Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Groenkennisnet Dossier Duurzame Energielandschappen
Stremke, S. ; Waal, R.M. de - \ 2015
Wageningen University
energie - bio-energie - energiebronnen - zonne-energie - duurzame energie - waterkracht - windenergie - meervoudig landgebruik - landschap - landinrichting - lesmaterialen - energy - bioenergy - energy sources - solar energy - sustainable energy - water power - wind power - multiple land use - landscape - land development - teaching materials
De duurzame energievormen hebben een lagere energiedichtheid dan de fossiele brandstoffen en de winning ervan neemt daarom vaak meer ruimte in beslag. Als ze zo in het landschap opgenomen worden dat ze bijdragen aan de ontwikkeling van de omgeving en de gemeenschap en bovendien andere functies en waarden van het landschap (voedselvoorziening, biodiversiteit, landschappelijke kwaliteit, en andere ecosysteemdiensten) niet aantasten kun je spreken van duurzame energielandschappen.
Combining offshore wind energy and large-scale mussel farming: background & technical, ecological and economic considerations
Lagerveld, S. ; Rockmann, C. ; Scholl, M.M. ; Bartelings, H. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Jak, R.G. ; Jansen, H.M. ; Klijnstra, J. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Poelman, M. ; Smith, S.R. ; Stavenuiter, J. ; Veenstra, F.A. ; Veltman, C. ; Westra, C. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C056/14) - 117
offshore - wind power - mussel culture - north sea - windenergie - mosselteelt - noordzee
This Blauwdruk project report presents background and technical, ecological and economic considerations of the potential combination of offshore wind energy production and large-scale mussel farming in offshore areas in the North Sea. The main objective of the Blauwdruk project was to study the feasibility of such a combination on the Dutch Continental Shelf.
Roundfish monitoring Princess amalia Wind Farm
Hal, R. van - \ 2013
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C117/13-A) - 33
windmolens - windenergie - landgebruiksplanning - visvangsten - monitoring - natuurbescherming - veldwerk - noordzee - windmills - wind power - land use planning - fish catches - nature conservation - field work - north sea
This report describes the results of field work in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm (in Dutch: Prinses Amaliawindpark, or PAWP). It is to realize the requirements of the Monitoring and Evaluation Program, which is part of the Wbr-permit of the wind farm. The objective is to determine if the wind farm functions as a refugium for roundfish. PAWP is expected to act as a refugium because fisheries are excluded in the farm area since 16 October 2007. It is expected that larger and older individuals as well as species vulnerable for fisheries would have a better chance to survive which would result in an increase in numbers and larger individuals.
Effecten voor de visserij bij de aanleg van windmolenparken binnen de 12 mijlszone
Hintzen, N.T. ; Hamon, K. ; Hammen, T. van der; Poos, J.J. ; Graaf, M. de; Buisman, E. ; Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2013
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C175/13) - 35
visserij - hengelsport - windenergie - windmolens - windmolenpark - visvangsten - opbrengsten - fisheries - angling - wind power - windmills - wind farms - fish catches - yields
In 2020 moet 16% van de Nederlandse energievoorzieing duurzaam worden opgewekt. Windenergie op zee is een van de duurzame energiebronnen die Nederland gaat gebruiken om deze doelstelling te halen. Begin 2013 is besloten om een Haalbaarheidsstudie naar de (on)mogelijkheden van windenergie binnen de 12 mijlszone uit te voeren. In deze haalbaarheidsstudie worden de mogelijke effecten op de opbrengstwaarde voor de beroeps- en recreatieve visserij - indien windmolenparken worden aangelegd binnen vijf geselecteerde zoekgebieden - in kaart gebracht.
Sea@shore: informational governance in marine spatial conflicts at the North Sea
Toonen, H.M. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Jan van Tatenhove; Han Lindeboom. - Wageningen UR : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737748 - 199
aquatische ecosystemen - mariene gebieden - natuurbescherming - zeereservaten - governance - noordzee - windenergie - zeevisserij - milieubeleid - aquatic ecosystems - marine areas - nature conservation - marine protected areas - north sea - wind power - marine fisheries - environmental policy

Oceans and seas seem to be an empty space and untouched wilderness, but are in fact heavily used and exploited by different economic activities which have, to greater or lesser extent, environmental impacts. Attention for marine environmental challenges has grown, and is nowadays captured by views on ecosystem-based management. This builds on the notion that the way forward in marine ecosystem protection is an integrated approach that is place- or area-based (so-called spatial turn) and should use the best available scientific information. This research focuses on this spatial turn in marine governance at the North Sea, one of the busiest seas in the world. More specifically, the emphasis on the informational governance of spatial tensions between nature conservation and economic activities at the North Sea.

