Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Landbouwecoloog Pablo Tittonell ziet geen noodzaak voedselproductie te vedubbelen "kleinschalige landbouw voedt halve wereld"
Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2016
food supply - agricultural production - sustainability - small farms - world
Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef
Duijn, A.P. van; Beukers, R. ; Cow an, Roberta B. ; Judge, L.O. ; Pijl, W. van der; Römgens, Indra ; Scheele, Fleur ; Steinweg, Tim - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Brochure / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-029) - 50 p.
supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - commodities - retail marketing - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - basisproducten - marketing voor de detailhandel - financiën - tonijn - garnalen - rundvlees - wereld
This brochure offers a detailed analysis of the financial vehicles and mechanisms that drive the expansion of production of the following four commodities: skipjack canned tuna; cultured shrimp; soy; and beef. The commodities were selected in view of their global economic importance and their potentially adverse impact on the environment. The financial sector (investors, lenders, insurers, funds, etc.) serves as a gate-keeper to capital flows that are critical in supporting companies’ expansions of operational capacity. This sector can significantly influence how these businesses exploit renewable resources. In this brochure therefore:  The supply chains for each commodity were verified by geography;  The top companies in each segment of the supply chain were identified (e.g. farmers, primary processors, etc.); and  Primary sources of financing were identified.
Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef
Duijn, A.P. van; Beukers, R. ; Cowan, Roberta B. ; Judge, L.O. ; Pijl, Willem van der; Römgens, Indra ; Scheele, Fleur ; Steinweg, Tim - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-028) - 80 p.
supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - retail marketing - commodities - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - marketing voor de detailhandel - basisproducten - financiën - tonijn - garnalen - rundvlees - wereld
This study is a detailed analysis of which parts of the tuna, shrimp, soy and beef supply chains are most open to constructive engagement through financial vehicles and mechanisms. The study indentifies the largest market shares in the various supply chains. For the retail sector, the objective was to analyse the openness of the retail sector to financial influence taking into account the latest sector trends.
Quick scan developments dairy markets for GDF-business partner BASF
Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Beldman, A.C.G. ; Prins, A.M. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR - 27 p.
dairy farming - dairy industry - economic situation - milk production - milk consumption - animal welfare - herd structure - world - future - melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - economische situatie - melkproductie - melkconsumptie - dierenwelzijn - veestapelstructuur - wereld - toekomst
With the increasing consumption of milk and dairy products in some of the major developing markets and the fall of the quota system in the major milk producing region, Europe, milk producers are getting ready for the new opportunities. Simultaneously China, as a state controlled economy is publishing that new mega farms are being built to fulfill the production as outlined in the 5-year plan. Developments in other countries are not so obvious. However it is heard from India, Australia, Chile, Egypt, Russia and others that the number of high performing dairy cows under intensive husbandry and feeding conditions is increasing. In order to fully understand how that change is impacting the business of business partners of GDF and possibly opens up new opportunities for the business partners, an accurate analysis of the actual status and the development process is necessary. In this analysis BASF asks for putting a specific focus on the development of the feeding options which are going to be built into the new farm structures.
Inequalities in Food Security and Nutrition. A Life Course Perspective
Bras, H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571891 - 36
voedselzekerheid - voeding - slechte voeding - gezondheidsongelijkheden - honger - levensloop - wereld - food security - nutrition - malnutrition - health inequalities - hunger - life course - world
Food safety and urban food markets in Vietnam: The need for flexible and customized retail modernization policies
Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. ; Vellema, S. ; Spaargaren, G. - \ 2015
Food Policy 54 (2015). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 95 - 106.
