Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Data from the Hot Serial Cereal Experiment for modeling wheat response to temperature: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations
Martre, Pierre ; Kimball, Bruce A. ; Ottman, Michael J. ; Wall, Gerard W. ; White, Jeffrey W. ; Asseng, Senthold ; Ewert, Frank ; Cammarano, Davide ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Aggarwal, Pramod K. ; Supit, I. ; Wolf, J. - \ 2018
wheat - heat stress - field experimental data - simulations
The dataset reported here includes the part of a Hot Serial Cereal Experiment (HSC) experiment recently used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat models and quantify their response to temperature. The HSC experiment was conducted in an open-field in a semiarid environment in the southwest USA. The data reported herewith include one hard red spring wheat cultivar (Yecora Rojo) sown approximately every six weeks from December to August for a two-year period for a total of 11 planting dates out of the 15 of the entire HSC experiment. The treatments were chosen to avoid any effect of frost on grain yields. On late fall, winter and early spring plantings temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) apparatus utilizing infrared heaters with supplemental irrigation were used to increase air temperature by 1.3°C/2.7°C (day/night) with conditions equivalent to raising air temperature at constant relative humidity (i.e. as expected with global warming) during the whole crop growth cycle. Experimental data include local daily weather data, soil characteristics and initial conditions, detailed crop measurements taken at three growth stages during the growth cycle, and cultivar information. Simulations include both daily in-season and end-of-season results from 30 wheat models.
A dataset of spectral and biophysical measurements over Russian wheat fields
Wit, A.J.W. de; Roerink, G.J. ; Virchenko, Oleg ; Kleschenko, Alexander ; Bartalev, Sergey ; Savin, Igor ; Plotnikov, Dmitry ; Defourny, Pierre ; Andrimont, Raphael d' - \ 2018
wheat - Russia - remote sensing - experimental data
From 2011 to 2013 the MOCCCASIN project (MOnitoring Crops in Continental Climates through Asimillation of Satellite INformation) was carried out financed by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme. During the project, two field campaigns (2011 and 2012) were carried out at two sites (Odoyev and Plavsk) in the Tula region of Russia. During these two campaigns, observations were made at selected winter-wheat fields consisting of phenological stage, biomass samples, hemispherical photographs, spectral properties of the canopy and the soil as well as ancillary information about the field. Meteorological observations from synoptic and agrometeorological stations were collected from the stations in and surrounding the Tula region. Finally, a large trajectory throughout the whole Tula region was surveyed in order to collect fields with different crop types.
A comparative analysis of nonhost resistance across the two Triticeae crop species wheat and barley
Delventhal, Rhoda ; Rajaraman, Jeyaraman ; Stefanato, Francesca L. ; Rehman, S. ; Aghnoum, R. ; McGrann, Graham R.D. ; Bolger, Marie ; Usadel, Björn ; Hedley, Pete E. ; Boyd, Lesley A. ; Niks, R.E. ; Schweizer, Patrick ; Schaffrath, Ulrich - \ 2017
wheat - barley - Blumeria - Magnaporthe - Puccinia - adapted isolate - non-adapted isolate - nonhost resistance - quantitative resistance - global transcriptome analysis
Background Nonhost resistance (NHR) protects plants against a vast number of non-adapted pathogens which implicates a potential exploitation as source for novel disease resistance strategies. Aiming at a fundamental understanding of NHR a global analysis of transcriptome reprogramming in the economically important Triticeae cereals wheat and barley, comparing host and nonhost interactions in three major fungal pathosystems responsible for powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis ff. ssp.), cereal blast (Magnaporthe sp.) and leaf rust (Puccinia sp.) diseases, was performed. Results In each pathosystem a significant transcriptome reprogramming by adapted- or non-adapted pathogen isolates was observed, with considerable overlap between Blumeria, Magnaporthe and Puccinia. Small subsets of these general pathogen-regulated genes were identified as differentially regulated between host and corresponding nonhost interactions, indicating a fine-tuning of the general pathogen response during the course of co-evolution. Additionally, the host- or nonhost-related responses were rather specific for each pair of adapted and non-adapted isolates, indicating that the nonhost resistance-related responses were to a great extent pathosystem-specific. This pathosystem-specific reprogramming may reflect different resistance mechanisms operating against non-adapted pathogens with different lifestyles, or equally, different co-option of the hosts by the adapted isolates to create an optimal environment for infection. To compare the transcriptional reprogramming between wheat and barley, putative orthologues were identified. Within the wheat and barley general pathogen-regulated genes, temporal expression profiles of orthologues looked similar, indicating conserved general responses in Triticeae against fungal attack. However, the comparison of orthologues differentially expressed between host and nonhost interactions revealed fewer commonalities between wheat and barley, but rather suggested different host or nonhost responses in the two cereal species. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest independent co-evolutionary forces acting on host pathosystems mirrored by barley- or wheat-specific nonhost responses. As a result of evolutionary processes, at least for the pathosystems investigated, NHR appears to rely on rather specific plant responses.