Informational governance points to the growing centrality of informational processes in decision-making around environmental challenges. Information is seen as an indispensable resource to use in resolving such challenges and serves as steering tool in governing sustainability. Information provision through all kind of (online) media means is deliberately aimed at influencing decision-making and fostering change of behaviour. In the marine context, informational governance seems to be a new and promising mode of governance. Facilitated by information and communication technologies, information can connect spatially distant environmental issues to people’s daily lives. However, information is not seen as an unproblematic and neutral object, it is at the centre of struggles and debates in decision-making on resolving spatial and environmental challenges at sea.

This study analyzes how public and private actors through informational governance (try to) resolve spatial conflicts between economic activities and nature conservation at the North Sea, in order to better understand the centripetal force of information in marine governance. Three research questions are guiding the research:

How can the centrality of information in the spatial turn in marine governance be conceptualized and analyzed? Which actors are involved in informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use at the North Sea, and how do they (inter-) act in informational processes? How does informational governance contribute to the solving of spatial conflicts between economic activities and nature conservation at the North Sea?

Chapter 2 gives an account of the research methodology that underpins the research. It explains that the study draws on a non-radical constructivist and critical realist perspective, and presents the research design used in the study: a qualitative case study approach. The selection of the cases has been based on two different rationales. Two cases were selected as they highlight the role of three main actor groups in informational governance at sea. Two other cases explore informational processes in governance arrangements with regard to a specific spatial conflict between marine ecosystem conservation and use(fisheries and offshore wind power development) . In the study, triangulated data gathering served to strengthen the validity and reliability of the research. The mix of methods employed included document review of research reports, policy documents and online information; semi-structured interviews; and participatory observation in several meetings and conferences. In data analysis, an iterative approach following the theoretical propositions of the research was used.

In Chapter 3, the marine scaping framework is presented to analyse informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use. Marine scaping through information follows the morphogenetic approach and combines a focus on conditions structuring informational processes with an agency-based approach. The framework distinguishes three scapes that together form the structure-side: seascape, humanscape and mindscape. Seascape represents the connection between the biophysical specifics of the marine ecosystem and the material features of economic activities that are emplaced in this ecosystem. Humanscape points to human organization in social, political and economic terms. Mindscape brings in the ideational dimension, and refers to discourses, ideas, norms, values and perceptions. In the interplay of humanscape with seascape and mindscape, the connection with agency is made, pointing to the initiatives and interactions between actors who, by means of information, strive for sustainability at the North Sea. To assess whether conditions have changed over time, so- called elaboration is added to the framework. In marine governance, the explicit aim is to strive for a balance between ecosystem protection and use, hence to foster elaboration.

Chapter 3 illustrates the application of the marine scaping framework by a case study about informational initiatives of eNGO officials who want to push the development of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) at the North Sea forward, in order to achieve “ecological coherence” in marine conservation on the North Sea. It is indicated how and why officials from environmental non-gouvernmental organizations (eNGOs) carried out extensive science-based studies to inform policy-making. This information remains however footloose, because there was no institutional setting where the specific need for a MPA network was (high) on the agenda, and as such, eNGOs had no opportunity to tap their reports into existing informational processes. At the same time, this case study shows how eNGOs build up their so-called “informational capital”.