supermarkets - opportunities - partnerships - governance - transition - thailand - health - world - rise
Access to safe and healthy food is a crucial element of food security. In Vietnam the safety of daily vegetables is of great concern to both consumers and policymakers. To mitigate food safety risks, the Vietnamese government enforces rules and regulations and relies strongly on a single approach for organizing food provision; being modernizing retail by replacing wet markets with supermarkets. In general, reorganizing food provision in this way is increasingly considered to be a guarantee for food safety, especially in urban settings with growing populations. To assess the effectiveness of this induced retail modernization of the fresh vegetables market in Vietnam’s capital Hanoi, this paper examines for whom and under which conditions does this approach deliver the desired outcomes. The survey data and interviews show that ongoing retail modernization in Hanoi reaches only a minor segment of the population and drives a large group of shoppers into informal vending structures. On the basis of five case studies, this paper demonstrates how similar supermarket interventions can yield contrasting outcomes when they do not accommodate for differences in shopper population and do not adapt to variations in the urban conditions. To reduce exposure to unsafe food, particularly for poorer segments of the population, we conclude that developing a flexible portfolio of retail modernization pathways and adopting a reflexive policy approach provide better impact and leverage, as opposed to the current trend of promoting supermarkets as a single, ideal-type form of food shopping.
Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth
Geffen, K.G. van; Eck, E. van; Boer, R. de; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Salis, F. ; Berendse, F. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2015
Insect Conservation and Diversity 8 (2015)3. - ISSN 1752-458X - p. 282 - 287.
winter moth - lepidoptera-noctuidae - british moths - sex-pheromone - pollution - world - bats
1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development, reproduction and inter/intra-specific interactions. 2.Here, we present results of a field-based experiment where we tested effects of various types of artificial lighting on mating in the winter moth (Operophtera brumata, Lepidoptera: Geometridae). We illuminated trunks of oak trees with green, white, red or no artificial LED light at night, and caught female O. brumata on these trunks using funnel traps. The females were dissected to check for the presence of a spermatophore, a sperm package that is delivered by males to females during mating. 3.We found a strong reduction in the number of females on the illuminated trunks, indicating artificial light inhibition of activity. Furthermore, artificial light inhibited mating: 53% of females caught on non-illuminated trunks had mated, whereas only 13%, 16% and 28% of the females that were caught on green, white and red light illuminated trunks had mated respectively. 4.A second experiment showed that artificial night lighting reduced the number of males that were attracted to a synthetic O. brumata pheromone lure. This effect was strongest under red light and mildest under green light. 5.This study provides, for the first time, field-based evidence that artificial night lighting disrupts reproductive behaviour of moths, and that reducing short wavelength radiation only partly mitigates these negative effects.
Omslag van denken in tech-niveaus naar denken in structurele veranderingen : Wageningse tuinbouwkennis wereldwijd zeer gewild
Kierkels, T. ; Elings, A. - \ 2015
Onder Glas 12 (2015)3. - p. 10 - 11.
glastuinbouw - teelt onder bescherming - kunststoftunnels - wereld - consultancy - deskundigen - modellen - gewasproductie - teeltsystemen - greenhouse horticulture - protected cultivation - plastic tunnels - world - experts - models - crop production - cropping systems
Overal ter wereld groeit de behoefte aan bedekte teelt. De productie moet omhoog en het gebruik van inputs omlaag, bijvoorbeeld die van water. Experts van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw adviseren over de hele wereld de opkomende kastuinbouwsector, vaak in nauwe samenwerking met het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven. Anne Elings: “We denken niet meer in tech-niveaus, maar in mogelijke structurele veranderingen.”
Action research for climate change adaptation : Developing and applying knowledge for governance
Buuren, A. van; Eshuis, J. ; Vliet, M. van - \ 2015
London : Routledge (Routledge advances in climate change research ) - ISBN 9781138017603 - 198
klimaatverandering - actieonderzoek - governance - klimaatadaptatie - kennis - politiek - wereld - climatic change - action research - climate adaptation - knowledge - politics - world
Governments all over the world are struggling with the question of how to adapt to climate change. They need information not only about the issue and its possible consequences, but also about feasible governance strategies and instruments to combat it. At the same time, scientists from different social disciplines are trying to understand the dynamics and peculiarities of the governance of climate change adaptation. This book demonstrates how action-oriented research methods can be used to satisfy the need for both policy-relevant information and scientific knowledge. Bringing together eight case studies that show inspiring practices of action research from around the world, including Australia, Denmark, Vietnam and the Netherlands, the book covers a rich variety of action-research applications, running from participatory observation to serious games and role-playing exercises. It explores many adaptation challenges, from flood-risk safety to heat stress and freshwater availability, and draws out valuable lessons about the conditions that make action research successful, demonstrating how scientific and academic knowledge can be used in a practical context to reach useful and applicable insights. The book will be of interest to scholars and students of climate change, environmental policy, politics and governance.
