Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Seed for change : the making and implementation of seed policies in Ethiopia
Hassena Beko, Mohammed - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bernd van der Meulen, co-promotor(en): Bram de Jonge; Otto Hospes; Niels Louwaars. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436687 - 151
governance - agricultural policy - policy processes - agricultural sector - seed production - government policy - ethiopia - east africa - landbouwbeleid - beleidsprocessen - landbouwsector - zaadproductie - overheidsbeleid - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality seed from formal sources in Ethiopia is very limited. The current Ethiopian government has focused on agricultural development and has developed different policies both for agriculture in general and for the seed sector in particular. Following the developmental state approach, the government intensified its involvement in the seed sector to enhance agricultural development. Despite the policies and efforts of the government, a shortage of seed, a mismatch between demand and supply, the carryover of seed despite not satisfying the demand of farmers, and poor seed quality have been persistent challenges to the Ethiopian seed sector. Many studies have identified technical gaps that limit the development of the seed sector, and some of the studies have also discussed the extent to which policy responds to existing problems, and the extent to which what is in the policy documents is implemented. However, the causes of these ‘gaps’ are seldom discussed. The lack of such knowledge limits the understanding of the challenges, making it difficult to properly support the seed sector. For these reasons, this research has gone beyond the mere identification of ‘gaps’, aiming to analyse how actors and institutions influence seed policy making and implementation in Ethiopia.

The goal of this research is twofold: to narrow the knowledge gap about policy making and implementation in the Ethiopian seed sector, and to contribute to the debate concerning how to make the seed sector function better. The central research question is: how did actors and institutions influence the formulation and implementation of seed policies in Ethiopia from 2008 to 2016? The empirical research to answer this overall research question addresses two processes: policy making and policy implementation. These include the process of revising the 2000 Ethiopian seed law and the process of implementing direct seed marketing. By analysing these two processes, the thesis unravels how actors and associated institutions have influenced seed policy making and implementation in Ethiopia. The major sources of data were interviews of actors in the seed sector, and desk research of different reports. Guided by theoretical concepts, the research used qualitative methods to generate and analyse data.

Given the complexity of societal phenomenon, several analytical lenses have been used to examine the data in this research. In order to explain how actors negotiate the content of a policy document, including defining the problem and solution, the concept of discourse analysis is used, focusing on frame, the rounds model, and the policy arena. Similarly, to explain the process of implementing the existing policy and the outcome, the concepts of multi-level perspective on transition, transition management, non-decision making, and institutional lock-in are used. While using these analytical lenses to explain seed policy making and implementation, the concept of institutions has remained a central concept.

Chapter 2 analyses the negotiation process, looking into the topics of seed sector governance and variety registration. The analysis reveals that different policy arenas provide opportunities for different actors to place their preferred policy options on the table, and to get them incorporated into the draft working document. While this is a positive step towards a deliberative policy making, the final decision is made by the executive branch of the government. Such a process can be explained by two informal institutions. These are the loose connection between the drafting arenas and the decision-making arenas, and the blurred separation of power between the executive and the legislature. At the Council of Ministers (CoM), where the critical decisions are made, the ministry presents its perspective, particularly on issues where disagreement exists between the ministry and other actors. The council uses the content of the draft and the justification of the ministry for endorsing the draft policy document. Moreover, the parliament can change the content of the draft policy document only if the ministry agrees with the change, regardless of the arguments and justifications provided by other stakeholders. Thus, the inputs of stakeholders are considered as long as the ministry agrees with the suggestions, and the policy decision remains in the hands of the ministry.

Chapter 3 presents the different frames used by different actors to describe the problem of seed quality. While government officials attribute the problem of seed quality to the lack of alignment between the seed sector governance and the regional government structure, experts and bureaucrats attribute the problem to the lack of coordination at national level. As a result, they respectively suggest the decentralization and centralization of seed sector governance. These frames are embedded in the overall interest and strategy of the actors promoting the frames. The centralization frame reflects the interest of experts and bureaucrats to have a say with regards to the seed sector. They have lost this power because of the federal structure that was established formally in 1995. On the contrary, the decentralization frame is embedded in the government’s aim to implement the constitution that established the federal structure in 1995. Despite the fact that the process of revising the seed law took about four years, these actors could not agree on either of the options or find an alternative. This shows a lack of deliberation and reflexivity during the process of revising the seed law, reflecting the fact that seed policy discussion has been part of a larger debate about (de)centralization in Ethiopia since 1991. Thus, in addition to the issue of seed quality, the frames of centralization and decentralization are shaped by the old (unitary) and the new (federal) institutions of the Ethiopian government system.