The case study presented in Chapter 4 provides a historical understanding of informational interactions between science and policy in the Dutch MPA site selection. By establishing MPAs, nature conservation gains literally a place on the North Sea map. Following international regulations and treaties, North Sea countries are obliged to take the leading role in the designation process, and to use scientific criteria only, based on biological and ecological information. The chapter shows that information about vulnerable and pristine habitats and sea life that needs to be protected was merely lacking or contested. It becomes evident that ecological , socio-economic and political considerations cannot be easily separated. Scientists and policy-makers dealt with the entanglement of interests by sharing tasks in the informational processes, being both information providers and users. It is found that especially in cases of uncertainties and data gaps, judgment by scientists is best characterized as expert judgment and sometimes even gut feeling. However, it is also highlighted that it is necessary to keep science as impartial as possible, and to overtly communicate what and whose information is used.

Chapter 5 analyses the role of information in incorporating the habitat impact of bottom touching gear in the certification scheme of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). This represents a spatial conflict between one of the oldest maritime activities at the North Sea, (plaice) fisheries, and marine conservation. The global MSC labeling program is probably the most famous example of informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use, as it is almost 20 years old. It fits in neatly with the ideas of informational governance: scientific information to assess the environmental performance of a fishery clash with information derived from the fishery itself and stakeholders. And at the same time, information about the fisheries' performance (through the logo on a fish product) is brought to consumers who in turn can reward sustainable fisheries through their buying power. This case study indicates how eNGOs use informational capital in the informational struggles . This role became especially evident during the assessment of the first North Sea plaice fishery, when WWF started to negotiate information with fishermen beyond the formal MSC assessment procedure in order to creating so-called ‘no take-zones’. The eNGO made sure that informal interactions were not totally disconnected from the assessment process. According to this case study, the two fisheries who agreed on the spatial measure also tried to get most out of the additional spatial measure that became part of their certification. They took the spatial measure up in their message towards (potential) clients, stating their fisheries go even beyond the high sustainability standards of MSC.

The case study in Chapter 6 concerns informational processes related to the ecological impacts of an economic newcomer at the North Sea, that is offshore wind energy. The chapter highlights how the sustainability promise of this renewable source appears to be ‘dark green’: offshore wind farms (OWFs) contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and to the protection of certain marine life (benthos, fish and some bird species). Remarkably, the ecological differentiation towards offshore wind power remains unexploited. Powerful actors related to this pro-wind discourse, such as the wind sector and large eNGOs, are hesitant to use the dark green message of offshore wind power. In onshore wind debates, their emphasis is on the dominant ‘pro-wind’ discourse about combating climate change which leaves no room for (nuanced) spatial and ecological concerns. It is however stated that including the ecological merits of OWFs in an (existing) informational governance design would not be very complicated, and allows actors to commonly strive for further differentiation in the European electricity market.

The last chapter recapitulates the general findings of the research. The conclusions suggest that a broad array of actors is involved in informational processes that relate to marine governance and push for more sustainability at the North Sea. These actors can take up five distinctive roles in informational processes, that of information negotiator, information authority, information manager, information verifier and information mediator. This role division might be established in a formal way, although often there is room for actors to take up different roles, sometimes only temporally or informally. The conclusions also point to the theoretical contribution of this research to the theoretical development of informational governance, most notably the lessons learnt from its application to the marine context. The methodological reflections indicate the generalizability of the findings, which are in this research linked to the development of the marine scaping framework and the empirically informed distinction between the five roles of actors in informational governance. Finally, the concluding chapter highlights opportunities for future research, such as studies of informational governance related to other economic activities at the North Sea or in other parts of the world.


Oceans and seas seem to be an empty space and untouched wilderness, but are in fact heavily used and exploited by different economic activities which have, to greater or lesser extent, environmental impacts. Attention for marine environmental challenges has grown, and is nowadays captured by views on ecosystem-based management. This builds on the notion that the way forward in marine ecosystem protection is an integrated approach that is place- or area-based (so-called spatial turn) and should use the best available scientific information. This research focuses on this spatial turn in marine governance at the North Sea, one of the busiest seas in the world. More specifically, the emphasis on the informational governance of spatial tensions between nature conservation and economic activities at the North Sea.

