Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Bouwen met Noordzee-natuur : uitwerking Gebiedsagenda Noordzee 2050
Rozemeijer, M.J.C. ; Slijkerman, D. ; Bos, O.G. ; Röckmann, C. ; Paijmans, A.J. ; Kamermans, P. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C024/17) - 36
noordzee - natura 2000 - windmolens - kustbeheer - aquacultuur en milieu - natuurtechniek - ecologisch herstel - north sea - windmills - coastal management - aquaculture and environment - ecological engineering - ecological restoration
In dit rapport wordt het concept ‘Bouwen met Noordzee-natuur’ uitgewerkt tot een aantal adviezen aan het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) om ‘Bouwen met Noordzee-natuur’ een stap verder te brengen in de concretisering. De definitie van ‘Bouwen met Noordzee-natuur’ zoals gebruikt in dit rapport is: Het gebruik maken van de zee en de natuur op een manier die leidt tot versterking van het mariene systeem, de natuur en de biodiversiteit (bron: Gebiedsagenda Noordzee 2050). Dat laatste kan vervolgens worden geoperationaliseerd als versterking van behoud en duurzaam gebruik van soorten en habitats die van nature in de Nederlandse Noordzee voorkomen, dan wel meer specifiek in relatie tot inheemse soorten en habitats van Natura 2000- en KRM-soorten en -gebieden, en/of inheemse rode lijst-soorten, en inheemse soorten en habitats van de OSPAR-lijst. De kans op introductie van exoten moet daarbij geminimaliseerd worden. In het voorliggend document zijn kansen en knelpunten voor het concept Bouwen met Noordzee-natuur geïnventariseerd door middel van een kennisinventarisatie, interviews en een workshop met stakeholders.
Windmolens veilig combineren met zeewierteelt : onderzoeksproject meervoudig gebruik van de zee
Castel, Fanny ; Stuiver, Marian - \ 2016
windmills - food production - seaweed culture - research projects - sustainable energy - biomass production - biobased economy

Hoe valt de productie van voedsel en energie op zee veilig te integreren, wilde Lloyd’s Register Foundation, een Engelse stichting, graag weten. Universiteitsfonds Wageningen zorgde voor de totstandkoming van een onderzoeksproject.

