiniging

Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities on land such as agriculture and urbanization. However, the relative importance of these human activities for river export of nutrients to Chinese seas is not well studied. There are two important issues that need further investigation: the relative importance of upstream pollution on downstream impacts and the relative importance of typical sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers that are often ignored in existing modeling studies.

My PhD thesis, therefore, aims to better understand trends in river export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China by source from sub-basins, and the associated coastal eutrophication. To this end, I developed the MARINA model: Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs. For this, I used the existing Global NEWS-2 model (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) as a starting point.

I formulated five sub-objectives to achieve the main objective:

To analyze the original Global NEWS-2 model for river export of nutrients and the associated coastal eutrophication (Chapter 2);

To develop a sub-basin scale modeling approach to account for impacts of upstream human activities on downstream water pollution, taking the Pearl River as an example (Chapter 3);

To quantify the relative share of manure point sources to nutrient inputs to rivers at the sub-basin scale (Chapter 4);

To quantify the relative share of sources to river export of nutrients at the sub-basin scale (Chapter 5);

To explore optimistic futures to reduce river export of nutrients and coastal eutrophication in China (Chapter 6).

The study area includes rivers draining roughly 40% of China. This includes the most densely populated areas, and areas with intensive economic activities. The rivers include the Yangtze (Changjiang), Yellow (Huanghe), Pearl, Huai, Hai and Liao. In the MARINA model, the drainage areas of the large Yangtze, Yellow and Pearl rivers are divided into up-, middle- and downstream sub-basins. The principle of the sub-basin approach of MARINA is that nutrients from human activities are transported by tributaries to outlets of sub-basins and then to the river mouth (coastal waters) through the main channel. The model takes into account nutrients that are partly lost or retained during transport towards the river mouth. The model quantifies river export of nutrients by source from sub-basins for 1970, 2000 and 2050.

The main six findings of the MARINA results for China are:

Finding 1: Dissolved N and P export by Chinese rivers increased by a factor of 2-8 between 1970 and 2000;

Finding 2: The potential for coastal eutrophication was low in 1970 and high in 2000 in China;

Finding 3: Most dissolved N and P in Chinese seas is from middlestream and downstream human activities;

Finding 4: Manure point sources are responsible for 20-80% of dissolved N and P in Chinese rivers;

Finding 5: In the future, river export of nutrients may increase in the Global Orchestration (GO) scenario of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Current policy plans (CP scenario) may not sufficient to avoid this increase;

Finding 6: In optimistic scenarios (OPT-1 and OPT-2), the potential for coastal eutrophication is low in 2050, mainly as a result of assumed full implementation of: (1) high recycling rates of animal manure (OPT-1 and OPT-2), and (2) high efficiencies of nutrient removal in sewage systems (OPT-2, see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Illustration of future scenarios for coastal water quality in China. GO is Global Orchestration of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and assumes environmental actions that are either absent or ineffective in reducing water pollution. CP is based on GO, but incorporates the “Zero Growth in Synthetic Fertilizers after 2020” policy. OPT-1 and OP-2 are optimistic scenarios that assume high nutrient use efficiencies in agriculture (OPT-1, OPT-2) and sewage (OPT-2).

My PhD thesis reveals novel insights for effective environmental policies in China. It shows the importance of manure point sources in water pollution by nutrients. Clearly, managing this source will likely reduce coastal eutrophication in the future. Furthermore, the implementation of advanced technologies is essential when dealing with urban pollution. My PhD thesis may also be useful for other world regions with similar environmental problems as in China. The new, sub-basin scale MARINA model is rather transparent and thus can be applied to other large, data-poor basins that may benefit from the allocation of effective management options. With this I hope to contribute to future availability of sufficiently clean water for next generations, not only in China, but also in other world regions.