Solidarity by demand? Exit and voice in international medical travel - The case of Indonesia
Ormond, M.E. - \ 2015
Social Science and Medicine 124 (2015). - ISSN 0277-9536 - p. 305 - 312.
health-care - reproductive tourism - social-movements - patient - ethics - world
Globally, more patients are intentionally travelling abroad as consumers for medical care. However, while scholars have begun to examine international medical travel's (IMT) impacts on the people and places that receive medical travellers, study of its impacts on medical travellers' home contexts has been negligible and largely speculative. While proponents praise IMT's potential to make home health systems more responsive to the needs of market-savvy healthcare consumers, critics identify it as a way to further de-politicise the satisfaction of healthcare needs. This article draws from work on political consumerism, health advocacy and social movements to argue for a reframing of IMT not as a 'one-off' statement about or an event external to struggles over access, rights and recognition within medical travellers' home health systems but rather as one of a range of critical forms of on-going engagement embedded within these struggles. To do this, the limited extant empirical work addressing domestic impacts of IMT is reviewed and a case study of Indonesian medical travel to Malaysia is presented. The case study material draws from 85 interviews undertaken in 2007-08 and 2012 with Indonesian and Malaysian respondents involved in IMT as care recipients, formal and informal care-providers, intermediaries, promoters and policy-makers. Evidence from the review and case study suggests that IMT may effect political and social change within medical travellers' home contexts at micro and macro levels by altering the perspectives, habits, expectations and accountability of, and complicity among, medical travellers, their families, communities, formal and informal intermediaries, and medical providers both within and beyond the container of the nation-state. Impacts are conditioned by the ideological foundations underpinning home political and social systems; the status of a medical traveller's ailment or therapy; and the existence of organised support for recognition and management of these in the home context
Combining backcasting and exploratory scenarios to develop robust water strategies in face of uncertain futures
Vliet, M. van; Kok, K. - \ 2015
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 20 (2015)1. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 43 - 74.
klimaatverandering - waterbeheer - onzekerheidsanalyse - methodologie - climatic change - water management - uncertainty analysis - methodology - stakeholder participation - sustainability - framework - management - visions - europe - world - land - tool
Water management strategies in times of global change need to be developed within a complex and uncertain environment. Scenarios are often used to deal with uncertainty. A novel backcasting methodology has been tested in which a normative objective (e.g. adaptive water management) is backcasted within the context of exploratory scenarios that sketch four different plausible futures (Economy First, Policy Rules, Fortress Europe, and Sustainability Eventually). The main advantage of combining exploratory and normative scenarios is in the identification of robust actions: actions that are effective in the different socio-environmental contexts sketched in the exploratory scenarios. This paper has three objectives: (1) to present the methodology, focussing on its novel aspects (2) to test the methodology and evaluate its perceived success by analysing organiser and stakeholder feedback and (3) to analyse and evaluate the results, in order to study the impact of the exploratory scenarios on the backcasting results and the added value of robust actions. The methodology was successfully tested in 9 local and one regional case study in a water project water scenarios for Europe and for Neighbouring States (SCENES). Results showed that the exploratory scenarios influenced the content of the backcasts, thus making the identification of robust strategies possible. The list of robust strategies includes both technological and social/organisational strategies, highlighting the need for an integrated approach. The approach shows high potential, but as the methodology is in its infancy more research is needed, particularly in methods to facilitate and monitor information flow between exploratory scenarios and backcasts.
