Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Water use in a heavily urbanized delta : scenarios and adaptation options for sectorial water use in the Pearl River Basin, China
Yao, Mingtian - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat, co-promotor(en): Saskia Werners; Ronald Hutjes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438230 - 175
water use - water management - water resources - socioeconomics - salt water intrusion - water deficit - china - watergebruik - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - sociale economie - zoutwaterindringing - watertekort

Water use is increasing globally to meet the growing demand for food and industrial products, and the rising living standard. Water scarcity has been reported in many regions, questioning the long-term sustainability of water use. The objective of this thesis is to better understand sectorial water use development in an urbanizing river delta, and to explore the potential of water use management as an adaptation option to reduce water shortage. The Pearl River Basin in Southern China is taken as study area. The upstream part of the basin is one of the poorer regions of China, whereas the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is the world’s largest urban region in both population and area. This study presents the first consistent analysis of sectorial water use in the PRD. Results show that during the period of 2000-2010, the PRD managed to stabilize its annual total water use. Nevertheless, severe salt intrusion induced water shortages occur. Assessment of water use at a monthly resolution shows that water use contributes to salt intrusion by further reducing the already low dry season river discharge.

To investigate the possible future development of water use, this study proposed a method to derive region specific water use scenarios from a global assessment of water use. Scenarios based on regionalised assumptions project substantially lower water use than those based on national assumptions. Nevertheless, hydrological challenges remain for the PRD. The total water use of the PRD may still increase by up to 54% in 2030 in the regionalized scenarios. Also, water use in the upstream regions increases with socio-economic development. To address water shortage, four extreme water allocation strategies were analysed against water use and water availability scenarios under climate change. None of these strategies proved to be sufficient to fully avoid water scarcity in the Pearl River Basin.

This study obtains a better understanding of the sectorial water use development and its impact on salt intrusion induced water shortage in a heavily urbanized river delta. The water use framework and methods used to derive regional water use scenarios are transferable to other regions, provided that data is available. Water use scenarios are crucial to sustainably manage water resources in a changing world.

Mining water governance : everyday community-mine relationships in the Peruvian Andes
Sosa Landeo, Milagros - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436762 - 200
mining - water policy - governance - water rights - water management - rural communities - local population - water resources - andes - peru - mijnbouw - waterbeleid - waterrechten - waterbeheer - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plaatselijke bevolking - watervoorraden

This thesis documents as well as questions how the presence of large mining operations in Andean regions of Peru alters social and natural landscapes. Taking conflicts over water as a useful entry-point for the analysis, it explores and unravels the dilemmas and challenges faced by the main conflicting actors: rural communities and mining companies. Through an in-depth analysis of how the actors navigate these challenges, focusing on those related to water, the thesis sets out to understand what happens with water in contexts of mineral extraction. It traces changes in how water is accessed, controlled and governed, and by whom. By making the complex character of water politics in mining contexts explicit, the thesis sheds light on how mining reconfigures water governance arrangements, while also contributing to wider debates about water governance in contexts characterized by huge power differences.

Preserving Urmia Lake in a changing world : reconciling anthropogenic and climate drivers by hydrological modelling and policy assessment
Shadkam, Somayeh - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat, co-promotor(en): Fulco Ludwig; Pieter van Oel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431866 - 140
lakes - hydrology - climatic change - modeling - water resources - water management - environmental protection - iran - meren - hydrologie - klimaatverandering - modelleren - watervoorraden - waterbeheer - milieubescherming

Urmia Lake, in north-western Iran, is an important internationally recognized natural area designated as a RAMSAR site and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Over the last 20 years, the surface area of Urmia Lake has declined by 80%. As a result, the salinity of the lake has sharply increased which is disturbing the ecosystems, local agriculture and livelihoods, regional health, as well as tourism, which could amplify economic, political and ethnic tensions in this already volatile region. In response to that, Iranian government established the ten-year “Urmia Lake Restoration Program (ULRP)” proposing six approaches in terms of controlling, protecting, surveying, studying and supplying water from other sources. This study first assessed the main reasons for the decreased inflow using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model, including reservoirs and irrigation modules. The results showed that climate change was the main contributor to this inflow reduction. However, water resources development, particularly water use for irrigation, has played a substantial role as well. In the second step assessed Urmia lake inflow under future climate change and irrigation scenarios. Then, the (VIC) model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability. The results showed that the water resources plans are not robust to changes in climate. In other words, if future climate change is limited due to rapid mitigation measures (RCP2.6) the new strategy of reduction of irrigation water use can contribute to preserve Urmia Lake.