Waarom zijn kabeljauwen zo dol op windmolens?
Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2015
Universiteit van Nederland
noordzee - kabeljauw - windmolens - windmolenpark - biodiversiteit - macrofauna - lesmaterialen - north sea - cod - windmills - wind farms - biodiversity - teaching materials
Kabeljauwen halen hun geschubde schouders op om duurzame energie, en toch worden ze erg enthousiast van windmolens die in zee staan. De bodem waar die op rusten heeft namelijk 300 keer zo hoge biomassa dan andere stukken bodem. Prof. dr. Han Lindeboom van de Wageningen UR deed onderzoek naar die gebieden, en daarover vertelt hij in dit college.
Seal monitoring and evaluation for the Luchterduinen offshore wind farm 1. T0 - 2013 report
Kirkwood, R.J. ; Bos, O.G. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C067/14) - 47
zeehonden - habitats - mariene gebieden - populatiedichtheid - monitoring - windmolens - nadelige gevolgen - noordzee - seals - marine areas - population density - windmills - adverse effects - north sea
In the Netherlands, the greatest numbers of grey and harbour seals are observed hauling out in the Wadden Sea but both species also haul out in the Delta region. Previous studies suggest there could be considerable movement of seals along the Dutch North Sea coastal zone between the two regions. Next to providing feeding opportunities for the seals, this movement may be particularly important for the maintenance of seal numbers in the Delta, and could be affected by anthropogenic developments in the coastal zone, such as wind farms. Determining when to attach devices to seals must take into account the seals’ annual cycles; in the Netherlands, grey seals give birth in winter and moult in spring, while harbour seals give birth in early summer and moult in late summer. Capturing and tracking of seals is limited by both the pupping period and the moulting period.
Roundfish monitoring Princess amalia Wind Farm
Hal, R. van - \ 2013
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C117/13-A) - 33
windmolens - windenergie - landgebruiksplanning - visvangsten - monitoring - natuurbescherming - veldwerk - noordzee - windmills - wind power - land use planning - fish catches - nature conservation - field work - north sea
This report describes the results of field work in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm (in Dutch: Prinses Amaliawindpark, or PAWP). It is to realize the requirements of the Monitoring and Evaluation Program, which is part of the Wbr-permit of the wind farm. The objective is to determine if the wind farm functions as a refugium for roundfish. PAWP is expected to act as a refugium because fisheries are excluded in the farm area since 16 October 2007. It is expected that larger and older individuals as well as species vulnerable for fisheries would have a better chance to survive which would result in an increase in numbers and larger individuals.
Haalbaarheidsstudie wind op zee: vijf potentiele zoekgebeiden binnen de 12-mijlszone vergeleken in relatie tot beschermde natuurwaarden
Leopold, M.F. ; Scholl, M.M. ; Bemmelen, R.S.A. van; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Cremer, J.S.M. ; Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Lucke, K. ; Lagerveld, S. ; Winter, H.V. - \ 2013
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C132/13) - 71
windmolens - regionale planning - haalbaarheidsstudies - natuurwaarde - vissen - vogels - chiroptera - fauna - noordzee - voordelta - nederlandse waddeneilanden - windmills - regional planning - feasibility studies - natural value - fishes - birds - north sea - dutch wadden islands
De Nederlandse overheid, in het bijzonder de Ministers van Economische Zaken (EZ) en van Infrastructuur en Milieu (I&M) onderzoeken de mogelijkheden voor windenergie binnen de 12-mijlszone voor de Nederlandse kust en eventuele problemen die zich hierbij zouden kunnen voordoen, met de functie ‘natuur’. Na een eerste ‘quick scan’ gericht op de hele 12-mijlszone (Leopold et al. 2013a; Ministerie van I&M 2013) zijn een vijftal potentiële zoekgebieden voor windenergie aangewezen: in de Voordelta vóór Schouwen, vóór de Maasvlakte, de Hollandse kust ten zuiden en ten noorden van het Noordzeekanaal en ten noorden van Ameland. Deze vijf gebieden hebben allemaal een aanzienlijke ecologische waarde en overlappen deels (Schouwen, Ameland, Holland-Noord) of zelfs geheel (Maasvlakte) met Natura 2000-gebieden.