Evaluatie zuiveringstechniek voor verwijdering gewasbeschermingsmiddelen III
Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Staaij, M. van der; Os, E.A. van - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1414) - 30
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - afvalwater - waterverontreiniging - glastuinbouw - kassen - cultuur zonder grond - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - ozon - verwijdering - filtratie - technieken - waste water treatment - water treatment - waste water - water pollution - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - soilless culture - plant protection - pesticides - ozone - removal - filtration - techniques
Dutch greenhouse horticulture has to treat all discharged water from soilless cultivations for the removal of plant protection products, to meet the new Dutch Directive Hoofdlijnenakkoord (2015). Building on previous research, (1) the life span of activated carbon filters, (2) the effect of increasing concentrations of plant protection products on the removal efficacy of ozone and the removal efficacy of (3) multimedia filtration and (4) ultrasonic water treatment have been investigated. It turned out to be difficult to design an active carbon based water treatment system capable of durable treatment of greenhouse discharge water: organic and mineral material in the water blocked the pores, thereby clogging the filter system and causing leakage by pressure build-up. Activated carbon filtration (granular activated carbon, 48 min contact time, 50 μm prefiltration with sand filter) achieved a removal efficacy of >95% for up to 430 bed volumes treated. Combination with advanced oxidation improved the removal efficacy, but the removal time of the filter could not be determined due to leakage. The removal efficacy of ozone oxidation remained >98%, even at increased concentrations (factor 10 and 100) of plant protection products in the untreated water. The multimedia filter removed 75% of the plant protection products by adsorption, biological breakdown within the filter was not determined. Treatment of the water with ultrasonic waves hardly had any effect (maximum 30% efficacy) on the breakdown.
Financiële prikkels in de landbouw voor verbetering van de waterkwaliteit
Bergevoet, Ron ; Bondt, Nico ; Lauwere, Carolien de; Buurma, Jan ; Linderhof, Vincent ; Rijk, Piet - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-033) - ISBN 9789462577794 - 89
waterkwaliteit - waterverontreiniging - landbouw - financiële ondersteuning - emissie - nederland - water quality - water pollution - agriculture - financial support - emission - netherlands
While many instruments have already been implemented in various chains in order to limit the emission of pollutants into water, only a fraction of the existing instruments are economic in nature, and very few are geared towards the ‘polluter pays’ principle (as applied in this study). Despite this, agriculture and horticulture in general, and certain sectors in particular, incur expenses in their limiting of noxious substances. There is nevertheless potential to utilize new instruments in order to give further effect to the ‘polluter pays’ principle. These instruments could be most effectively implemented on a company level and/or during the removal of pollutants. New instruments must not be introduced in isolation; instead, an optimum mix must be created in conjunction with other instruments, both existing and new. Further research ought to shed light on the compatibility of proposed instruments within existing policy frameworks as well as in which areas there is a need for entirely new instruments to be developed.
Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring in the Netherlands : update 2015
Franeker, J.A. van; Kühn, S. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E.L. - \ 2016
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C091/16) - 50
fulmarus - sea birds - wastes - water pollution - marine environment - monitoring - netherlands - zeevogels - afval - waterverontreiniging - marien milieu - nederland
Verwerking van mestoverschot: overleven de ziekteverwekkers?
Hoeksma, P. ; Rutjes, S. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Blaak, Hetty ; Buisonjé, F.E. de - \ 2016
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 49 (2016)5. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 34 - 35.
mestverwerking - mestoverschotten - dierlijke meststoffen - lozing - waterverontreiniging - pathogenen - manure treatment - manure surpluses - animal manures - disposal - water pollution - pathogens
Dierlijke mest bevat ziekteverwekkende bacteriën en virussen. Worden deze gedood bij de verschillende mestverwerkingsmethodes? Die vraag wordt belangrijker nu een deel van de mestoverschotten verwerkt moet worden, waarmee en mesttransport en mestverwerkingsactiviteiten toenemen. Wageningen UR en het RIVM deden een verkennend onderzoek.
Goed Gietwater Werkpakket 3, taak 2 Industrieelonderzoek naar waterkringloopsluiting in opkweekbedrijven
Appelman, W.A.J. ; Brouwer, J.G.H. ; Blok, C. ; Maas, A.A. van der; Staaij, M. van der; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Meeuwsen, B. - \ 2016
Zeist : TNO - 61 p.
waterverontreiniging - emissie - emissiereductie - glastuinbouw - voedingsstoffen - waterbeheer - afvalwater - hergebruik van water - water pollution - emission - emission reduction - greenhouse horticulture - nutrients - water management - waste water - water reuse