The next step of this study assessed the quantitative impacts of ULRP by introducing a constructive framework. The framework depicts real water saving by distinguishing between water withdrawals, depletion, and demand in the context of uncertainties in future demand and supply. The results showed that although the ULRP helps to increase inflow by up to 57% it is unlikely to fully reach its target for three main reasons. The first reason is decreasing return flows due to increasing irrigation efficiency. The second reason is increased depletion which is due to neglecting the fact that agricultural water demand is currently higher than available water for agriculture. The third reason is ignoring the potential impact of climate change. However, there still can be some additional none-quantifiable barriers and challenges that may cause the failure of the restoration plan. Therefore, in the last step, this study used two types of qualitative data to explore these aspects: first, the opinions from 40 experts and the in-situ observation of some of the ULRP implementation practices. The results indicate a number of challenges for the ULRP implementation including the water use regulations and the agricultural measures. In addition, (water) demand-side measures such as crop pattern changes were more supported, as opposed to supply-side measures.

This thesis showed that the sustainable approach to preserve Urmia Lake should incorporate both demand management (considering socioeconomic complexity) and flexible supply management strategies (to deal with uncertainties in climate variability and change) in a participatory approach. To be prepared for the future, also scenarios with reduced inflow into Urmia Lake, either due to climate change or water resources development, need to be considered to deal with considerable amounts of variability in the current system and with future changes in climate and socioeconomic conditions.

The Mekong’s future flows : quantifying hydrological changes and developing adaptation options
Hoang, Long Phi - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Pavel Kabat; Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Fulco Ludwig; Michelle van Vliet. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431088 - 159
hydrology - mekong river - modeling - climatic change - socioeconomics - water resources - water use - south east asia - hydrologie - mekong - modelleren - klimaatverandering - sociale economie - watervoorraden - watergebruik - zuidoost-azië

This multidisciplinary study focuses on projecting and adapting to future hydrological changes in the Mekong – an international river of global significance in terms of rapidly increasing human pressures and climate-change vulnerability. A modelling framework was developed to project future changes in both the river flow regime and hydrological extremes (i.e. high/low flows and floods), under multiple scenarios of climate change, irrigation and hydropower developments. Furthermore, we developed a combined quantitative-qualitative approach to develop suitable adaptation measures and strategies to future floods in the Mekong Delta being a key vulnerability hotspot.

Results show that the Mekong’s future flow regime is subjected to substantial changes under climate change and human developments. Climate change will intensify the hydrological cycle, resulting in increasing average river flows (between +5 % and +16%, annually), and more frequent and extreme high flows during the wet season. Flow regime shows substantial alterations in the seasonal flow distributions under the combined impacts of climate change, irrigation expansions and hydropower developments. While dry season flows increase strongly (monthly changes up to +150%), wet season flows show contrasting changes with reductions during June - October (up to -25%) and substantial increases during November – December (up to 36%). A follow-up modelling assessment for the Mekong Delta shows substantial increases in flood hazards under climate change and sea level rise, shown by higher flood frequencies and flood depths across the whole delta. Increasing flood hazards therefore represents a key issue to be addressed in terms of future adaptation. The adaptation appraisal study further shows that effective adaptation requires looking beyond sole infrastructural investments. Instead, technological innovations for flood risk management combined with improved governance and institutional capacities offer ample opportunities to adapt to future hydrological changes.

This study projects substantial future hydrological changes under future climate change and accelerating socioeconomic developments and shows potentially serious consequences for water related safety and sustainable water resources uses and allocations. Furthermore, this study demonstrates amble opportunities to manage future changes through strategic development planning and through adaptive interventions. Insights from this study address the needs for quantified future hydrological changes and emphasize adequate adaptation to the associated risks in an important international river experiencing climate change and rapid socioeconomic developments.