The Hot Serial Cereal Experiment for modeling wheat response to temperature: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations
Martre, P. ; Kimball, B.A. ; Ottman, M.J. ; Wall, G.W. ; White, J. ; Asseng, S. ; Ewert, F. ; Cammarano, D. ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Supit, I. - \ 2017
wheat - field experimental data - heat stress - crop model simulations - AgMIP - Hot Serial Cereal
The data set reported here includes the part of a Hot Serial Cereal Experiment (HSC) experiment recently used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat models and quantify their response to temperature. The HSC experiment was conducted in an open-field in a semiarid environment in the southwest USA. The data reported herewith include one hard red spring wheat cultivar (Yecora Rojo) sown approximately every six weeks from December to August for a two-year period for a total of 11 planting dates out of the 15 of the entire HSC experiment. The treatments were chosen to avoid any effect of frost on grain yields. On late fall, winter and early spring plantings temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) apparatus utilizing infrared heaters with supplemental irrigation were used to increase air temperature by 1.3°C/2.7°C (day/night) with conditions equivalent to raising air temperature at constant relative humidity (i.e. as expected with global warming) during the whole crop growth cycle. Experimental data include local daily weather data, soil characteristics and initial conditions, detailed crop measurements taken at three growth stages during the growth cycle, and cultivar information. Simulations include both daily in-season and end-of-season results from 30 wheat models.
Stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and trans piration efficiency in relation to leaf anatomy in rice and wheat genotypes under drought
Ouyang, Wenjing ; Struik, Paul C. ; Yin, Xinyou ; Yang, Jianchang - \ 2017
Journal of Experimental Botany 68 (2017)18. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 5191 - 5205.
Drought - leaf anatomy - mesophyll conductance - rice - stomatal conductance - transpiration efficiency - wheat
Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (g s) and mesophyll conductance (g m) and their anatomical determinants were evaluated in two cultivars from each of lowland, aerobic, and upland groups of Oryza sativa, one cultivar of O. glaberrima, and two cultivars of T. aestivum, under three water regimes. The TE of upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat was more responsive to the g m /g s ratio than that of lowland and aerobic rice. Overall, the explanatory power of the particular anatomical trait varied among species. Low stomatal density mostly explained the low g s in drought-tolerant rice, whereas rice genotypes with smaller stomata generally responded more strongly to drought. Compared with rice, wheat had a higher g m, which was associated with thicker mesophyll tissue, mesophyll and chloroplasts more exposed to intercellular spaces, and thinner cell walls. Upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat cultivars minimized the decrease in g m under drought by maintaining high ratios of chloroplasts to exposed mesophyll cell walls. Rice TE could be improved by increasing the g m /g s ratio via modifying anatomical traits.