Chapter 4 focuses on the process of introducing and expanding direct seed marketing (DSM) in Ethiopia. Despite the fact that seed marketing is included in the policies on paper, the seed of major food crops is distributed through government channels resulting in inefficiency of seed distribution. The regional seed core groups introduced DSM in 2011, and by 2016 about one-third of the hybrid maize seed, the main seed marketed in Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ region (SNNPR), was sold through DSM. The presence of actors outside the seed distribution system was instrumental for introducing the concept of DSM. To start the piloting of this existing policy, the core group needed to get approval from the heads of the bureaus of agriculture (BoAs). However, such approval was not required for other new ideas, like establishing an independent regulatory body, showing how the informal institutions guide what has to be approved by bureau heads, regardless of the formal policy. In addition to the demonstrated potential of DSM to overcome the problem of seed distribution inefficiency, strategic management of the stakeholders' process was critical in expanding the area under the pilot. Many actors, including the executives, supported the expansion of DSM to many areas.

Despite the expansion of DSM, its demonstrated potential to overcome the problem of seed supply inefficiency, the support it received from the government officials, and the general policy of market-based approach, the government has not endorsed the use of DSM beyond the pilot. Chapter 5 points out that the government excluded the issue of seed marketing from the seed regulation enacted in 2016, showing that the government has no intention to make seed marketing one of the seed delivery channels in the near future. The major reasons for this are: bureaucrats do not want to contribute to the decision making of DSM because they assume that the government has a strong political interest to remain in seed distribution; bureaucrats need the seed distribution system to achieve the targets set by the government; there is a symbiotic relationship between actors, the extension service as well as seed producers, and the seed distribution system, and so actors want to maintain the distribution system Such institutionalized thinking and practices have created an institutional lock-in that prevents bureaucrats from presenting the recommendation to government officials, thereby leading to non-decision about the future of DSM.

Chapter 6 summarizes the action of actors in affecting policy making and implementation as influenced by two conflicting sets of institutions. The first set relates to market-based thinking versus centralized planning as leading principles for economic development. Both are used as a discourse for promoting economic development and its operationalization, which are shaping how actors view and overcome the problems of the seed sector. This also explains why policies on paper are not implemented and why new initiatives are not formally endorsed. The tension between these divergent institutions has increased because of the dual use of seed by the government: the government has used the seed to both promote economic development and maintain strong political ties with farmers. The second set of conflicting institutions relates to authoritarian versus participatory decision making. On the one hand, is the government practice of authoritative decision-making, where only the input of stakeholders is considered when it fits in with the existing policy direction of the executives. On the other hand, it is common practice to organize stakeholders to contribute to policy making and implementation. The practice of considering the policy input of others only when it fits in with the policy direction of the decision-makers, creates a sense of being forced to accept, increasing the tension between how the government decides and the role of stakeholders.

Given the tension between the conflicting institutions, and circumstances in Ethiopia, this research suggested that choosing one approach over the other will not guarantee the development of the seed sector. There is no guarantee that the outcome of a deliberative policy making process will be a different policy option than the one opted for by one of the actors. However, the co-development of a solution for the shared seed sector problem will guarantee better ownership and thus better implementation than an imposed policy. It is also important to note that deliberative policy making and implementation is not an easy task given the current stakeholders’ landscape and the culture of authoritative decision making. Thus, the change towards deliberative policy making and implementation is not something that emerges overnight: it is a process that matures over time. This calls for the strategic management of a process of change that leads to the transformation of the seed sector into a self-reliant and resilient sector. By identifying the underlying institutions behind the challenges of the seed sector and suggesting options for improvement, this thesis contributes to the debate on how to make the seed sector function better. At a higher level, it also contributes to the debate on policy making and implementation processes in Ethiopia.

Programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia : 2015 Annual report
Walsh, Stephen ; Thijssen, M.H. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-012 ) - 45 p.
seeds - seed production - agroindustrial sector - entrepreneurship - businesses - development - ethiopia - zaden - zaadproductie - agro-industriële sector - ondernemerschap - bedrijven - ontwikkeling - ethiopië
The programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia aims to strengthen the development of a vibrant, market-oriented and pluralistic seed sector in the country, where quality seed of superior varieties is available and affordable for a larger number of farmers, thereby contributing to food security and economic development in Ethiopia. The programme is a joint effort of Bahir Dar University, Haramaya University, Hawassa University, Mekelle University, Oromia Seed Enterprise, the Ethiopian Seed Association and Centre for Development Innovation of Wageningen UR. Partners include governmental organizations at federal, regional and local level, non-governmental organizations, development organizations, and seed businesses operating at different scales. The programme is funded by the Directorate General for International Cooperation through the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Addis Ababa.
Seeds as biosocial commons : an analysis of various practices in India
Patnaik, Archana - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Guido Ruivenkamp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578302 - 166
rice - seeds - plant genetic resources - plant genetics - seed production - seed storage - community development - gender - social environment - india - rural development - rijst - zaden - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantengenetica - zaadproductie - opslag van zaden - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - geslacht (gender) - sociaal milieu - plattelandsontwikkeling

This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities). Therefore, conservation and management of PGRs in the form of seeds are essential for plant breeding, agricultural production and to meet the growing food demand of the increasing population. However, the changed use of PGRs through enclosures and appropriation of the Intellectual Property Rights creates underutilisation of these resources, risking their important societal role. Thus, this research aimed at analysing how the processes of commonisation of PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons emerge in the Indian context.

The research applied an in-depth qualitative research approach using case study method. It focused on four distinct issues of disconnection, collective resistance, strategies of repossession and ability of stakeholders to provide insights broadly into the processes of commonisation of PGRs. Describing the different cases it also establishes whether and how opportunities for commonisation of PGRs as biosocial commons emerge within these contexts. The research analysed four cases where one case reflected on the intellectual commons produced through institutionalisation of PGRs and the other three cases reflected on the bottom-up perspective of commons produced through Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).

The research through its first case, the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a public ex situ genebank, describes the disconnection of PGRs, while through the second case reflects on the collective activity of resistance through management of community seed banks (CSBs) by the Deccan Development Society (DDS). The third and fourth cases involved small, local initiatives; Loka Samabaya Pratisthan (LSP) and Sambhav that fostered collective action for repossession through in situ seed banks. The research used various techniques, such as interviews with respondents, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant observation for primary sources of data, with published and unpublished documents, reports and official websites as secondary sources.

The second chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of disconnection and argues that storing seeds at genebanks disconnects the resources from their biosocial environment. Further, the evaluation of genetic traits within the stored seeds through the scientific intervention at the genebank creates the divide between the resources (seeds) and their informational content. Thus, this chapter concludes that disconnection of seeds from their biosocial environment leads to the creation of exclusive but positive intellectual commons.

The third chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of collective resistance and argues that disconnection of the community from their local food system can generate resistance and collective activity among the community. This chapter finds that the resistance and collective activity further brought in the interaction between the resource and the stakeholders through informal social relations and seed networks.

The fourth chapter of the thesis looks at the issue of strategies of repossession and argues that socio-political and ecological context play an important role in determining the strategy for repossession and commonisation of PGRs which further inhibits or facilitates the production of seeds as biosocial commons.

The fifth chapter of the thesis analyses the ability of stakeholders and finds that apart from institutional rights other factors like the social relations, ideology, negotiations and social identity of a stakeholder determines their ability in accessing the conserved resources.

The overall finding of the research suggests that the informal seed networks in the cases analysed stimulated in establishing the biosocial relations between the stakeholders and the resources. The biosocial relation further led seeds to function as biosocial commons. The research thus proposes that strengthening of these biosocial relations through informal seed networks can lead to the commonisation of the PGRs, especially seeds as biosocial commons in the Indian context.