Piekberging en voorraadberging in Rivierenland : een inventarisatie van geschikte gebieden voor piekberging en voorraadberging in het beheergebied van Waterschap Rivierenland
Massop, H.Th.L. ; Jansen, P.C. ; Hattum, T. van; Kwakernaak, C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2685) - 49
wateropslag - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - nederlandse wateren - rivieren - waterverzadiging - gelderland - water storage - water management - water resources - dutch waters - rivers - waterlogging
Alterra Wageningen UR heeft, als een van de partijen in het project RichWaterWorld (RWW), onderzoek gedaan naar piekberging en voorraadberging in Het Waterrijk, een gebied dat onderdeel is van Park Lingezegen dat tussen Arnhem en Nijmegen wordt aangelegd. Omdat door klimaatverandering de kansen op wateroverlast en watertekorten toenemen, is ook elders in Nederland een toenemende behoefte aan bergingsgebieden die kunnen worden ingezet voor piekberging en voorraadberging. Voor Rivierenland is met GIS-bewerkingen geïnventariseerd waar geschikte gebieden voor beide vormen van waterberging liggen.
Water, Power and Identity. The cultural politics of water in the Andes
Boelens, R.A. - \ 2015
New York : Earthscan (Earthscan Studies in Water Resource Management ) - ISBN 9780415719186 - 365
waterrechten - waterbeleid - watervoorraden - hulpbronnenbeheer - governance - politiek - water - andes - water rights - water policy - water resources - resource management - politics
This book addresses two major issues in natural resource management and political ecology: the complex conflicting relationship between communities managing water on the ground and national/global policy-making institutions and elites; and how grassroots defend against encroachment, question the self-evidence of State-/market-based water governance, and confront coercive and participatory boundary policing ('normal' vs. 'abnormal'). The book examines grassroots building of multi-layered water-rights territories, and State, market and expert networks' vigorous efforts to reshape these water societies in their own image - seizing resources and/or aligning users, identities and rights systems within dominant frameworks. Distributive and cultural politics entwine. It is shown that attempts to modernize and normalize users through universalized water culture, 'rational water use' and de-politicized interventions deepen water security problems rather than alleviating them. However, social struggles negotiate and enforce water rights. User collectives challenge imposed water rights and identities, constructing new ones to strategically acquire water control autonomy and re-moralize their waterscapes. The author shows that battles for material control include the right to culturally define and politically organize water rights and territories.
Ten building blocks for sustainable water governance: an integrated method to assess the governance of water
Rijswick, M. ; Edelenbos, J. ; Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Kok, M. ; Kuks, S.M.M. - \ 2014
Water International 39 (2014)5. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 725 - 742.
watersystemen - waterbeheer - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - overstromingen - risicoschatting - infrastructuur - governance - watervoorraden - beoordeling - hoogwaterbeheersing - water systems - water management - surface water quality - floods - risk assessment - infrastructure - water resources - assessment - flood control - research agenda - management - climate
A three-step interdisciplinary method to assess approaches to water shortage, water quality and flood risks is presented. This method, based on water system analysis, economics, law and public administration, seeks to create common understanding based on newly developed concepts and definitions. First, generating content knowledge about the water system and about values, principles and policy discourses. Second, providing an organizational process with sufficient stakeholder involvement, insight into the trade-off between social objectives, and attribution of responsibilities in addition to regulations and agreements. Finally, implementing the agreed service level through adequate infrastructure, enforcement and conflict resolution.
Information Needs for Water Management
Timmerman, J.G. - \ 2014
Boca Raton, Florida : Taylor & Francis - ISBN 9781466594746 - 234
waterbeheer - watervoorraden - beleid - besluitvorming - informatiebehoeften - informatie - water management - water resources - policy - decision making - information needs - information
This book provides the necessary elements to determine exactly what information should be collected to make the collected information relevant for policy makers. It highlights the dissatisfaction of information users about the information they get and the reasons for this dissatisfaction. It also discusses general issues around the role and use of information in policy making. The text then describes the how to develop a full understanding of the policy makers’ information needs and will describe how policy makers can be included in the process. Finally, the book describes how the results from this process are input for the information production process.
Los Nuevos Sujetos del Agua: Organización social y la democratización del agua en los Andes ecuatorianos
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2014
Quito : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) (Agua y sociedad 20) - ISBN 9789942091857 - 251