Informational governance points to the growing centrality of informational processes in decision-making around environmental challenges. Information is seen as an indispensable resource to use in resolving such challenges and serves as steering tool in governing sustainability. Information provision through all kind of (online) media means is deliberately aimed at influencing decision-making and fostering change of behaviour. In the marine context, informational governance seems to be a new and promising mode of governance. Facilitated by information and communication technologies, information can connect spatially distant environmental issues to people’s daily lives. However, information is not seen as an unproblematic and neutral object, it is at the centre of struggles and debates in decision-making on resolving spatial and environmental challenges at sea.

This study analyzes how public and private actors through informational governance (try to) resolve spatial conflicts between economic activities and nature conservation at the North Sea, in order to better understand the centripetal force of information in marine governance. Three research questions are guiding the research:

How can the centrality of information in the spatial turn in marine governance be conceptualized and analyzed? Which actors are involved in informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use at the North Sea, and how do they (inter-) act in informational processes? How does informational governance contribute to the solving of spatial conflicts between economic activities and nature conservation at the North Sea?

Chapter 2 gives an account of the research methodology that underpins the research. It explains that the study draws on a non-radical constructivist and critical realist perspective, and presents the research design used in the study: a qualitative case study approach. The selection of the cases has been based on two different rationales. Two cases were selected as they highlight the role of three main actor groups in informational governance at sea. Two other cases explore informational processes in governance arrangements with regard to a specific spatial conflict between marine ecosystem conservation and use(fisheries and offshore wind power development) . In the study, triangulated data gathering served to strengthen the validity and reliability of the research. The mix of methods employed included document review of research reports, policy documents and online information; semi-structured interviews; and participatory observation in several meetings and conferences. In data analysis, an iterative approach following the theoretical propositions of the research was used.

In Chapter 3, the marine scaping framework is presented to analyse informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use. Marine scaping through information follows the morphogenetic approach and combines a focus on conditions structuring informational processes with an agency-based approach. The framework distinguishes three scapes that together form the structure-side: seascape, humanscape and mindscape. Seascape represents the connection between the biophysical specifics of the marine ecosystem and the material features of economic activities that are emplaced in this ecosystem. Humanscape points to human organization in social, political and economic terms. Mindscape brings in the ideational dimension, and refers to discourses, ideas, norms, values and perceptions. In the interplay of humanscape with seascape and mindscape, the connection with agency is made, pointing to the initiatives and interactions between actors who, by means of information, strive for sustainability at the North Sea. To assess whether conditions have changed over time, so- called elaboration is added to the framework. In marine governance, the explicit aim is to strive for a balance between ecosystem protection and use, hence to foster elaboration.

Chapter 3 illustrates the application of the marine scaping framework by a case study about informational initiatives of eNGO officials who want to push the development of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) at the North Sea forward, in order to achieve “ecological coherence” in marine conservation on the North Sea. It is indicated how and why officials from environmental non-gouvernmental organizations (eNGOs) carried out extensive science-based studies to inform policy-making. This information remains however footloose, because there was no institutional setting where the specific need for a MPA network was (high) on the agenda, and as such, eNGOs had no opportunity to tap their reports into existing informational processes. At the same time, this case study shows how eNGOs build up their so-called “informational capital”.

The case study presented in Chapter 4 provides a historical understanding of informational interactions between science and policy in the Dutch MPA site selection. By establishing MPAs, nature conservation gains literally a place on the North Sea map. Following international regulations and treaties, North Sea countries are obliged to take the leading role in the designation process, and to use scientific criteria only, based on biological and ecological information. The chapter shows that information about vulnerable and pristine habitats and sea life that needs to be protected was merely lacking or contested. It becomes evident that ecological , socio-economic and political considerations cannot be easily separated. Scientists and policy-makers dealt with the entanglement of interests by sharing tasks in the informational processes, being both information providers and users. It is found that especially in cases of uncertainties and data gaps, judgment by scientists is best characterized as expert judgment and sometimes even gut feeling. However, it is also highlighted that it is necessary to keep science as impartial as possible, and to overtly communicate what and whose information is used.