It depends: : effects of soil organic matter in aboveground-belowground interactions in agro-ecosystems
Gils, Stijn Herman van - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten; David Kleijn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436526 - 176
soil organic matter - agroecosystems - aphidoidea - fertilizers - wheat - rape - crop yield - ecosystem services - nutrient availability - pest control - organic farming - organisch bodemmateriaal - agro-ecosystemen - kunstmeststoffen - tarwe - koolzaad - gewasopbrengst - ecosysteemdiensten - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - plagenbestrijding - biologische landbouw

Over the last decades agricultural production increased drastically due to the use of external inputs. However, the use of external inputs has high environmental costs and may negatively influence ecosystem processes such as pollination and pest control that underpin agricultural production. Soil organic matter has been proposed as a potential alternative to external inputs as it relates to multiple yield promoting ecosystem processes. The aim of my thesis is to assess whether and how soil organic matter content alters the effect of some ecosystem processes and external inputs on crop yield. I examined whether soil organic matter alters biomass of wheat and oilseed rape under fertilizer supply. Other biotic and abiotic factors that operate at different spatial and temporal scales are also included in some of these experiments. I found that under controlled conditions soil organic matter may reduce the positive effect of mineral fertilizer supply on crop biomass. The reduction changed with the presence or absence of a pathogenic root fungus, but not with drought stress. Moreover, soil organic matter enhances performance of aphids under controlled greenhouse conditions, but the enhancement was less than fertilizer supply. None of these controlled experiments, however, showed that soil organic matter can be an alternative to mineral fertilizer supply. Under field conditions soil organic matter did not strongly affect plant nutrient availability or performances of aphid and its natural enemies. The relation between soil organic matter and plant biomass in a greenhouse experiment did not change with organic management or the duration of it, neither did it change with pollinator visitation rate, an ecosystem process that is managed on the landscape scale. These results suggest that soil organic matter may relate to ecosystem services that influence crop yield, whereas these relations might not be significant under field conditions. Collectively, all these results suggest that the relation between soil organic matter content and ecosystem processes that benefit crop yield is highly context dependent. I propose future research may focus on (1) the quality of soil organic matter rather than the content per se and (2) the relation between soil organic matter content and crop yield under realistic conditions in a longer term.

Werken aan diversiteit in tarwe en groenten : voor meer variatie op het veld, in het winkelschap en op het bord
Nuijten, Edwin ; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith - \ 2016
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie / Louis Bolk Instituut 2016-030 LbP) - 20
kwekers - biologische landbouw - rassen (planten) - tarwe - zaden - plantenveredeling - groenten - genetische diversiteit - diversiteit - biologische plantenveredeling - growers - organic farming - varieties - wheat - seeds - plant breeding - vegetables - genetic diversity - diversity - organic plant breeding
Van 2014 tot 2016 heeft het Louis Bolk Instituut onderzoek gedaan naar de mogelijkheden van een breder assortiment in gewassen voor de teler (op het veld) en voor de consument (op het bord). Aanleiding voor het onderzoek is dat het aantal rassen dat aangepast is aan biologische teeltomstandigheden (rassen die dus zonder gebruik van kunstmest en bestrijdingsmiddelen kunnen) beperkt is en blijft. Veel veredelingsbedrijven kunnen vanwege de ontwikkelingskosten geen aparte rassen ontwikkelen voor een kleine markt. Meestal worden rassen uit het bestaande (gangbare) assortiment geselecteerd voor biologische vermeerdering. Bovendien zijn biologische telers en handelaren meegegaan in de huidige eisen voor hoge opbrengst en uniforme eindproducten. Het aanbieden van zaadvaste rassen in plaats van bijvoorbeeld hybride rassen is daarmee commercieel niet meteen vanzelfsprekend. Divers en Dichtbij Van 2014 tot 2016 heeft het Louis Bolk Instituut onderzoek gedaan naar de mogelijkheden van een breder assortiment in gewassen voor de teler (op het veld) en voor de consument (op het bord). Dit onderzoek is samen met Estafette Odin BV en de biologische dynamische telers GAOS in Swifterbant, De Groenen Hof in Esbeek en de Maatschap Dames en Heren Vos in Kraggenburg uitgevoerd. Het doel van dit project Divers en Dichtbij was de diversiteit op het veld en op het bord te vergroten. Daarmee bedoelen we niet alleen meer verschillende rassen, maar vooral andere type rassen of populaties die zelf meer genetische variatie bezitten. Dat kan door te kiezen voor zaadvaste rassen bij groentegewassen en populaties bij granen. Tot nu toe is populatieveredeling alleen toegepast bij granen en nog niet of nauwelijks bij groentegewassen (zie voor definities Box 1 op pagina 7). Dit betekent ook een keuze voor andere manieren van veredelen en selecteren. Aanleiding voor het onderzoek is dat het aantal rassen dat aangepast is aan biologische teeltomstandigheden (rassen die dus zonder gebruik van kunstmest en bestrijdingsmiddelen kunnen) beperkt is en blijft. Veel veredelingsbedrijven kunnen vanwege de ontwikkelingskosten geen aparte rassen ontwikkelen voor een kleine markt. Meestal worden rassen uit het bestaande (gangbare) assortiment geselecteerd voor biologische vermeerdering. Bovendien zijn biologische telers en handelaren meegegaan in de huidige eisen voor hoge opbrengst en uniforme eindproducten. Het aanbieden van zaadvaste rassen in plaats van bijvoorbeeld hybride rassen is daarmee commercieel niet meteen vanzelfsprekend. En toch heeft ons brede speurwerk in dit project wel degelijk een aantal interessante zaadvaste rassen opgeleverd! Want gelukkig zijn er in Europa en Amerika diverse biologische veredelaars actief in het veredelen van zaadvaste rassen en populaties. De informatie in deze brochure is bedoeld voor telers en andere ketenpartijen om meer te leren over de mogelijkheden van zaadvaste rassen bij groenten en populaties bij tarwe.
