Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli
Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Penny, Christian ; Ragimbeau, Catherine ; Schets, Franciska M. ; Blaak, Hetty ; Duim, Birgitta ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Boer, Albert de; Cauchie, Henry-Michel ; Mossong, Joel ; Pelt, Wilfrid Van - \ 2016
Water Research 101 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 36 - 45.
campylobacter - surface water - water quality - pollution - water pollution - microbiology - wild birds - poultry - campylobacter jejuni - campylobacter coli - netherlands - luxembourg - oppervlaktewater - waterkwaliteit - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - microbiologie - wilde vogels - pluimvee - nederland - luxemburg
Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44–50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions.
Grauwe ganzen en natuurschade in reservaten : een analyse van de perceptie van beheerders
Kleijn, D. ; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Kats, R.J.M. van; Melman, T.C.P. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2165) - 34
ganzen - wilde vogels - begrazing - schade - natuurgebieden - natuurbeheer - geese - wild birds - grazing - damage - natural areas - nature management
Onder beheerders van natuurterreinen waarin veel Grauwe ganzen voorkomen is een enquête uitgevoerd naar de perceptie van de eventueel door deze soort veroorzaakte natuurschade. De enquête is aangeboden aan 69 beheerders, waarvan er 42 hebben gereageerd. De vragen hadden betrekking op het al of niet waarnemen van schade, welke natuurelementen dat betrof en of er al of niet maatregelen werden getroffen. Een literatuuronderzoek is gedaan naar uitgevoerd onderzoek aan natuurschade door Grauwe ganzen.
Preventie vogelschade in vollegrondsgroentegewassen : resultaten screening en veldproeven met diverse middelen in 2006
Vlaswinkel, M.E.T. ; Uijthoven, W. ; Wijk, C.A.P. van - \ 2006
Lelystad : PPO AGV - 21
groenteteelt - veldgewassen - bloemkolen - broccoli - slasoorten - gewasbescherming - wilde vogels - schadelijke dieren - vogelbestrijding - afweermiddelen - duiven - vegetable growing - field crops - cauliflowers - lettuces - plant protection - wild birds - noxious animals - bird control - repellents - pigeons
Vanuit het productschap Tuinbouw is het project ‘Preventie Vogelschade Vollegrondsgroentegewassen’ gestart. Het uiteindelijke doel is te komen tot een ‘verruiming van de beschikbaarheid van voor vogels onaantrekkelijke stoffen’, waarvan een langdurig afwerend effect uitgaat en daarmee vogelschade voorkomt. Dit rapport doet verslag van de resultaten van de screening en de veldtoetsing bij bloemkool en sla. In de screening zijn 18 middelen getoetst. De verschillen waren bij sla groter dan bij broccoli. Bij broccoli kwam middel F6 als erg goed naar voren. Bij sla waren dit de middelen C6, E6, W6 en N6. In de veldproeven bij sla en bloemkool zijn per gewas 5 middelen getest. Bij beide proeven kwamen de middelen W6 en N6 als perspectiefvol naar voren.
Urgent preliminary assessment of ornithological data relevant to the spread of Avian Influenze in Europe
Atkinson, P.W. ; Clark, J.A. ; Delany, S. ; Diagana, Ch.H. ; Feu, Ch. du; Fiedler, W. ; Fransson, Th. ; Gaulthier-Clerc, M. ; Grantham, M. ; Gschweng, M. ; Hagemeijer, W. ; Helmink, A.T.F. ; Johnson, A. ; Khomenko, S. ; Martakis, G.F.P. ; Overdijk, O. ; Robinson, R.A. ; Solokha, A. ; Spina, F. ; Sylla, S.I. ; Veen, J. ; Visser, D. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wetlands International - 342
wilde vogels - migratie - aviaire influenzavirussen - epidemiologie - gegevens verzamelen - landen van de europese unie - aviaire influenza A-virussen - ornitologie - wild birds - migration - avian influenza viruses - epidemiology - data collection - european union countries - avian influenza A viruses - ornithology
In the course of 2005 the highly pathogenic Avian Influenza Asian lineage HPAI H5N1 virus spread from Southeast Asia to SW Siberia, Kazakhstan and the Southern Urals. Migratory birds were suspected of playing a role in the spread of the disease. This meant that the EU could be under direct threat as a number of waterbirds (geese, ducks and shorebirds in particular) were known to migrate through the infected areas to the EU in winter. The European Commission (DG Environment) therefore asked Wetlands International and EURING to undertake the present study. The aims of the project were: (1) to identify species which pose a relatively high risk of spreading H5N1 along their migration routes to the European Union, (2) to analyse the migration routes of these socalled Higher Risk Species on the basis of recoveries of ringed birds, (3) to identify wetland sites where Higher Risk Species concentrate in large numbers during migration and wintering and (4) to develop and test a format for the rapid assessment of ornithological data at the level of wetland sites, in order to prepare wetland managers for an outbreak of H5N1.