Chapter 5 analyses the role of information in incorporating the habitat impact of bottom touching gear in the certification scheme of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). This represents a spatial conflict between one of the oldest maritime activities at the North Sea, (plaice) fisheries, and marine conservation. The global MSC labeling program is probably the most famous example of informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use, as it is almost 20 years old. It fits in neatly with the ideas of informational governance: scientific information to assess the environmental performance of a fishery clash with information derived from the fishery itself and stakeholders. And at the same time, information about the fisheries' performance (through the logo on a fish product) is brought to consumers who in turn can reward sustainable fisheries through their buying power. This case study indicates how eNGOs use informational capital in the informational struggles . This role became especially evident during the assessment of the first North Sea plaice fishery, when WWF started to negotiate information with fishermen beyond the formal MSC assessment procedure in order to creating so-called ‘no take-zones’. The eNGO made sure that informal interactions were not totally disconnected from the assessment process. According to this case study, the two fisheries who agreed on the spatial measure also tried to get most out of the additional spatial measure that became part of their certification. They took the spatial measure up in their message towards (potential) clients, stating their fisheries go even beyond the high sustainability standards of MSC.

The case study in Chapter 6 concerns informational processes related to the ecological impacts of an economic newcomer at the North Sea, that is offshore wind energy. The chapter highlights how the sustainability promise of this renewable source appears to be ‘dark green’: offshore wind farms (OWFs) contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and to the protection of certain marine life (benthos, fish and some bird species). Remarkably, the ecological differentiation towards offshore wind power remains unexploited. Powerful actors related to this pro-wind discourse, such as the wind sector and large eNGOs, are hesitant to use the dark green message of offshore wind power. In onshore wind debates, their emphasis is on the dominant ‘pro-wind’ discourse about combating climate change which leaves no room for (nuanced) spatial and ecological concerns. It is however stated that including the ecological merits of OWFs in an (existing) informational governance design would not be very complicated, and allows actors to commonly strive for further differentiation in the European electricity market.

The last chapter recapitulates the general findings of the research. The conclusions suggest that a broad array of actors is involved in informational processes that relate to marine governance and push for more sustainability at the North Sea. These actors can take up five distinctive roles in informational processes, that of information negotiator, information authority, information manager, information verifier and information mediator. This role division might be established in a formal way, although often there is room for actors to take up different roles, sometimes only temporally or informally. The conclusions also point to the theoretical contribution of this research to the theoretical development of informational governance, most notably the lessons learnt from its application to the marine context. The methodological reflections indicate the generalizability of the findings, which are in this research linked to the development of the marine scaping framework and the empirically informed distinction between the five roles of actors in informational governance. Finally, the concluding chapter highlights opportunities for future research, such as studies of informational governance related to other economic activities at the North Sea or in other parts of the world.