De permanente groene revolutie van Swaminathan
Fresco, L.O. ; Rabbinge, R. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 66 - 71.
green revolution - genetic engineering - human feeding - hunger - food supply - scientific research - scientists - society - fertilizers - pesticides - environmental impact - india - netherlands - potatoes - wheat - groene revolutie - genetische modificatie - humane voeding - honger - voedselvoorziening - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - wetenschappers - samenleving - kunstmeststoffen - pesticiden - milieueffect - nederland - aardappelen - tarwe
Het weekblad Time kwalificeerde hem als een van de twintig meest invloedrijke Aziaten van de twintigste eeuw: ‘The father of the Green Revolution used his skills in genetic engineering and his powers of persuasion to make famine an unfamiliar word in Asia’. Tegelijkertijd wees hij al vroeg op de gevaren van een te grote afhankelijkheid van kunstmest en bestrijdingsmiddelen en milieugevolgen daarvan. Dr. Monkombu Sambasivan Swaminathan is een fervent pleitbezorger van de Evergreen Revolution, de permanente groene revolutie. Op 7 augustus werd hij 90 jaar. Louise Fresco en Rudy Rabbinge schetsen zijn enorme betekenis voor wetenschap en samenleving.
Phosphorus Response and Fertilizer Recommendations for Wheat Grown on Nitisols in the Central Ethiopian Highlands
Agegnehu, Getachew ; Nelson, Paul N. ; Bird, Michael I. ; Beek, Christy van - \ 2015
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 46 (2015)19. - ISSN 0010-3624 - p. 2411 - 2424.
Critical P concentration - Nitisol - phosphorus - relative yield - wheat

The provision of farmers with proper and balanced fertilizer recommendations is becoming increasingly important, for reasons of crop productivity, food security, and sustainability. Phosphorus (P) response trials with wheat were conducted on Nitisols at 14 sites in the central Ethiopian highlands during the 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons. The treatments, comprising six levels of P fertilizer (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 kg P ha−1), were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Based on a yield difference between the control and the P treatments, 90% of sites responded to P fertilizer. Application of P fertilizer increased wheat grain yield, up to 30% more than the control. Extractable soil P concentrations (Bray 2, 0–15 cm deep) 3 weeks after planting significantly responded to P fertilizer rate. The critical P concentration (for 90% relative yield) was 13.5 mg kg−1. Most sites tested had Bray 2 P values −1. In the absence of a soil test, a recommendation of 40 kg P ha−1, resulting in the best response overall, could be made for the first year of application. We also recommend that to prevent a potential loss of wheat yield, a maintenance application of at least 5–12 kg P ha−1 be applied every year, irrespective of the calculated recommended rate, in order to replace P exported from the field in produce. Further field trials are required to determine interactions between P response and the effects of climate, soil properties, and other management practices.

Identification and functional characterization of putative (a)virulence factors in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici
Mirzadi Gohari, A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Pierre de Wit, co-promotor(en): Gert Kema; Rahim Mehrabi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575912 - 159
triticum aestivum - wheat - plant pathogenic fungi - mycosphaerella graminicola - virulence factors - genetic analysis - pathogenesis - bioinformatics - tarwe - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - virulente factoren - genetische analyse - pathogenese - bio-informatica

Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous (previously known as Mycosphaerella graminicola) is the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB), which is a devastating foliar wheat disease worldwide. It is responsible for significant yield losses occurring annually in all major wheat-growing areas and threatens global food security. Z. tritici is a hemi-biotrophic fungal pathogen that, after stomatal penetration, establishes a stealthy biotrophic and symptomless relation with its host plant that is followed by a sudden switch to a necrotrophic growth phase coinciding with chlorosis that eventually develops in large necrotic blotches containing many pycnidia producing asexual splash-borne conidia. Under natural conditions - once competent mating partners are present and conditions are conducive- pseudothecia are formed producing airborne ascospores. Disease management of STB is primarily achieved through fungicide applications and growing commercial cultivars carrying Stb resistance genes. However, the efficacy of both strategies is limited as strains resistant to fungicides frequently develop and progressively dominate natural populations, which hampers disease management; also the deployed Stb genes are often overcome by existing or newly developed isolates of the fungus. Hence, there is a need for discovery research to better understand the molecular basis of the host-pathogen interaction that enables breeders to identify and deploy new Stb genes, which will eventually contribute to more sustainable disease control.