waterrechten - waterverdeling - waterbeleid - watervoorraden - waterbeheer - sociale verandering - democratisering - boerenorganisaties - ecuador - water rights - water distribution - water policy - water resources - water management - social change - democratization - farmers' associations
Movements against the current : scale and social capital in peasants’ struggles for water in the Ecuadorian Highlands
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent; M. Baud, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735904 - 193
watervoorraden - waterrechten - water - boerenstand - inheemse volkeren - sociaal kapitaal - gemeenschappen - politieke bewegingen - watergebruik - instellingen - irrigatiesystemen - hooglanden - ecuador - water resources - water rights - peasantry - indigenous people - social capital - communities - political movements - water use - institutions - irrigation systems - highlands
This thesis is about peasant and indigenous struggles for water rights in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It is based on the following main research question: How have peasant and indigenous communities developed multi-scalar political agency in water governance to gain and maintain their water access and related rights in the Ecuadorian Highlands since the 1980s? To answer this question, this thesis analyses the histories and relationships between organized water users, water reforms and non-governmental development organisations (NGOs) active in the Ecuadorian irrigation sector. Through state reforms, and processes of coproduction between NGOs and local peasant and indigenous communities, water user associations were created in many supra-community irrigation systems. Once created, these organisations formed the basis for the development of provincial and national federations and policy advocacy networks and platforms that now form the building blocks of the Ecuadorian water users movement.
Enhancing the Wise Use of Wetlands : A Framework for Capacity Development
Koopmanschap, E.M.J. ; Gevers, G.J.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation no. CDI-12-008) - ISBN 9789461734068 - 116
wetlands - landgebruik - milieubeheer - watervoorraden - innovaties - capaciteitsopbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - ontwikkelingslanden - land use - environmental management - water resources - innovations - capacity building - natural resources - developing countries
To be effective in implementing the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, you need to have a good balance between theoretical background and the available methods for capacity development interventions on the one hand and personal facilitation, leadership and communication skills on the other. This guide provides a stepwise approach for developing and implementing capacity development initiatives to achieve the wise use of wetlands.
Dynamic water resource management for achieving self-sufficiency of cities of tomorrow
Agudelo Vera, C.M. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Karel Keesman; Adriaan Mels. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732989 - 208
watervoorraden - waterbeheer - zelfvoorziening - stedelijke gebieden - toekomst - stedelijke planning - waterbalans - water resources - water management - self sufficiency - urban areas - future - urban planning - water balance
Steden kunnen beschouwd worden als producenten van primaire en secundaire grondstoffen. Volgens onze hypothese, moet deze zelfvoorziening uitgaan van de kleinst mogelijke ruimtelijke schaal. De mogelijkheden om energie en water in Nederland te ‘oogsten’ zijn geëvalueerd, uitgaande van gemiddelde jaarcijfers. De resultaten op nationale schaal laten zien dat het mogelijk is om aan 100% van de elektriciteitsvraag, 55% van de warmtevraag en 52% van de watervraag te voldoen. In werkelijkheid zijn er echter beperkingen aan deze mogelijkheden tot oogsten als gevolg van de dynamiek in grondstof- en energiestromen, stedelijke typologie en technologische (in)efficiëntie. Om de werkelijke oogstpotenties te kunnen bepalen is daarom dynamische modellering nodig op relatief fijne tijd- en ruimteschalen. Op gebouwniveau zijn scenario's onderzocht met verschillende strategieën zoals het minimaliseren van de vraag, en het verkrijgen van secundaire kwaliteit water voor toiletspoeling en wasmachinegebruik door recyclen van licht grijs water (LGW) en het opvangen van regenwater (multi-sourcing).
Interactions between land use and flood management in the Chi River Basin
Kuntiyawichai, K. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): E. Schultz; S. Uhlenbrook. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789461732491 - 213
hoogwaterbeheersing - overstromingen - waterbeheer - landgebruik - rivieren - stroomvlakten - watervoorraden - wiskundige modellen - thailand - flood control - floods - water management - land use - rivers - floodplains - water resources - mathematical models
Living with less water: development of viable adaptation options for Riverina irrigators
Gaydon, D.S. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Holger Meinke, co-promotor(en): Jan Vos; D. Rodriguez. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732323 - 225
irrigatie - watergebruiksrendement - watervoorraden - bedrijfssystemen - participatieve methoden - simulatiemodellen - australië - victoria - new south wales - irrigation - water use efficiency - water resources - farming systems - participation methods - simulation models - australia