Efficiënt omgaan met water speelt voor biologische en niet-biologische opkweekbedrijven van plantmateriaal een steeds grotere rol. Toenemende en strengere eisen met betrekking tot lozing van water en de emissie van nutriënten en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen naar het oppervlaktewater vragen nieuwe maatregelen. Overheden en de glastuinbouwsector hebben als doelstelling om de emissies van de glastuinbouwsector via het waterspoor in 2027 nagenoeg tot nul te reduceren waarbij er in 2018 al maatregelen moeten worden genomen met betrekking tot gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Het doel van het Goed Gietwater project is om middels industrieel onderzoek te komen tot een vergaande waterkringloopsluiting in de opkweeksector. Met een geoptimaliseerd watermanagement en behandeling van het overtollige gietwater kunnen water en nutriënten worden teruggewonnen en emissies van nutriënten en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen naar het oppervlaktewater worden voorkomen.
Effect van klimaatverandering en vergrijzing op waterkwaliteit en drinkwaterfunctie van Maas en Rijn
Sjerps, Rosa M.A. ; Laak, T.L. ter; Zwolsman, G.J. - \ 2016
H2O online (2016)augustus.
climatic change - drinking water - water quality - surface water - pesticides - radiography - drug residues - water pollution - river meuse - river rhine - prognosis - klimaatverandering - drinkwater - waterkwaliteit - oppervlaktewater - pesticiden - radiografie - geneesmiddelenresiduen - waterverontreiniging - maas - rijn - prognose
Door de vergrijzing zal de emissie van geneesmiddelen en röntgencontrastmiddelen naar het oppervlaktewater toenemen. De effecten van toenemende emissies op de waterkwaliteit worden versterkt bij lage rivierafvoeren, die naar verwachting steeds vaker en langduriger zullen optreden in een veranderend klimaat. In deze studie zijn prognoses gemaakt van de toekomstige concentraties van een aantal relevante organische microverontreinigingen in de Rijn en Maas in het jaar 2050. De voorspelde concentraties van diverse geneesmiddelen en röntgencontrastmiddelen in de Rijn en de Maas overschrijden de ERM-streefwaarden voor oppervlaktewater als bron van drinkwater. Sporen van enkele organische microverontreinigingen kunnen doordringen in het drinkwater.
Landbouwpraktijk en waterkwaliteit in Nederland: toestand (2012-2014) en trend (1992-2014)
Fraters, B. ; Hooijboer, A.E.J. ; Vrijhoef, A. ; Claessens, J. ; Kotte, M.C. ; Rijs, G.B.J. ; Denneman, A.I.M. ; Bruggen, C. van; Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Begeman, H.A.L. ; Bosma, J.N. - \ 2016
Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM rapport 2016-0076) - 191 p.
oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - grondwaterkwaliteit - mestbeleid - landbouw en milieu - nitraat - eutrofiëring - bemesting - monitoring - waterverontreiniging - surface water quality - groundwater quality - manure policy - agriculture and environment - nitrate - eutrophication - fertilizer application - water pollution
Stikstof en fosfaat zijn essentiële stoffen in mest die landbouwbedrijven gebruiken om de productie te bevorderen. Teveel stikstof en fosfaat is echter schadelijk. Het verschil tussen de aan- en afvoer van stikstof naar en van landbouwbedrijven in Nederland, het zogeheten stikstofoverschot, is tussen 1992 en 2014 gehalveerd. Het fosfaatoverschot is nagenoeg verdwenen. De nitraatconcentraties in het water op landbouwbedrijven zijn gedaald en de kwaliteit van het oppervlaktewater is verbeterd. Ten opzichte van de vorige monitoringronde (2008-2011) zijn de verbeteringen in de waterkwaliteit echter beperkt. De nutriëntenconcentraties zullen naar verwachting wel blijven dalen, maar de gewenste situatie zal in het grondwater niet overal worden bereikt. Ook zal de kwaliteit van het oppervlaktewater veelal onvoldoende blijven. Dit blijkt uit een inventarisatie van de grond­ en oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit en de landbouwpraktijk.
Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli
Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Penny, Christian ; Ragimbeau, Catherine ; Schets, Franciska M. ; Blaak, Hetty ; Duim, Birgitta ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Boer, Albert de; Cauchie, Henry-Michel ; Mossong, Joel ; Pelt, Wilfrid Van - \ 2016
Water Research 101 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 36 - 45.
campylobacter - surface water - water quality - pollution - water pollution - microbiology - wild birds - poultry - campylobacter jejuni - campylobacter coli - netherlands - luxembourg - oppervlaktewater - waterkwaliteit - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - microbiologie - wilde vogels - pluimvee - nederland - luxemburg
Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44–50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions.
Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia : a case of surface water systems
Teklu, B.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Paul van den Brink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578104 - 152 p.
surface water - water systems - water pollution - risk assessment - ecological risk assessment - pesticides - aquatic ecology - aquatic organisms - irrigation systems - ethiopia - oppervlaktewater - watersystemen - waterverontreiniging - risicoschatting - ecologische risicoschatting - pesticiden - aquatische ecologie - waterorganismen - irrigatiesystemen - ethiopië