More food from fertile grounds : integrating approaches to improve soil fertility
Beek, C.L. van; Noij, I.G.A.M. ; Duivenbooden, N. van; Heesmans, H.I.M. ; Bos, A. ; Til, R. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2568) - 51
bodemvruchtbaarheid - gewasproductie - uitputting - voedingsstoffen - exportspreiding - wereld - soil fertility - crop production - exhaustion - nutrients - export diversification - world
Gewassen nemen voedingsstoffen (nutriënten) op uit de bodem. Door de gewassen elders te consumeren worden nutriënten verplaatst. Door urbanisatie en globalisering wordt deze disbalans in nutriënten versterkt. Als de nutriënten onttrekking niet gecompenseerd wordt leidt dit tot bodemuitputting en uiteindelijk tot degradatie van eens productieve gronden. Onttrekking van nutriënten kan gecompenseerd worden met organische en minerale (kunst)mest. Vooral in gebieden ten zuiden van de Sahara wordt dit vaak niet of onvoldoende gedaan, omdat kunstmest duur en risicovol is en er vaak onvoldoende organisch materiaal beschikbaar is.
Mainstreaming biodiversity where it matters most
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Boelee, E. ; Cools, J. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Hoof, L.J.W. van; Hospes, O. ; Kok, M. ; Peerlings, J.H.M. ; Podvin, K.J. ; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen & Bilthoven : Wageningen University & PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - ISBN 9789462573840 - 180
biodiversiteit - bosbouw - visserij - palmoliën - mangroves - wereld - biodiversity - forestry - fisheries - palm oils - world
This report presents the result of applying the framework in five cases in or on the cross roads between agriculture, forestry and fisheries where considerable pressure on biodiversity is exerted. The cases were selected based on several criteria with the aim that they together cover as broad span as possible of: Relevance for biodiversity (from having very clear impacts to much more uncertain impacts) Governance levels (including both local, national, global levels) Governance context (type of actors, type of norms etc.) Regions (continents and eco‐climatic zones)
Metropolitan Blueprints of Colonial Taxation? Lessons from Fiscal Capacity Building in British and French Africa, c. 1880-1940
Frankema, E.H.P. ; Waijenburg, M.F.M. van - \ 2014
Journal of African History 55 (2014)3. - ISSN 0021-8537 - p. 371 - 400.
sub-saharan africa - growth - education - colonization - institutions - government - legacies - origins - history - world
The historical and social science literature is divided about the importance of metropolitan blueprints of colonial rule for the development of colonial states. We exploit historical records of colonial state finances to explore the importance of metropolitan identity on the comparative development of fiscal institutions in British and French Africa. Taxes constituted the financial backbone of the colonial state and were vital to the state building efforts of colonial governments. A quantitative comparative perspective shows that pragmatic responses to varying local conditions can easily be mistaken for specific metropolitan blueprints of colonial governance and that under comparable local circumstances the French and British operated in remarkably similar ways.
SoilGrids1km— global soil information based on automated mapping
Hengl, T. ; Mendes de Jesus, J.S. ; Macmillan, R.A. ; Batjes, N.H. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Carvalho Ribeiro, E.D. ; Samuel Rosa, A. ; Kempen, B. ; Leenaars, J.G.B. ; Walsh, M.G. ; Ruiperez Gonzalez, M. - \ 2014
PLoS One 9 (2014)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
global land areas - organic-carbon - resolution - climate - world - maps - interpolation - database - models
Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg-1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m-3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha-1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the SoilGrids system is highly automated and flexible, increasingly accurate predictions can be generated as new input data become available. SoilGrids1km are available for download via under a Creative Commons Non Commercial license.