In Australia, the best use of limited national water resources continues to be a major political and scientific issue. Average water allocations for rice-cereal irrigation farmers in the Riverina region have been drastically reduced since 1998 as a consequence of high rainfall variability and prolonged periods of drought, together with political changes. This has severely impacted regional crop production during the last decade, threatening the livelihoods of many farmers and is in stark contrast to much of this region’s 100 year agricultural history, where water resources were available to farmers in steady abundance. The water ‘landscape’ has changed - bringing with it considerable social, economic and environmental consequences and forcing a rethink of how valuable water resources are best used under such variable, changed and changing conditions. This thesis presents details of investigations into on-farm adaptation options for rice-cereal farmers, using field experimentation, participatory engagement, and farming systems modelling as the major tools of research. Additionally, a major component of this work has been the development and testing of new modelling tools and decision-support structures.

Well-tested cropping systems models that capture interactions between soil water and nutrient dynamics, crop growth, climate and management can assist in the evaluation of new agricultural practices. At the beginning of this research project, all available models were lacking in at least some major element required for simulation of rice-based cropping systems. The capacity to simulate C and N dynamics during transitions between aerobic and anaerobic soil environments was added into the APSIM model, to facilitate our need to model farming system scenarios which involved flooded rice in rotation with other crops and pastures. Thorough testing against international datasets was subsequently conducted. Photosynthetic aquatic biomass (PAB – algae) is a significant source of organic carbon (C) in rice-based cropping systems. A portion of PAB is capable of fixing nitrogen (N), and is hence also a source of N for crops. To account for this phenomenon in long term simulation studies of rice-based cropping systems, the APSIM model was modified to include new descriptions of biological and chemical processes responsible for loss and gain of C and N in rice floodwater.

Using this improved APSIM model as a tool, together with participatory involvement of Riverina case-study farmers, it was demonstrated that the best on-farm cropping and irrigation strategies in years of high water availability were substantially different to those when water supplies were low. The strategies leading to greatest farm returns vary on a season-by-season basis, depending primarily on the water availability level. Significant improvements in average farm profits are possible by modifying irrigation strategies on a season-by-season basis.

The opportunities for Riverina farmers to exploit their irrigation water resources also extend beyond the farm gate. Currently there is considerable confusion amongst farmers on how to evaluate and compare on-farm and off-farm water options. Direct selling of water seasonally on the open market and even permanent sale of irrigation water entitlements are possibilities. In response to this confusion, a new conceptual framework was developed that enables quantitative comparisons between various options. The framework is based on a method regularly employed in the financial world for share portfolio analysis. Simulation modelling provided risk-return characteristics for on-farm options, and helped to elucidate circumstances under which off-farm options were viable.

A modified version of alternate wet-and-dry water management for Australian rice-growing conditions (delayed continuous flooding, DCF) was investigated via a 2 year field experiment – aimed at reducing irrigation water requirement and increasing water productivity (WP). We demonstrated up to a 17% increase in WP, and field data was generated on system performance for a range of discrete irrigation strategies. The APSIM model was then parameterized, calibrated and validated before being used to extrapolate findings from the two year experimental period to a much broader climatic record (55 years), allowing detailed investigation of optimal management strategies and a more realistic estimation of likely long-term gains in water productivity, and associated risks, from this new rice irrigation practice. Best practice guidelines were developed, and the potential impact of a changing climate on both optimal practice and likely benefits was assessed.

This thesis concludes by synthesising the approaches taken - addressing the question of whether improved rice irrigation practices, seasonally-flexible cropping and irrigation strategies and off-farm exploitation options, can in combination address the challenges of reduced irrigation water allocations in Australia’s Riverina region. Evidence is presented that the answer is yes under certain circumstances, but that limits to change exist beyond which the investigated on-farm adaptations are not enough. The thesis also proposes that the concepts and methods developed during this project are globally applicable and useful in the design of farming system adaptation options.

Keywords: irrigation, limited water resources, farming systems modelling, participatory engagement.