Effecten voor de visserij bij de aanleg van windmolenparken binnen de 12 mijlszone
Hintzen, N.T. ; Hamon, K. ; Hammen, T. van der; Poos, J.J. ; Graaf, M. de; Buisman, E. ; Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2013
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C175/13) - 35
visserij - hengelsport - windenergie - windmolens - windmolenpark - visvangsten - opbrengsten - fisheries - angling - wind power - windmills - wind farms - fish catches - yields
In 2020 moet 16% van de Nederlandse energievoorzieing duurzaam worden opgewekt. Windenergie op zee is een van de duurzame energiebronnen die Nederland gaat gebruiken om deze doelstelling te halen. Begin 2013 is besloten om een Haalbaarheidsstudie naar de (on)mogelijkheden van windenergie binnen de 12 mijlszone uit te voeren. In deze haalbaarheidsstudie worden de mogelijke effecten op de opbrengstwaarde voor de beroeps- en recreatieve visserij - indien windmolenparken worden aangelegd binnen vijf geselecteerde zoekgebieden - in kaart gebracht.
Windenergie binnen 12 mijl in relatie tot ecologie
Leopold, M.F. ; Dijkman, E.M. ; Winter, H.V. ; Lensink, R. ; Scholl, M.M. - \ 2013
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C034b/13) - 87
windenergie - windmolens - mariene gebieden - zeevogels - vissen - zeezoogdieren - habitats - natuurwaarde - noordzee - voordelta - wind power - windmills - marine areas - sea birds - fishes - marine mammals - natural value - north sea
Binnen de 12-mijlszone komen diverse biota in relatief hoge dichtheden voor. Toch is er diversiteit binnen deze zone, met de hoogste natuurwaarden op relatief geringe afstand tot de kust (
Responses of Local Birds to the Offshore Wind Farms PAWP and OWEZ off the Dutch mainland coast
Leopold, M.F. ; Bemmelen, R.S.A. van; Zuur, A.F. - \ 2012
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C151/12) - 108
windmolens - windmolenpark - noordzee - fauna - zeevogels - nadelige gevolgen - windmills - wind farms - north sea - sea birds - adverse effects
Offshore wind turbines are an alien element at sea, a “landscape” that is normally wide and open. Large, turning turbines might affect the local seabirds, that are dependent on the sea. One of the possible effects of offshore wind farms might be that the seabirds will be displaced from the sites, which would mean habitat destruction or at least habitat degradation for this group. All seabirds, being migratory, are protected under the EU Birds Directive. Yet, there are no studies into the question where wind farms should best be built (with respect to seabirds) or how they should be designed to minimize disturbance. This study compares the effects of two wind farms of different design in close proximity of each other. PAWP has a much higher turbine density (4.3 turbines / km2) than OWEZ (1.3/km2). This difference in turbine density probably constitutes the main difference in design between PAWP and OWEZ. The turbines deployed in PAWP (n=60) are Vestas V80 - 2 MW, at 59 m above mean sea level (amsl), with a rotor diameter of 80 m. Those in OWEZ (n=36) are Vestas V90 - 3MW turbines at 70 m amsl, with a rotor diameter of 90 m.
Monitoring- and Evaluation Program Near Shore Wind farm (MEP-NSW): Fish community
Hal, R. van; Couperus, A.S. ; Fassler, S.M.M. ; Gastauer, S. ; Griffioen, B. ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Teal, L.R. ; Keeken, O.A. van; Winter, H.V. - \ 2012
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C059/12) - 161
windenergie - windmolens - noordzee - vissen - aquatische ecologie - nadelige gevolgen - wind power - windmills - north sea - fishes - aquatic ecology - adverse effects
In 2006, the first Dutch offshore wind farm was built 10-18 km from the shore of Egmond aan Zee by a joint venture of Nuon and Shell Windenergy. A Monitoring and Evaluation Program accompanied the plans for the construction and exploitation of this farm. The program contained plans for the monitoring and evaluation of potential ecological consequences in the Dutch coastal zone related to the wind farm and was divided in six topics, of which the topics on fish are presented in this report. Potential ecological consequences for fish were hypothesized to be linked to the introduction of new habitat, i.e. the monopiles and the scour protection surrounding them, disturbance by the operation of the wind farm (e.g. noise) and the exclusion of fisheries in the wind farm and its surrounding safety zone. To monitor and evaluate these hypothesized effects, five sub-projects performed focussing on different parts of the fish community, their spatial and temporal distribution and their behavioural aspects.