Outdoor ranging of poultry: a major risk factor for the introduction and development of high pathogenicity Avian Influenza
Koch, G. ; Elbers, A.R.W. - \ 2006
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 54 (2006)2. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 179 - 194.
pluimveehouderij - scharrelhouderij - infectieziekten - aviaire influenza A-virussen - wilde vogels - volksgezondheid - migratie - epidemiologie - epidemieën - fylogenie - bioveiligheid - poultry farming - free range husbandry - infectious diseases - avian influenza A viruses - wild birds - public health - migration - epidemiology - epidemics - phylogeny - biosafety - a viruses - british-columbia - sentinel ducks - wild ducks - hemagglutinin - waterfowl - outbreak - h7n7 - surveillance - minnesota
High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (HPAI) is an extremely infectious viral disease of poultry. Public health concerns were raised when six persons died in Hong Kong in 1997 after exposure to HPAI-infected poultry. Its danger became imminent in the recent HPAI epidemic in South-East Asia when the virus expanded its geographical range via parts of central Asia to Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Wild birds are frequently carriers of influenza A viruses. Nearly all Avian Influenza (AI) viruses isolated from wild birds are low-pathogenic and cause no clinical problems in these birds. Only after low-pathogenicity viruses are introduced in poultry, in particular in chickens and turkeys, high-pathogenicity mutants emerge after a variable length of time. Biosecurity is the first line of defence against an introduction of AI into commercial poultry flocks. Any conceivable contact between possibly contaminated animals, areas around poultry houses contaminated with faecal material from wild birds and contaminated abiotic vectors on the one hand and domestic poultry on the other must be avoided. In this paper we shall discuss the worldwide occurrence of HPAI outbreaks, the existence of AI virus infections in wild birds, and possible strategies to reduce the risk of the introduction of AI viruses into domestic poultry flocks, with special reference to free ranging
Roulatieplan wildschadepreventie : ervaringen met het rouleren van wildafweermiddelen tussen bedrijven
Schoutsen, M.A. - \ 2004
[S.l.] : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 36
fruitteelt - akkerbouw - beweidingsschade - wilde vogels - wilde dieren - fruit growing - arable farming - browsing damage - wild birds - wild animals
Habitat connectivity and fragmented nuthatch populations in agricultural landscapes
Langevelde, F. van - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H.N. van Lier; R.H.G. Jongman. - S.l. : Van Langevelde - ISBN 9789054859925 - 205
zoögeografie - landschap - landbouwgrond - wild - bedreigde soorten - habitats - habitat vernietiging - wilde vogels - habitatfragmentatie - zoogeography - landscape - agricultural land - wildlife - endangered species - habitat destruction - wild birds - habitat fragmentation
<p>In agricultural landscapes, the habitat of many species is subject to fragmentation. When the habitat of a species is fragmented and the distances between patches of habitat are large relative to the movement distances of the species, it can be expected that the degree of habitat connectivity affects processes at population and individual level. In this thesis, I report on a study of effects of habitat fragmentation and opportunities to mitigate these effects by planning ecological networks. The objective of the study is to contribute to an improved knowledge about the effects of fragmentation and defragmentation of habitat on populations, in particular effects of differences in the degree of habitat connectivity on colonization and habitat selection. The main question of the research was: do networks of patches contribute to population sustainability of species in fragmented habitat?</p><p>The development of planning for nature in the Netherlands is sketched in the second chapter. It is illustrated with the spatial concepts for the rural areas that landscape planning became landscape ecological based. After this chapter, I addressed three questions that were derived from the main question.</p><p>The first question was: what variables can measure the degree of connectivity of habitat patches and are the differences in the degree of connectivity related to the colonization probability of patches? Therefore, habitat patches and the distances between these patches were modelled as networks. In landscapes with fragmented habitat for a certain species, these networks appear as so-called nonconnected networks consisting of disjointed subsets of patches. Between these subsets, exchange of individuals happens seldom of never.