Chapter 1 introduces the subject of the thesis and describes various aspects of the lifestyle of Z. tritici with emphasis on dissecting the various stages and physiological processes during pathogenesis on wheat. In addition, it includes a short summary and discussion of the current understanding of the role of (a)virulence factors in the Z. tritici–wheat pathosystem.

Chapter 2 describes new gateway technology-driven molecular tools comprising 22 entry constructs facilitating rapid construction of binary vectors for functional analyses of fungal genes. The entry vectors for single, double or triple gene deletion mutants were developed using hygromycin, geneticin and nourseothricin resistance genes as selection markers. Furthermore, these entry vectors contain the genes encoding green fluorescent (GFP) or red fluorescent (RFP) protein in combination with the three selection markers, which enables simultaneous tagging of gene deletion mutants for microscopic analyses. The functionality of these entry vectors was validated in Z. tritici and described in Chapters 3, 4 and 5.

Chapter 3 describes the functional characterization of ZtWor1, the orthologue of Wor1 in the fungal human pathogen Candida albicans. ZtWor1 is up-regulated during initiation of colonization and fructification, and regulates expression of candidate effector genes, including one that was discovered after comparative proteome analysis of Z. tritici wild-type and ΔZtWor1 strains. Cell fusion and anastomosis occurred frequently in ΔZtWor1 strains, which is reminiscent of mutants of MgGpb1, the β-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Comparative expression profiling of ΔZtWor1, ΔMgGpb1 and ΔMgTpk2 (the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A) strains, suggests that ZtWor1 is downstream of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway that is crucial for pathogenicity of many fungal plant pathogens.

Chapter 4 describes combined bioinformatics and expression profiling studies during pathogenesis in order to discover candidate effectors of  Z. tritici important for virulence. In addition, a genetic approach was followed to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in Z. tritici carrying putative effectors. Functional analysis of two top effector candidates, small-secreted proteins SSP15 and SSP18, which were selected based on their expression profile in planta, showed that they are dispensable for virulence of Z. tritici. These analyses suggest that generally adopted criteria for effector discovery, such as protein size, number of cysteine residues and up-regulated expression during pathogenesis, should be taken with caution and cannot be applied to every pathosystem, as they likely represent only a subset of effector genes.

Chapter 5 describes the functional characterization of ZtCpx1 and ZtCpx2 encoding a secreted and a cytoplasmic catalase-peroxidase (CP) in Z. tritici, respectively. Gene replacement of ZtCpx1 resulted in mutant strains that were sensitive to exogenously added H2O2 and in planta phenotyping showed they are significantly less virulent compared to wild-type. All mutant phenotypes could be restored to wild-type by complementation with the wild-type allele of ZtCpx1 driven by its native promoter. Additionally, functional analysis of ZtCpx2 confirmed that this gene encodes a secreted CP and is, however, dispensable for virulence of Z. tritici on wheat. However, we showed that both genes act synergistically, as the generated double knock-out strain showed a significantly stronger reduction in virulence than the individual single knock-out strains. Hence, both genes are required by Z. tritici for successful infection and colonization of wheat.

In Chapter 6 I discuss and summarize the genetic approaches used in this study, reflect on the major findings and bottlenecks encountered, and propose new strategies to identify effectors of Z. tritici in the future.

T0-bespuiting op de kaart door gele roest
Timmer, R.D. - \ 2015
Akker magazine 11 (2015)3. - ISSN 1875-9688 - p. 12 - 13.
akkerbouw - graangewassen - tarwe - gewasbescherming - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - puccinia striiformis - chemische bestrijding - rassenkeuze (gewassen) - septoria - arable farming - grain crops - wheat - plant protection - plant pathogenic fungi - chemical control - choice of varieties
Afgelopen seizoen hield een nieuwe, agressieve gele-roestvariant (Puccinia striiformis) flink huis in de tarwe. Veel telers zagen de bui al hangen en kozen voor een extra fungicidebespuiting op T0. Na weer een zachte winter rijst de vraag: wordt zo’n vroege ziektebestrijding een gangbare aanpak?