Multifunctionele Platforms op Zee, het concept, de wet en regelgeving en de lessen voor de toekomst
Stuiver, M. ; Agricola, H.J. ; Fontein, R.J. ; Gerritsen, A.L. ; Kersten, P.H. ; Kselik, R.A.L. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2364) - 60
landgebruiksplanning - windmolens - mariene gebieden - noordzee - land use planning - windmills - marine areas - north sea
De mariene systemen en de kustzones worden steeds intensiever gebruikt voor verschillende functies. Hierdoor ontstaan nieuwe 'competing claims' op deze ruimte. Deze variëren van claims van natuur en biodiversiteit (zee-reservaten), vanuit de economie (visreservaten voor de visserij) tot het ontwikkelen van zones voor windmolens, boorplatforms, zandwinning, scheepvaart etc. Dit rapport geeft een beschrijving van een relatief nieuw fenomeen dat in opkomst is: Multifunctionele Platforms op Zee waarop maritieme activiteiten met elkaar zijn geclusterd op zee. Aan de hand van twee case-studies: Maasvlakte 2 en Windmolenpark Q10, wordt geanalyseerd welk beleidsinstrumentarium door verschillende partijen is toegepast in deze cases en welke lessen hieruit geleerd kunnen worden voor de toekomstige ontwikkeling van MUPS. Verder wordt een doorkijk gegeven naar wat de overheid in de nabije toekomst mogelijk zou kunnen gaan doen op het gebied van beleid en beheer voor een ontwikkelingsgerichte benadering van de Noordzee
Het afweegbaar maken van natuur- en milieunormen voor windmolens in bos en natuur
Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Alterra - 11
windmolens - windenergie - landschap - natuurbeschermingsrecht - Nederland - windmills - wind power - landscape - nature conservation law - Netherlands
Het is op dit moment niet ondenkbaar dat windmolenparken die zowel economisch, ecologisch als maatschappelijk aanvaardbaar en gewogen zijn, toch op een juridisch veto als gevolg van onze wetgeving stuiten. Het recht heeft dan een verlammende werking voor dit soort initiatieven van duurzame energieproductie. Aan de hand van het Europese recht en het algemene bestuursrecht wordt in dit essay gepleit voor een andere rechtstoepassing, waardoor functiecombinaties als duurzame energieproductie en natuur onder omstandigheden rechtens wel mogelijk zouden kunnen zijn. Er ontstaat dan ook een bestuurlijke afwegingsruimte die een balans tussen economische, ecologische en maatschappelijke aspecten mogelijk maakt en ook meer juridische mogelijkheden biedt voor windmolens in het buitengebied.
Scaling human-induced pressures to population level impacts in the marine environment : implementation of the prototype CUMULEO-RAM model
Vries, P. de; Tamis, J.E. ; Wal, J.T. van der; Jak, R.G. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Schobben, J.H.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 14) - 12
landgebruiksplanning - mariene gebieden - windmolens - aardgas - biodiversiteit - noordzee - land use planning - marine areas - windmills - natural gas - biodiversity - north sea
For centuries the Dutch coastal waters and the North Sea were primarily used for fisheries and shipping, but during the last 20 years the number of uses has increased rapidly. These human uses (such as wind farms, mineral extraction, coastal defences and fisheries) will lead to a decrease in biodiversity and a reduction in ecosystem and mineral resources. Under several European policies and conventions, the EU North Sea member states must establish a sustainable management regime for the marine environment. In addition, a comprehensive system of marine spatial management (also referred to as ‘marine spatial planning’) is needed to prevent conflicts between the marine environment and economic uses.
Optimal management of marine resources: spatial planning of multiple uses by multiple actors
Punt, M.J. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; J.H. Stel, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730268 - 168
economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - oceanen - marien milieu - ruimtelijke ordening - zeereservaten - windmolens - natural resource economics - natural resources - resource management - oceans - marine environment - physical planning - marine protected areas - windmills