Windenergie binnen 12 mijl in relatie tot ecologie
Leopold, M.F. ; Dijkman, E.M. ; Winter, H.V. ; Lensink, R. ; Scholl, M.M. - \ 2013
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C034b/13) - 87
windenergie - windmolens - mariene gebieden - zeevogels - vissen - zeezoogdieren - habitats - natuurwaarde - noordzee - voordelta - wind power - windmills - marine areas - sea birds - fishes - marine mammals - natural value - north sea
Binnen de 12-mijlszone komen diverse biota in relatief hoge dichtheden voor. Toch is er diversiteit binnen deze zone, met de hoogste natuurwaarden op relatief geringe afstand tot de kust (
Monitoring- and Evaluation Program Near Shore Wind farm (MEP-NSW): Fish community
Hal, R. van; Couperus, A.S. ; Fassler, S.M.M. ; Gastauer, S. ; Griffioen, B. ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Teal, L.R. ; Keeken, O.A. van; Winter, H.V. - \ 2012
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C059/12) - 161
windenergie - windmolens - noordzee - vissen - aquatische ecologie - nadelige gevolgen - wind power - windmills - north sea - fishes - aquatic ecology - adverse effects
In 2006, the first Dutch offshore wind farm was built 10-18 km from the shore of Egmond aan Zee by a joint venture of Nuon and Shell Windenergy. A Monitoring and Evaluation Program accompanied the plans for the construction and exploitation of this farm. The program contained plans for the monitoring and evaluation of potential ecological consequences in the Dutch coastal zone related to the wind farm and was divided in six topics, of which the topics on fish are presented in this report. Potential ecological consequences for fish were hypothesized to be linked to the introduction of new habitat, i.e. the monopiles and the scour protection surrounding them, disturbance by the operation of the wind farm (e.g. noise) and the exclusion of fisheries in the wind farm and its surrounding safety zone. To monitor and evaluate these hypothesized effects, five sub-projects performed focussing on different parts of the fish community, their spatial and temporal distribution and their behavioural aspects.
Harbour porpoise occurrence in relation to the Prinses Amaliawindpark
Polanen Petel, T. van; Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2012
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C177/10) - 34
windenergie - noordzee - mariene ecologie - zeezoogdieren - wind power - north sea - marine ecology - marine mammals
The potential effects of the construction and operation of wind farms at sea on marine life is a pertinent question in today’s world. Although for this report we focus on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), wind farms have the potential to affect all marine life, including marine mammals, fish, birds, and benthic species. Indeed research has shown that effects of the construction and or operation of wind farms on marine life occur; for example on seals (e.g. Edrén et al., 2004), harbour porpoises (e.g. Gilles et al., 2009), birds (e.g. Leopold et al., under review) fish (e.g. Hvidt et al., 2005), and benthic organisms (e.g. Zettler & Pollehne, 2006). However, not all effects are negative, with research showing positive effects on for example, the benthic macro-fauna (Zettler & Pollehne 2006). These authors found a general increase in diversity, abundance and biomass of benthic macro-fauna on the new hard substrate of wind turbines.
Het afweegbaar maken van natuur- en milieunormen voor windmolens in bos en natuur
Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Alterra - 11
windmolens - windenergie - landschap - natuurbeschermingsrecht - Nederland - windmills - wind power - landscape - nature conservation law - Netherlands
Het is op dit moment niet ondenkbaar dat windmolenparken die zowel economisch, ecologisch als maatschappelijk aanvaardbaar en gewogen zijn, toch op een juridisch veto als gevolg van onze wetgeving stuiten. Het recht heeft dan een verlammende werking voor dit soort initiatieven van duurzame energieproductie. Aan de hand van het Europese recht en het algemene bestuursrecht wordt in dit essay gepleit voor een andere rechtstoepassing, waardoor functiecombinaties als duurzame energieproductie en natuur onder omstandigheden rechtens wel mogelijk zouden kunnen zijn. Er ontstaat dan ook een bestuurlijke afwegingsruimte die een balans tussen economische, ecologische en maatschappelijke aspecten mogelijk maakt en ook meer juridische mogelijkheden biedt voor windmolens in het buitengebied.
CUMULEO v 2.0: Integratie van andere gebruiksfuncties
Blankendaal, V.G. ; Tamis, J.E. ; Wal, J.T. van der; Brugh, H. van der; Dalfsen, J.A. van - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR nr. C124/11) - 84
windenergie - offshore - mariene ecologie - dierecologie - nadelige gevolgen - noordzee - wind power - marine ecology - animal ecology - adverse effects - north sea