Resource use efficiency, ecological intensification and sustainability of intercropping systems
Mao, L. ; Zhang, L. ; Zhang, S. ; Evers, J.B. ; Werf, W. van der; Wang, J. ; Sun, H. ; Su, Z. ; Spiertz, J.H.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Integrative Agriculture 14 (2015)8. - ISSN 2095-3119 - p. 1542 - 1550.
growth - maize - yield - wheat - water - agriculture - radiation - capture - cotton - model
The rapidly growing demand for food, feed and fuel requires further improvements of land and water management, crop productivity and resource-use efficiencies. Combined field experimentation and crop growth modelling during the past five decades made a great leap forward in the understanding of factors that determine actual and potential yields of monocrops. The research field of production ecology developed concepts to integrate biological and biophysical processes with the aim to explore crop growth potential in contrasting environments. To understand the potential of more complex systems (multi-cropping and intercropping) we need an agro-ecosystem approach that integrates knowledge derived from various disciplines: agronomy, crop physiology, crop ecology, and environmental sciences (soil, water and climate). Adaptation of cropping systems to climate change and a better tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses by genetic improvement and by managing diverse cropping systems in a sustainable way will be of key importance in food security. To accelerate sustainable intensification of agricultural production, it is required to develop intercropping systems that are highly productive and stable under conditions with abiotic constraints (water, nutrients and weather). Strategies to achieve sustainable intensification include developing tools to evaluate crop growth potential under more extreme climatic conditions and introducing new crops and cropping systems that are more productive and robust under conditions with abiotic stress. This paper presents some examples of sustainable intensification management of intercropping systems that proved to be tolerant to extreme climate conditions.
Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands
Reidsma, P. ; Wolf, J. ; Kanellopoulos, A. ; Schaap, B.F. ; Mandryk, M. ; Verhagen, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2015
Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015)4. - ISSN 1748-9326
european-union - crop yields - agriculture - responses - models - wheat - variability - improvement - strategies - scenarios
Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. While crop modelling indicates positive impacts of climate change on yields of major crops in 2050, a semiquantitative and participatory method assessing impacts of extreme events shows that there are nevertheless several climate risks. A range of adaptation measures are, however, available to reduce possible negative effects at crop level. In addition, at farm level farmers can change cropping patterns, and adjust inputs and outputs. Also farm structural change will influence impacts and adaptation. While the 5th IPCC report is more negative regarding impacts of climate change on agriculture compared to the previous report, also for temperate regions, our results show that when putting climate change in context of other drivers, and when explicitly accounting for adaptation at crop and farm level, impacts may be less negative in some regions and opportunities are revealed. These results refer to a temperate region, but an integrated assessment may also change perspectives on climate change for other parts of the world.
AgMIP wheat pilot data 4 release
Asseng, S. ; Ewert, F. ; Martre, P. ; Supit, I. ; Wolf, J. - \ 2015
wheat - field experimental data - simulations - sensivity analysis - climate change impact
The data set includes a current representative management treatment from detailed, quality-tested sentinel field experiments with wheat from four contrasting environments including Australia, The Netherlands, India and Argentina. Measurements include local daily climate data (solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, surface wind, dew point temperature, relative humidity, and vapor pressure), soil characteristics, frequent growth, nitrogen in crop and soil, crop and soil water and yield components. Simulations include results from 27 wheat models and a sensitivity analysis with 26 models and 30 years (1981-2010) for each location, for elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature changes, a heat stress sensitivity analysis at anthesis, and a sensitivity analysis with soil and crop management variations and a Global Climate Model end-century scenario.