Ocean space supplies mankind with a multitude of goods and services and yet it is under severe pressure of pollution and over-extraction of resources. To extract goods and services sustainably and to protect vulnerable ecosystems, we need to manage human activities in the marine domain.

Three essential elements characterize the management of marine resources. First we are dealing with multiple uses. These uses can be conflicting, neutral or complimentary and therefore when we manage one use we should also address the effects on other uses. Second these uses are inherently spatial. Conflicts can at least partly be avoided and complementarities can be improved with careful spatial planning. Therefore we should address the spatial effects of the multiple uses when managing these activities. Third we are dealing with multiple actors. Depending on the spatial scale we look at these actors can be representatives of the several user groups that have conflicting interests, or they can be countries trying to reach agreements over the use of shared resources.

In this thesis I investigate how Marine Spatial Planning and one of its tools, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), can assist us with the management of ocean space. These instruments and their associated incentives are highly influenced by the regulatory framework, and this framework in turn depends on the spatial scale. I investigate three scale levels: the local level, defined as the Exclusive Economic Zone of a single country, the regional level, defined as a regional sea that is fully claimed by a number of countries, and the global level defined as the High Seas where all countries have access within the limits of the UN Law of the Sea.

On the local level I investigate the spatial planning of offshore wind farms with an optimization model that allocates offshore wind farms under ecological constraints. The model results show that space is an essential element to derive an optimal management plan of the EEZ, because the allocation of offshore wind farms is highly dependent on both spatial economic factors such as location costs and ecological restrictions. The results show that Marine Spatial Planning is necessary, because only in this way can possible synergies between e.g. offshore wind farms and environmental protection be identified and eventually realized. The model can assist with the first steps in Marine Spatial Planning of offshore wind farms; its results can be used as a basis for conversation and consultation with stakeholders.

On the regional scale I investigate how the multiple use nature of MPAs affects the incentives of countries to assign these MPAs. To this end, I develop a game theoretic model in which two specific uses, fisheries and nature conservation, by multiple countries are considered in a strategic framework. The results of the paper suggest that EU marine policy may help to secure the highest possible benefits from these MPAs, but only if policies force countries to cooperate and consider all possible benefits of MPAs. In fact cooperation on a single issue may give a worse outcome than the non-cooperative equilibrium. The results also indicate that cooperation may be hard to achieve because of defector incentives, and therefore policy measures should be strict in enforcing cooperation on all possible uses of MPAs.

At the same scale level I study how species distributions and different ways of accounting for the contributions of others affects MPA assignment as a tool for biodiversity conservation. With a spatial game theoretic model I investigate three different conservation regimes: full cooperation, strategic non-cooperation, and conservation autarky. Under strategic non-cooperation countries anticipate protection by the other, under conservation autarky they ignore these contributions. The main results show that unique species occurring in a single ecosystem are relatively well protected, even when countries are free-riding. Species that occur in multiple ecosystems on both sides of the border in contrast are under non-cooperation under-protected, compared to full cooperation. This is in part caused by location leakage, i.e. protecting a number of species less because they are protected by others. On the one hand conservation autarky eliminates location leakage and generates larger MPAs at the border. On the other hand these MPA sizes are often too high from a global perspective. From this we can conclude that international conservation efforts should mainly focus on transboundary occurring species. Also, although conservation autarky is not a first-best solution, if it occurs, e.g. through social norms, it is certainly better than strategic non-cooperation.

At the third level I study the effect of the assignment of internationally recognized MPAs in the High Seas on the formation of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMO) with a game theoretic model. MPAs are assigned through a weakest-link game: because everyone has to agree on an MPA before it actually can be protected, it can only be as large as the strongest opposing player wants it to be. I find that if countries have equal costs and benefits MPAs of optimal size are implemented but these have no effect on stability of RFMOs; the only stable coalition is the coalition where everyone acts alone. In the case where countries face different fishing costs, MPAs stabilize a number of extra coalitions such that more and larger coalitions are stable when an MPA is present compared to the no MPA case. Full cooperation, however, is not necessarily reached. A general conclusion is therefore that the assignment of MPAs in the High Seas can not only improve the fisheries through direct effects such as insurance and possible increases in catches, but also indirect by contributing in a positive way to the formation of RFMOs.

Three important conclusions can be drawn from this thesis as a whole. First Marine Spatial Planning and Marine Protected Areas can contribute in a positive way to the management of human activities in ocean space. Second, neither of them is a silver bullet. Both need careful implementation, where all uses are accounted for, and especially the public good aspects of MPAs needs to be addressed. Third the success of MPAs (and as such of Marine Spatial Planning) is not only highly dependent on the incentives and social norms but also on the implementation scale.