As a result of the large number of license applications regarding the development and operation of offshore wind parks (OWPs) that have been made since 2005 to the competent authority RWS – a department of the Dutch Ministry of Transport and Water works, a need has arisen to have insight in the cumulative (additive) effects of OWPs on the North Sea. The cumulative effects in CUMULEO are determined based on four different themes: - birds, - marine mammals and fish, - benthic fauna and - landscape and perception. For each theme a calculation rule is defines, based on a number of assumptions. Next a scenario is followed to calculate the cumulative effects for each theme. In the overview below all considered use functions are listed, also the basic method used to determine the effects in CUMULEO is indicated.
Impact van onderwaterlawaai onderzocht
Winter, H.V. - \ 2012
Kennis Online 9 (2012)april. - p. 14 - 15.
onderwaterakoestiek - geluidshinder - aquatische ecologie - mariene gebieden - landgebruiksplanning - windenergie - zeezoogdieren - zeevissen - noordzee - underwater acoustics - noise pollution - aquatic ecology - marine areas - land use planning - wind power - marine mammals - marine fishes - north sea
Vroeger was de enige menselijke activiteit op zee de scheepvaart. Maar de Noordzee krijgt steeds meer windmolenparken, pijpleidingen en olieplatforms, en er wordt bijvoorbeeld gebaggerd en seismisch onderzoek gedaan. Over de effecten van geluiden onder water op het leven in zee is echter nog weinig bekend. In samenwerking met de gas- en olie-industrie proberen onderzoekers van onder meer IMARES daar beter zicht op te krijgen.
Energieopslag maakt duurzame energie voorspelbaar
Terbijhe, A. ; Verbruggen, T. ; Veth, J. de; Pukala, P. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. ACRRES - 68
duurzame energie - opslag - energie - kosten-batenanalyse - rentabiliteit - proeven op proefstations - accu's - uitrusting - windenergie - zonne-energie - sustainable energy - storage - energy - cost benefit analysis - profitability - station tests - batteries - equipment - wind power - solar energy
De verdiencapaciteit van de WindAccu zit in de electriciteitsmarkt (APX/ENDEX en PV/Onbalans) en transportvoordeel of besparing op energiebelasting, afhankelijk van de situatie. Er zijn 2 cases uitgewerkt in dit rapport. Het eerste betreft het akkerbouwbedrijf van familie de Jong, met zonpv en wind, de ander de onderzoekslocatie van Wageningen UR in Lelystad. Na een grondige analyse van de (markt) mogelijkheden is de conclusie helaas de volgende. Batterijen voor opslag van elektrische energie zijn zonder uitzondering nog te duur om zonder aanvullende inkomsten rendabel te zijn. Stel dat de kostendaling die zich in de PV-sector heeft voorgedaan, exemplarisch is voor de kostendaling van batterijen, dan is er voldoende verdiencapaciteit in de electriciteitsmarkt en kostenbesparing om bij de juiste randvoorwaarden duurzame energie rendabeler te maken.
Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society
Pedroli, G.B.M. ; Langeveld, H. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (AGRI-2010-EVAL-03 ) - 75
hernieuwbare energie - landbouw - plattelandseconomie - windenergie - zonne-energie - geothermische energie - biomassa - bio-energie - energieproductie in de landbouw - biobased economy - renewable energy - agriculture - rural economy - wind power - solar energy - geothermal energy - biomass - bioenergy - agricultural energy production
This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural economy in different regions of the Union. Renewable Energy (RE) in this respect includes the energy generated on farms by using wind, PV, solar thermal, hydro, geothermal or biomass resources.
Local Birds in and around the Offhore wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ)
Leopold, M.F. ; Dijkman, E.M. ; Teal, L.R. - \ 2011
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C187/11) - 176
zeevogels - windenergie - nadelige gevolgen - noordzee - sea birds - wind power - adverse effects - north sea
This report presents the final results of a four-year study of seabird distribution patterns in and around the first offshore wind farm in Dutch North Sea waters. This wind farm, known as OWEZ (Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee) is situated 10 - 18 km off the Dutch mainland coast, northwest of the port of IJmuiden
Voorkomen van beschermde vissoorten t.b.v. het windpark IJsselmeerdijk
Deerenberg, C.M. ; Boois, I.J. de - \ 2011
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES UR C136/11) - 15
vissen - beschermde soorten - landgebruiksplanning - windenergie - ijsselmeer - monitoring - fishes - protected species - land use planning - wind power - lake ijssel