Water: the world's most valuable asset
Hellegers, P.J.G.J. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461731647 - 27
watergebruik - waterbeschikbaarheid - waterbeheer - watervoorraden - watertoewijzing - economie - waterbeleid - klimaatverandering - water use - water availability - water management - water resources - water allocation - economics - water policy - climatic change
The lecture starts with an historic overview of recognising water as an economic good and trends that affect water availability and water consumption. Then it is discussed what makes water so special and what the implications are for economics. Finally , future research directions for the chair are presented.
Justicia Hídrica: acumulación, conflicto y acción social
Boelens, R.A. ; Cremers, L. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. - \ 2011
Impreso en Perú : Justicia Hídrica, IEP Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Fondo Editorial PUCP (Serie Agua y sociedad : Sección justicia hidrica ) - ISBN 9789972513121 - 476
watervoorraden - toegangsrecht - water - conflict - sociologie - waterbeheer - overheidsbeleid - liberalisatie - justitie - maatschappelijk middenveld - latijns-amerika - water resources - right of access - sociology - water management - government policy - liberalization - justice - civil society - latin america
The end of abundance. Economic solutions to water scarcity
Zetland, D.J. - \ 2011
Mission Viejo, CA : Aguanomics Press - ISBN 9780615469737 - 294
watervoorraden - hulpbronnenbeheer - waterzekerheid - schaarste - watervoorziening - watergebruik - milieueconomie - economie - water resources - resource management - water security - scarcity - water supply - water use - environmental economics - economics
In a past of abundance, we had clean water to meet our demands for showers, pools, farms and rivers. Our laws and customs did not need to regulate or ration demand. Over time, our demand has grown, and scarcity has replaced abundance. We don't have as much clean water as we want. We can respond to the end of abundance with old ideas or adopt new tools specifically designed to address water scarcity. In this book, the author describes the impact of scarcity on our many water uses, how the institutions of abundance fail in scarcity, and how economic ideas and tools can help us direct water to its highest and best use.
Fairly efficient or efficiently fair: success factors and constraints of payment and reward schemes for environmental services in Asia
Beria, L. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Dolf de Groot. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730404 - 163
ecosysteemdiensten - betaling - stroomgebieden - beheer van waterbekkens - armoede - milieubeleid - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - watervoorraden - azië - indonesië - ecosystem services - payment - watersheds - watershed management - poverty - environmental policy - natural resources - water resources - asia - indonesia

Payment for environmental service (PES) is strictly defined as a market-based environmental policy instrument to achieve environmental protection in the most efficient way. However, an increasing body of literature shows that the prescriptive conceptualization of PES cannot be easily generalized and implemented in practice and the commodification of ecosystem services is problematic. To investigate the underlying causes, this PhD study combines a quantitative and qualitative research approach using case studies in Indonesia, the Philippines and Nepal. The empirical observations on emerging PES-mechanisms in the Asian case studies show that interdependency of fairness and efficiency should be the main consideration in designing and implementing a PES scheme in developing countries. Neither fairness nor efficiency alone should be the primary aim but an intermediate PES that is “fairly efficient and efficiently fair” may bridge the gap between PES theory and the practical implementation of PES to increase ES provision and improve livelihoods.

Integrated aquaculture-agriculture in Egypt : towards more efficient use of water resources : workshop report
Heijden, P.G.M. van der - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation - 13
aquacultuur - watervoorraden - integraal waterbeheer - watergebruik - visproductie - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - egypte - aquaculture - water resources - integrated water management - water use - fish production - integrated farming systems - egypt
Results of recent studies, research and practical experiences from Egypt and abroad with forms of aquaculture that use water en nutrients more efficiently than common pond culture were discussed at a workshop held in Cairo (April 21, 2011). The presentations include the results of a study undertaken on four Egyptian integrated aquaculture – agriculture farms where water use, effluent water quality, fish harvest and revenue from crop and fish sales in 2010 were monitored.
Opportunities to broaden bilateral relations between Egypt and the Netherlands in the areas of water management and agriculture : A Scoping Exercise
Zingstra, H.L. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation - 67
waterbeheer - landbouwproductie - waterbeschikbaarheid - watervoorziening - watervoorraden - egypte - internationale samenwerking - duurzame ontwikkeling - water management - agricultural production - water availability - water supply - water resources - egypt - international cooperation - sustainable development
The report provides information based on which the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Cairo can detail its strategy for broadening the cooperation between Egypt and the Netherlands in the area of water management and agriculture. The mounting problems in the field of water resources management combined with the ambitious plans of the Egyptian government to develop the agricultural sector offer a wide variety of opportunities for the Dutch private sector and research institutes. However, seizing the opportunities will require strategic and careful planning of using the programmes and facilities available to promote Dutch–Egyptian cooperation. Strategic decisions on where to focus on and how to make optimal use of the programmes and facilities available have are still to be made by the embassy.
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