Inventory of current and future presence of non-wind sea use functions second edition
Wal, J.T. van der; Quirijns, F.J. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Jongbloed, R.H. - \ 2011
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C036/11) - 78
windmolens - parken - duurzame energie - windenergie - noordzee - offshore - nutfunctie - menselijke activiteit - windmills - parks - sustainable energy - wind power - north sea - utility functions - human activity
In order to assess the suitability of locations on the Central and Southern North Sea for wind parks present sea use functions should also be taken in account. These sea use functions comprise shipping, oil and gas extraction, fisheries, cables and pipelines, military activities, sand extraction, radar interference and nature conservation. Information on the spatial distribution and the extent of each use function should be quantified if possible. Apart from the current situation, the future trend in these use functions is also of interest.
Consequences of WindSpeed scenarios for other sea use functions
Wal, J.T. van der; Glorius, S.T. ; Jongbloed, R.H. - \ 2011
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C035/11) - 74
windmolens - parken - duurzame energie - windenergie - noordzee - offshore - nutfunctie - windmills - parks - sustainable energy - wind power - north sea - utility functions
Offshore wind energy can significantly contribute to the sustainable energy mix of Europe. However, competing usage of the sea, cost and grid barriers are important challenges to overcome. The Windspeed project, funded bij DG Energy and Transport under Intelligent Energy for Europe (IEE) programme, assists in overcoming those obstacle's and sets realistic targets for 2030 together with a development pathway (roadmap). The roadmap will identify suitable areas for offshore wind deployment. The Windspeed study area consist of the Central and Southern North Sea bounded by Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom.
Local Birds in and around the Offshore Wind Park Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) (T-0 & T-1)
Leopold, M.F. ; Camphuysen, C.J. ; Verdaat, J.P. ; Dijkman, E.M. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Aarts, G.M. ; Poot, M. ; Fijn, R.C. - \ 2010
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C034/10) - 269
windmolens - windenergie - noordzee - zeevogels - monitoring - windmills - wind power - north sea - sea birds
The Dutch consortium "NoordzeeWind" operates the first offshore wind farm in Dutch North Sea waters. The park, consisting of 36 turbines on monopiles, is located NW of IJmuiden harbour, some 8 NM off the Dutch mainland coast. Named after the nearest town ashore, the park will be known as "Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee" (OWEZ). A second offshore wind farm has also become operational, the Princess Amalia Windfarm (PAWF). This report deals with distribution patterns of local seabirds in an area of approximately 885 km2 around the OWEZ and PAWF parks
Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Dutch North sea: population ecology and effects of wind farms
Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Polanen Petel, T. van; Aarts, G.M. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Dijkman, E.M. ; Reijnders, P.J.H. - \ 2010
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C137/10) - 72
zeezoogdieren - windenergie - populatiedichtheid - windmolens - regionale planning - inventarisaties - noordzee - marine mammals - wind power - population density - windmills - regional planning - inventories - north sea
This study was setup to gain an understanding of the possible effects of large-scale development of wind farms in Dutch waters on grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). This should be considered a first step in doing so as up until now relatively little was known about the species in Dutch waters. The study was carried out in the framework of WE@SEA a foundation aimed at acquiring knowledge in the field of offshore wind energy.
Offshore wind farms and seabirds in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea
Leopold, M.F. ; Dijkman, E.M. - \ 2010
Texel : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C134/10) - 20
windmolens - landgebruiksplanning - offshore - nadelige gevolgen - vogels - natuurbescherming - noordzee - windmills - land use planning - adverse effects - birds - nature conservation - north sea
A surge in offshore wind farm development is expected across the North Sea in the near future. Site selection for future parks in Dutch waters is in full progress. Navigational safety is of prime importance: wind farms need to be outside major and minor shipping lanes, clearways, harbour approaches and military exercise areas. Apart from technical and economical considerations, nature conservation needs to be taken into account. Several Nature 2000 areas have been assigned in Dutch offshore waters and these are to be kept free from offshore wind farm development.
Monitoring and researching ecological effects of Dutch offshore wind farms: Masterplan
Boon, A.R. ; Hofstede, R. ter; Klok, T.C. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Blacquiere, T. ; Poot, M.J.M. ; Kastelein, R.A. ; Camphuysen, C.J. - \ 2010
Deltares - 157
windenergie - windmolens - noordzee - nadelige gevolgen - vogels - zeezoogdieren - fauna - wind power - windmills - north sea - adverse effects - birds - marine mammals
The cabinet plans to realise a total of 6000 MW of wind energy on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS) by 2020 (2009 National Water Plan draft, 2009-2019 North Sea Policy Memo). Permits for twelve wind farms were issued in 2009. An interdepartmental workgroup is presently working on an approach that should result in realisation of the remaining approx. 5000 MW starting in 2011. Deltares was asked to work out the contents of a master plan for an umbrella monitoring and research programme required to fill in the gaps in information in determining the ecological effect of OWFs. (offshore wind farms)
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