Seed System Security Assessment in West Nile Sub region
Mastenbroek, A. - \ 2015
Centre for Development Innovation - 58 p.
seeds - food security - nile river - uganda - north africa - seed production - farmers' income - on-farm production - crops - acreage - regional development - supply chain management - zaden - voedselzekerheid - nijl - noord-afrika - zaadproductie - inkomen van landbouwers - productie binnen het landbouwbedrijf - gewassen - oppervlakte (areaal) - regionale ontwikkeling - ketenmanagement
The recommendations focus on the need to increase the availability of and access to quality seeds; improve quality, varietal sustainability and resilience of the seed system; build capacities of key actors to improve on their production and business skills; and address issues of enabling environment in seed security.
Pathways for the developing Myanmar’s seed sector: A scoping study
Broek, J.A. van den; Subedi, A. ; Jongeleen, F. ; Naing Lin Oo, - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten CDI-15-018) - 74
seed production - varieties - seeds - farmers - rural development - markets - farms - agricultural policy - myanmar - south east asia - asia - zaadproductie - rassen (planten) - zaden - boeren - plattelandsontwikkeling - markten - landbouwbedrijven - landbouwbeleid - zuidoost-azië - azië
The study presents an integrated assessment of Myanmar’s seed sector. The study includes information and analyses on regulatory environment for seed production and sales, a characterization of Myanmar’s seed sector with its various seed systems, a landscape of current seed sector interventions; an analysis of three seed value-chains and Myanmar’s seed farm system; as well as business opportunities for the private sector. The report concludes with a number of pathways for developing a vibrant seed sector in which quality seed of superior varieties can be accessed by farmers.
Supporting Local Seed Businesses : A Training Manual for ISSD Uganda
Mastenbroek, A. ; Chebet, A. ; Muwanika, C.T. ; Adong, C.J. ; Okot, F. ; Otim, G. ; Birungi, J. ; Kansiime, M. ; Oyee, P. ; Ninsiima, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 273
seed production - seed development - seed quality - rural development - farming - markets - businesses - small businesses - regional development - training courses - training - agricultural development - uganda - west africa - africa - zaadproductie - zaadontwikkeling - zaadkwaliteit - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw bedrijven - markten - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - regionale ontwikkeling - scholingscursussen - opleiding - landbouwontwikkeling - west-afrika - afrika
The training manual is developed in Uganda to train partner organisations in coaching farmer groups to become sustainable local seed businesses. It introduces the Integrated Seed Sector Development Programme in Uganda and the concept of local seed businesses (LSBs). The manual has 5 modules covering selection, monitoring and sustaining local seed businesses; technically equipping local seed businesses, professionally organising LSBs; orienting LSBs to the market and strategically linking them to service providers.
Beter zaad voor Afrika
Boo, M. de; Thijssen, M.H. - \ 2014
WageningenWorld (2014)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 28 - 31.
kwaliteit - zaden - plantenvermeerdering - rassen (planten) - zaadproductie - zaadkwaliteit - overheid - afrika - tuinbouw - plantenveredeling - pootknollen - geografische rassen - quality - seeds - propagation - varieties - seed production - seed quality - public authorities - africa - horticulture - plant breeding - seed tubers - geographical races
Veel Afrikaanse boeren blijven verstoken van goed zaai- en pootgoed. Nationale overheden en bedrijven kunnen niet aan de vraag voldoen. Het Centre for Development Innovation in Wageningen werkt met boerengroepen om lokaal beter zaaizaad op de markt te brengen.
Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas
Rietberg, P.I. ; Gevers, H. ; Hospes, O. - \ 2014
The Hague : Cordaid - 45
zaaizaadindustrie - zaadproductie - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - streekgebonden producten - voedselveiligheid - kleine landbouwbedrijven - regelingen - richtlijnen (guidelines) - seed industry - seed production - development cooperation - regional specialty products - food safety - small farms - regulations - guidelines
Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food security. There is, however, considerable debate about the most appropriate type and strategic level of intervention to enhance smallholders’ seed security in conflict and post-conflict areas. Given the co-existence of different types of interventions and agencies directed at providing seed security, the governance of seed security has become very relevant, questioning what collaborative arrangements between government, business and civil society can help to effectively address seed insecurity. Donors and development practitioners often prefer certified or improved seed to seed from the informal sector. However, farmers’ evaluation criteria can differ from criteria developed by breeders or those setting seed certification standards, and the agro-ecological conditions under which varieties are selected may differ from those on-farm, thus affecting crop performance.
Protocol voor oogsten en schonen van Zeekraal
Blom, M. ; Visser, W. de - \ 2014
salicornia - zaadproductie - vermeerderingsmateriaal - protocollen - vollegrondsgroenten - zoutwaterlandbouw - seed production - propagation materials - protocols - field vegetables - saline agriculture
Informatieve poster. Voor het oogsten en winnen van schoon zaad is een stap-voor-stap protocol ontwikkeld.
Toepassingsmogelijkheden van herbiciden in de bloemzaadteelt 2012
Vlaswinkel, M.E.T. - \ 2013
Lelystad : PPO AGV
bloementeelt - zaadproductie - zaadgewassen - onkruidbestrijding - herbiciden - herbicidenmengsels - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - vollegrondsteelt - proefvelden - zeeuwse eilanden - floriculture - seed production - seed crops - weed control - herbicides - herbicide mixtures - authorisation of pesticides - outdoor cropping - experimental plots
Eén van de grootste knelpunten in de bloemzaadteelt vormt de onkruidbestrijding. Zonder een goede onkruidbestrijding is de teelt veelal gedoemd te mislukken. Reeds gedurende een aantal jaren wordt er onderzoek verricht naar de toepassingsmogelijkheden van herbiciden in de bloemzaadteelt. In 2012 is onderzoek uitgevoerd middels een proef te St.- Annaland. In een screeningsproef zijn 53 gewassen en 24 herbiciden of combinaties hiervan bekeken.
Analysing seed systems performance: the case of oil palm in Bénin
Akpo, E. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik; D.K. Kossou; R.C. Tossou, co-promotor(en): Todd Crane. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738097 - 201
elaeis guineensis - oliepalmen - zaadproductie - zaden - vasteplantenkwekerijen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - boeren - benin - oil palms - seed production - seeds - perennial nurseries - small farms - farmers