Nuon onderzoekt de mogelijkheden om de bestaande windparken Harry van den Kroonenberg, Irene Vorrink en Jaap Rodenburg te saneren en deze te vervangen door een nieuw windpark en daarmee invulling te geven aan de beleidsregel 'Windmolens 2008' van de provincie Flevoland. In het kader van verzamelen van informatie over de ecologische situatie in het gebied van de windparken, heeft Nuon IMARES gevraagd informatie te leveren over het voorkomen van beschermde vissoorten in het gebied rond de windparken. Vanwege de Flora- en Faunawet (waar onder regelingen uit de Natuurbeschermingswet 1998) moet de aan- of afwezigheid van strikt beschermde soorten in het plangebied onderzocht worden, om te kunnen beoordelen of realisatie overtreding van beschermingsbepalingen kan inhouden. Het voorliggende rapport beperkt zich tot de beschermde vissoorten. Het zoekgebied betreft ruwweg het gebied dat wordt begrensd door de IJsselmeerdijk, de Flevocentrale, de Vaargeul Amsterdam-Lemmer en de Ketelbrug
Inventory of current and future presence of non-wind sea use functions second edition
Wal, J.T. van der; Quirijns, F.J. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Jongbloed, R.H. - \ 2011
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C036/11) - 78
windmolens - parken - duurzame energie - windenergie - noordzee - offshore - nutfunctie - menselijke activiteit - windmills - parks - sustainable energy - wind power - north sea - utility functions - human activity
In order to assess the suitability of locations on the Central and Southern North Sea for wind parks present sea use functions should also be taken in account. These sea use functions comprise shipping, oil and gas extraction, fisheries, cables and pipelines, military activities, sand extraction, radar interference and nature conservation. Information on the spatial distribution and the extent of each use function should be quantified if possible. Apart from the current situation, the future trend in these use functions is also of interest.
Consequences of WindSpeed scenarios for other sea use functions
Wal, J.T. van der; Glorius, S.T. ; Jongbloed, R.H. - \ 2011
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C035/11) - 74
windmolens - parken - duurzame energie - windenergie - noordzee - offshore - nutfunctie - windmills - parks - sustainable energy - wind power - north sea - utility functions
Offshore wind energy can significantly contribute to the sustainable energy mix of Europe. However, competing usage of the sea, cost and grid barriers are important challenges to overcome. The Windspeed project, funded bij DG Energy and Transport under Intelligent Energy for Europe (IEE) programme, assists in overcoming those obstacle's and sets realistic targets for 2030 together with a development pathway (roadmap). The roadmap will identify suitable areas for offshore wind deployment. The Windspeed study area consist of the Central and Southern North Sea bounded by Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom.
Proeftuin voor duurzame energie
Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2011
Kennis Online 2011 (2011)14 juni. - p. 16 - 17.
duurzame energie - energiebronnen - biobased economy - windenergie - bio-energie - publiek-private samenwerking - Nederland - sustainable energy - energy sources - wind power - bioenergy - public-private cooperation - Netherlands
Energieproducent Eneco wil al haar klanten duurzaam opgewekte energie kunnen gaan leveren. Samen met Wageningen UR werkt de energieleverancier in het project Acrres aan technieken om dat te bereiken.
Duurzame Energie
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2011
Lelystad : PPO AGV
biobased economy - bio-energie - windenergie - duurzame energie - proefstations - testinstallaties - bioenergy - wind power - sustainable energy - experimental stations - test rigs
De business unit Akkerbouw, Groene ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente van Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving (PPO AGV) is dé partner als het gaat om praktijkgericht onderzoek en innovaties. Resultaten uit strategisch en fundamenteel onderzoek worden door ons praktijk- en toepassingsrijp gemaakt. Daarmee positioneren wij ons als brug tussen wetenschap en praktijk. Wij ontwikkelen en leveren nieuwe, direct toepasbare kennis en passen deze toe in samenwerking met onze partners. Dit zijn ondernemers of instituten die werkzaam zijn in de agrarische sector. Het werkveld is de akkerbouw, vollegrondsgroenten en multifunctionele landbouw.
Calculation rules for the DSS
Wal, J.T. van der; Quirijns, F.J. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Jongbloed, R.H. - \ 2011
Den Helder : IMARES (IMARES report no. C010/11) - 46
windenergie - windmolenpark - planning - besluitvorming - milieufactoren - ruimtelijke analyse - natuurbescherming - europa - wind power - wind farms - decision making - environmental factors - spatial analysis - nature conservation - europe
The WindSpeed project aims to develop a roadmap defining a realistic target and a development pathway up to 2030 for offshore wind energy in het Central and Southern North Sea. To achieve this roadmap spatial data on where these activities occur and if possible with what intensity is needed. This data can then be used as building material to feed into the DSS or Decision Support System that is also part of the project plan
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