The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently being used in Europe and elsewhere in the world is tailored to the Ethiopian situation to quantify the risks. Suitability of toxicity data used as an input for risk assessment usually taken from the temperate world was checked through simple toxicity testing of Ethiopian aquatic macroinvertebrates. Subsequent monitoring activities to see the actual residue levels of pesticides in rivers and temporary ponds adjacent to extensive farming activities was also done and results compared with model prediction values. Combining all this knowledge is believed to bring the current pesticide registration system in Ethiopia one step closer to be a more reliable method, protecting non-target organisms as well as the health of humans at risk.

'Standaard Water’ voor toetsing zuiveringstechnologie voor de glastuinbouw
Ruijven, Jim van; Blok, C. ; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Os, E.A. van - \ 2016
Wageningen UR - 3 p.
waterzuivering - pesticiden - glastuinbouw - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - water treatment - pesticides - greenhouse horticulture - water pollution - water quality
Het is noodzakelijk zuiveringstechnieken op een objectieve manier te toetsen op effectiviteit in de verwijdering van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen uit glastuinbouw lozingswater met water dat representatief is voor de glastuinbouw. Hiervoor is het in dit document beschreven ‘Standaard Water’ ontwikkeld. Dit water wordt gebruikt om op een gestandaardiseerde en reproduceerbare manier technologieën te beoordelen en heeft daarom een vastgestelde samenstelling. Het water dient als standaard voor lozingswater uit zowel substraat- als grondgebonden teelten en bevat nutriënten en sporenelementen, organische en minerale vervuiling en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen.
Eerste Advies Bruinvisonderzoek (Bac-2016-01)
Meer, Jaap van der; Eijsackers, H.J.P. ; Haelters, Jan ; Bos, O.G. - \ 2016
IMARES Wageningen UR (rapport / Bac Bac-2016-01) - 15 p.
dierenwelzijn - wilde dieren - zeezoogdieren - invasie - bijvangst - waterverontreiniging - diergezondheid - mariene ecologie - animal welfare - wild animals - marine mammals - invasion - bycatch - water pollution - animal health - marine ecology
Scenarios for exposure of aquatic organisms to plant protection products in the Netherlands : soilless cultivations in greenhouses
Linden, A.M.A. van der; Os, E.A. van; Wipfler, E.L. ; Cornelese, A.A. ; Ludeking, Daniel ; Vermeulen, T. - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM report 2015-0128) - 78
greenhouse horticulture - pesticides - water pollution - authorisation of pesticides - leaching - risk assessment - protected cultivation - emission - surface water - glastuinbouw - pesticiden - waterverontreiniging - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - uitspoelen - risicoschatting - teelt onder bescherming - emissie - oppervlaktewater
Als door het gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in kassen restanten van deze middelen in het nabijgelegen oppervlaktewater terechtkomen, kan dat het waterleven aantasten. Hiermee wordt te weinig rekening gehouden bij de huidige risicobeoordeling van het gebruik van een gewasbeschermingsmiddel voor gewassen die in kassen op substraat, bijvoorbeeld steenwol, worden geteeld. Daarom zijn voor deze toepassingen nieuwe methoden voor de risicobeoordeling ontwikkeld waarin dat wel is ingecalculeerd.
Evaluation of the Dutch leaching decision tree with the substances bentazone, MCPA and mecoprop
Linden, A.M.A. van der; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Pol, J.W. - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM report 2015-0095) - 78
pesticides - groundwater - drinking water - water quality - water pollution - degradation - risk assessment - sorption - decision models - leaching - bentazone - mcpa - pesticiden - grondwater - drinkwater - waterkwaliteit - waterverontreiniging - degradatie - risicoschatting - sorptie - beslissingsmodellen - uitspoelen - bentazon
Sinds 2004 wordt een beslismodel (beslisboom) gebruikt om te beoordelen in welke mate een gewasbeschermingsmiddel uitspoelt naar het grondwater. Uit een evaluatie van het RIVM, het College voor de toelating van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en biociden (Ctgb) en onderzoekinstituut Alterra blijkt dat de beslisboom goed werkt en state of the art is. Wel laten de stofgegevens waarmee wordt gerekend te wensen over. Om de kwaliteit van het grondwater te waarborgen moeten deze gegevens zorgvuldiger worden afgeleid.
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