Sugar as a key component of the shoot branching regulation network
Evers, J.B. - \ 2015
Plant, Cell & Environment 38 (2015)8. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 1455 - 1456.
red ratio - auxin - transport - wheat
Commentary on kebrom and mullet ‘photosynthetic leaf area modulates tiller bud outgrowth in sorghum’
Strategic double cropping on Vertisols: A viable rainfed cropping option in the Indian SAT to increase productivity and reduce risk
Nageswara Rao, V. ; Meinke, H.B. ; Craufurd, P.Q. ; Parsons, D. ; Kropff, M.J. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Wani, S.P. ; Rego, T.J. - \ 2015
European Journal of Agronomy 62 (2015). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 26 - 37.
nitrogen - field - soil - management - tillage - residue - maize - wheat - yield - corn
Our study suggests the possibility for transformational change in the productivity and risk profile of someof India’s rainfed cropping systems. In the semi-arid regions of Southern India, farmers traditionally cropsorghum or chickpea on Vertisols during the post-rainy season, keeping the fields fallow during the rainyseason. This practice avoids land management problems, but limits the potential for crop intensifica-tion to increase systems productivity. A long-term (15 year) experiment at ICRISAT demonstrated thatcropping during the rainy season is technically feasible, and that grain productivity of double croppedsorghum + chickpea (SCP–SCP) and mung bean + sorghum (MS–MS) sequential systems were higher thantheir conventional counterparts with rainy season fallow, i.e. fallow + post-rainy sorghum (FS–FS) and fal-low + post-rainy chickpea (FS–FCP). Without N application, mean grain yield of post-rainy sorghum in theMS–MS system was significantly greater (2520 kg ha-1per two-year rotation) than in the FS–FS system(1940 kg ha-1per two-year rotation), with the added benefit of the mung bean grain yield (1000 kg ha-1per two-year rotation) from the MS–MS system. In the SCP–SCP system the additional grain yield ofrainy sorghum (3400 kg ha-1per two-year rotation) ensured that the total productivity of this systemwas greater than all other systems. Double cropping MS–MS and SCP–SCP sequential systems had sig-nificantly higher crop N uptake compared to traditional fallow systems at all rates of applied nitrogen(N).The intensified MS–MS and SCP–SCP sequential systems without any N fertilizer applied recorded amuch higher median gross profit of Rs. 20,600 (US $ 375) and Rs. 15,930 (US $ 290) ha-1yr-1, respectively,compared to Rs. 1560 (US $ 28) ha-1yr-1) with the FS–FS system. Applying 120 kg of N ha-1considerablyincreased the profitability of all systems, lifting median gross profits of the sorghum + chickpea systemover Rs. 60,000 (US $ 1091) ha-1yr-1and the conventional system to Rs. 20,570 (US $ 374) ha-1yr-1. Thegross profit margin analysis showed that nitrogen is a key input for improving productivity, particularlyfor the double cropping systems. However, traditional systems are unviable and risky without N appli-cation in the variable climates of the semi-arid tropics. Together, our results show that on Vertisols insemi-arid India, double cropping systems increase systems’ productivity, and are financially more pro-fitability and less risky than traditional fallow post-rainy systems while further benefits can be achievedthrough fertilizer application.
Kwantificering van volumes en prijzen van biobased en fossiele producten in Nederland : de waardepiramide en cascadering in de biobased economy
Bos, H.L. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Meesters, K.P.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1493) - 39
biobased economy - waardetheorie - waardeketenanalyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bioraffinage - tarwe - agro-industriële ketens - biomassa - biomassa cascadering - nederland - value theory - value chain analysis - sustainability - biorefinery - wheat - agro-industrial chains - biomass - biomass cascading - netherlands
In de overheidsvisie op de biobased economy ‘de keten sluiten’ uit 2007 is de waardepiramide geïntroduceerd als een model voor de verdere ontwikkeling van technologie. In de afgelopen jaren is de piramide steeds meer wijdverbreid geraakt en gebruikt als aanzet voor debat. Hierbij is de waardepiramide en de daaraan gekoppelde cascadering in de discussies over biobased economy ook betrokken op duurzaamheid en de sociaal ethische aspecten van inzet van biomassa. De vraag die centraal staat in dit onderzoek is om een benadering te geven van het volume en de waarde per eenheid van de grondstoffen en producten die zich in de verschillende trappen van de piramide bevinden, en daarbij tevens grondstoffen en producten uit biomassa, waar relevant, te vergelijken met grondstoffen en producten uit fossiele bronnen. In dit onderzoek is teruggegaan naar de kern van de waardepiramide en wordt de waardepiramide kwantitatief onderbouwd vanuit een economisch perspectief.