Reflexive governance for food security: The example of school feeding in Brazil
Sonnino, R. ; Lozano Torres, C.E. ; Schneider, S. - \ 2014
Journal of Rural Studies 36 (2014). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 1 - 12.
public procurement - nutrition security - family farmers - scaling-up - program - crisis - world - sustainability - productivism - insecurity
In the last decade, the unfolding of a “new food equation” has raised the need to address food security more structurally and systemically. This paper aims to progress this debate through a focus on Brazil, where food security policies are embedded into a “reflexive governance” framework that facilitates learning, adaptation and collaboration between actors at different scales and stages of the food system. Based on key legislation and policy documents, the analysis of school feeding as an example of food security intervention context provides two insights. First, it highlights the importance of broadening participation in the governance system to actors who have been neglected by discourses on food security, with their narrow focus on the two ends of the food system. Second, it emphasizes the need to foster social learning not just across governance scales (vertically) but also between communities (horizontally) to ensure that alternative practices coalesce into a more coherent platform that can address an increasingly uneven geography of food security.
Institutional dimensions of veterinary services reforms: responses to structural adjustment in Northern Ghana
Amankwah, K. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Sakyi-Dawson, O. ; Karbo, N. ; Oosting, S.J. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 12 (2014)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 296 - 315.
animal health-services - developing-countries - delivery - innovation - privatization - constraints - provision - economics - systems - world
This study examines the effect of the post-1980s' structural adjustment reforms on the delivery and smallholders' use of veterinary services in two districts in Northern Ghana. Our analytical framework distinguishes between allocative, cognitive, and normative institutions to analyse the effects on four areas of service delivery: (1) prevention; (2) clinical services; (3) provision of drugs, vaccines, and other products; and (4) human health protection. The reforms were accompanied by substantial reductions in the allocation of both financial and human resources to public veterinary services; this in turn induced fragmentation in service supply, preferential service to progressive (or wealthy) farmers, and non-adherence to international protocols for livestock health reporting. A few communities self-organized to access veterinary services. Thus, the reforms triggered changes mostly in formal allocative institutions, but these triggered further changes in informal allocative, cognitive, and normative institutions that structured the impact of the reforms. The paper concludes that institutional change is not a one-off outcome of an intervention. Rather, such interventions trigger new dynamics that policy-makers and analysts need to take into account. This requires regular monitoring of anticipated and unanticipated effects of privatization and decentralization to enable policy adjustment.
Companies contributing to the greening of consumption: findings from the dairy and appliance industries in Thailand
Thongplew, N. ; Koppen, C.S.A. van; Spaargaren, G. - \ 2014
Journal of Cleaner Production 75 (2014). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 96 - 105.
sustainable consumption - supply chain - responsibility - hybrid - world - foods - asia
Over the last decades, the scope of corporate environmental strategies has shifted from improving internal environmental performance to reducing environmental footprint of the product chain in collaboration with actors in the chain. Consumer-oriented CSR strategies are a vital part of this trend but have received little scholarly attention, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Focusing on Thailand, this article shows how corporate strategies aimed at greening consumption have become visible because of an increase in sustainable products, environmental information flows, and green narratives and images. We investigated two illustrative cases, dairy and appliance industries, and found that their environmental performances in greening consumption diverge. In the dairy industry, green products and environmental product information are mainly found among small producers for niche markets. Larger producers have only recently started adopting consumer-oriented environmental strategies. Appliance companies offer consumers not only green products, but also environmental information, storylines, and images reflecting general sustainability topics and, to a modest extent, consumer eco-lifestyles. We discuss underlying factors and argue that environmental communication strategies directed at consumers have strategic relevance for both industries.
Balancing rural-urban water and resource needs
Rijnaarts, Huub - \ 2014
water supply - population growth - water resources - waste water - new sanitation - climatic change - europe - world
Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security
Khoury, C.K. ; Bjorkman, A.D. ; Dempewolf, H. ; Ramirez-Villegas, J. ; Guarino, L. ; Jarvis, A. ; Rieseberg, L.H. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)11. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 4001 - 4006.
voedselzekerheid - soortendiversiteit - diversiteit - voedselvoorziening - gewassen - basisproducten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - food security - species diversity - diversity - food supply - crops - commodities - plant genetic resources - plant genetic-resources - climate-change - ecosystem services - farming systems - biodiversity - productivity - nutrition - policy - world
The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security.
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