</p><p>We derived parameters that measure the degree of connectivity of the patches in those networks. The parameters can deal with the size (the number of elements) and the spatial configuration of these subsets. One of the parameters was used to investigate the relationship between the degree of connectivity measured at different spatial scales and colonization of unoccupied patches by the nuthatch <em>Sitta europaea</em> in three regions in the Netherlands.</p><p>To vary the spatial scale, I used threshold distances as maximum dispersal distances for which the degree of habitat connectivity was calculated. Habitat patches are assumed to be connected when the distances between the patches are less than this threshold distance. The degree of habitat connectivity measured for threshold distances of approximately 2.4 to 3 km best explains the differences in the colonization probability of unoccupied patches. These threshold distances give an indication of the distances covered by dispersing nuthatches that led to successful colonizations. Moreover, I could give an indication of the range of threshold distances where effects of constrained dispersal can be expected in the three regions.</p><p>The second question was: is habitat selection limited in landscapes with fragmented habitat? Therefore, effects of the degree of habitat connectivity on the selection of territories were investigated. Based on a spatially explicit individual-based model, it could be hypothesized that habitat selection is limited when the degree of connectivity is low. This hypothesis was tested with empirical data of nuthatches in four regions in the Netherlands. One of the regions can be considered as the reference region with contiguous habitat where dispersal is not constrained. The habitat quality for nuthatches could be measured by the mean trunk diameter of oaks and beeches.</p><p>We concluded that selection of territories is limited in fragmented habitat compared to selection in contiguous habitat. The quality of the occupied territories in fragmented habitat is lower than in contiguous habitat. This is especially the case when the population level is low. We showed that a lower average breeding success can be found in territories with low degree of connectivity. The results indicate the absence of a negative feedback between population level and the average breeding success in fragmented habitat, which contributes to the increased extinction probability of populations. Among other factors, limited habitat selection in fragmented habitat may thus result in a lower population density than in contiguous habitat.</p><p>The degree of habitat connectivity can increase due to the allocation of new habitat. This may mitigate the effects of fragmentation. The third question was: how can networks of patches be optimally allocated in agricultural landscapes that both meets the requirements for population sustainability and takes into consideration the suitability of the land for competing land uses? We developed two spatial allocation models that plan new habitat considering ecological guidelines of minimum patch sizes and maximum threshold distances and the suitability of the land for competing land uses. The model MENTOR adds new patches that may act as "stepping stones" between reserve sites. The model ENLARGE enlarges existing sites. We showed that both the allocation of stepping stones and the enlargement of existing sites provide a higher percentage of occupied habitat. An interesting question for further research is under which conditions either the allocation of stepping stones or the enlargement of existing sites is preferred as strategy for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes.</p><p>The results of the research provide evidence that the degree of habitat connectivity determines both the colonization probability of unoccupied patches and the selection of habitat. They also give an indication at what spatial scale the degree of habitat connectivity affects these processes as observed for nuthatches. When through networks of patches the degree of habitat connectivity can be enhanced, positive effects on population sustainability can be expected. This thesis contributes to an improved problem detection of effects of habitat fragmentation and explores opportunities for defragmentation of habitat and optimization of land use allocation in human-dominated landscapes. With the knowledge about the effects of fragmentation and defragmentation, this study may be a step forward to enhance and preserve biodiversity.</p>
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