QTLs for barley yield adaptation to Mediterranean environments in the ‘Nure’ × ‘Tremois’ biparental population
Tondelli, A. ; Francia, E. ; Visioni, A. ; Comadran, J. ; Mastrangelo, A.M. ; Akar, T. ; Al-Yassina, A. ; Ceccarelli, S. ; Grando, S. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Thomas, W.T.B. ; Stanca, A.M. ; Romagosa, I. ; Pecchioni, N. - \ 2014
Euphytica 197 (2014)1. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 73 - 86.
quantitative trait loci - hordeum-vulgare - drought tolerance - agronomic traits - flowering time - abiotic stress - grain-yield - major genes - linkage map - wheat
Multi-environment trials represent a highly valuable tool for the identification of the genetic bases of crop yield potential and stress adaptation. A Diversity Array Technology®-based barley map has been developed in the ‘Nure’ × ‘Tremois’ biparental Doubled Haploid population, harbouring the genomic position of a gene set with a putative role in the regulation of flowering time and abiotic stress response in barley. The population has been evaluated in eighteen location-by-year combinations across the Mediterranean basin. QTL mapping identified several genomic regions responsible for barley adaptation to Mediterranean conditions in terms of phenology, grain yield and yield component traits. The most frequently detected yield QTL had the early flowering HvCEN_EPS2 locus (chromosome 2H) as peak marker, showing a positive effect from the early winter parent ‘Nure’ in eight field trials, and explaining up to 45.8 % of the observed variance for grain yield. The HvBM5A_VRN-H1 locus on chromosome 5H and the genomic region possibly corresponding to PPD-H2 on chromosome 1H were significantly associated to grain yield in five and three locations, respectively. Environment-specific QTLs for grain yield, and clusters of yield component QTLs not related to phenology and or developmental genes (e.g. on chromosome 4H, BIN_09) were observed as well. The results of this work provide a valuable source of knowledge and tools for both explaining the genetic bases of barley yield adaptation across the Mediterranean basin, and using QTL-associated markers for MAS pre-breeding and breeding programmes.
Meerjarig graan; Mogelijkheden van meerjarige graanachtigen voor erosiebestrijding
Wander, J.G.N. ; Crijns, S. ; Duijzer, F. ; Emmens, E. ; Russchen, H.J. ; Meuffels, G.J.H.M. - \ 2014
Dronten : DLV Plant - 38
akkerbouw - graansoorten - thinopyrum - duurzaam bodemgebruik - teeltsystemen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bemesting - watererosie - winderosie - meerjarige teelt - rassen (planten) - tarwe - nederland - zuid-limburg - veenkolonien - arable farming - cereals - sustainable land use - cropping systems - soil fertility - fertilizer application - water erosion - wind erosion - perennial cropping - varieties - wheat - netherlands
Meerjarige granen, waaronder Thinopyrum intermedium, wortelen dieper en intensiever en houden daardoor bodem, voedingsstoffen en water goed vast. Voor Nederlandse omstandigheden zou de teelt van dergelijke gewassen dan ook kunnen zorgen voor minder water en/of winderosie, minder milieubelasting (minder uitspoeling) en zuiniger gebruik van inputs.
Identification of quantitative trait loci and a candidate locus for freezing tolerance in controlled and outdoor environments in the overwintering crucifer Boechera stricta.
Heo, J. ; Feng, D. ; Niu, X. ; Mitchell-Olds, T. ; Tienderen, P.H. van; Tomes, D. ; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2014
Plant, Cell & Environment 37 (2014)11. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 2459 - 2469.
cold-acclimation - arabidopsis-thaliana - chlorophyll fluorescence - transcription factor - natural variation - frost tolerance - genes - temperature - wheat - expression
Development of chilling and freezing tolerance is complex and can be affected by photoperiod, temperature and photosynthetic performance; however, there has been limited research on the interaction of these three factors. We evaluated 108 recombinant inbred lines of Boechera stricta, derived from a cross between lines originating from Montana and Colorado, under controlled long day (LD), short-day (SD) and in an outdoor environment (OE). We measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, lethal temperature for 50% survival and electrolyte leakage of leaves. Our results revealed significant variation for chilling and freezing tolerance and photosynthetic performance in different environments. Using both single- and multi-trait analyses, three main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified. QTL on linkage group (LG)3 were SD specific, whereas QTL on LG4 were found under both LD and SD. Under all conditions, QTL on LG7 were identified, but were particularly predictive for the outdoor experiment. The co-localization of photosynthetic performance and freezing tolerance effects supports these traits being co-regulated. Finally, the major QTL on LG7 is syntenic to the Arabidopsis C-repeat binding factor locus, known regulators of chilling and freezing responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and other species.
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