Key words: Bénin, genetic quality, growth dynamics, innovation, institutions, multistakeholders

process, oil palm, perennials, physiological quality, pot size, seed quality, seed

systems, smallholders, social learning.

The seed supply system used by smallholder farmers is characterised by many dysfunctions.

For perennials, including oil palm, there is a knowledge gap regarding these dysfunctions. In

this thesis, we used oil palm as a case to analyse the performance of seed systems. We

conducted social surveys, sampled farmers’ oil palm plots, ran field experiments and

documented the social learning process of stakeholders involved.

To identify major constraints in the seed system, we conducted a diagnostic study

using farmers’ perspective. Jointly with stakeholders the following major constraints were

identified (in order of importance): poor geographic distribution of official nurseries, poor

genetic quality of palms in smallholder plots, high costs of hybrid seedlings, and poor

seedling care in nurseries leading to poor physiological quality. The poor care was

specifically mentioned in the eastern part of the study area.

We investigated the reliability of genetic quality of seedlings supplied to smallholder

farmers as one of the constraints that emerged from the diagnostic study. Main drivers of

reliability in genetic quality over the past decades were analysed. Using event ecology

approach, we document the historical events that may have affected the oil palm seed system.

Proportions of hybrid palms varied with seedling supply source, farmers’ geographic position,

seedling purchase price and year of planting. Socio-institutional mechanisms associated with

observed variation in smallholder plantations were national policy change, local arrangements

for seedling supply to smallholder farmers, and farmers’ personal characteristics. Local

arrangements improved genetic quality in villages located far away from official supply

sources. Villages where local seedling supply initiatives withdrew showed reduced genetic

quality with farmers having fewer tenera in their fields than before. Membership of farmers’

organisation correlated positively with proportion of tenera. Farmer’s use of informal

intermediaries showed negative effects on genetic quality they received.

To evaluate the efficacy of on-going nursery management practices on the seedling

phenotype at planting we conducted joint learning experiments. In two full 3 × 4 × 3 factorial

experiments, bag size (small, medium, large), type of soil substrate ("forest" soil, household

waste substrate, arable soil, and arable soil with animal manure) and fertiliser supply (no

fertilisation, split dose every 15 days, and full dose every 30 days) were tested for their effects

on seedling phenotype. Bag size proved the main factor determining oil palm seedling

phenotype in both the 2011 and 2012 experiment. Although large-sized bags produced largest

seedlings, medium-sized bags filled with a mixture of arable soil and animal manure without

any fertiliser supply sustained seedling growth well and seemed the best balance between

physiological quality and production cost. Growth variables were highly correlated. Height

and root-collar diameter constituted good proxies to estimate seedling biomass differences

between objects in a non-destructive way.

To gain insight into temporal patterns of effects of bag size, substrate, fertiliser supply,

and their interactions on seedling growth, we analysed the dynamics of oil palm seedling

growth using monthly observations. Overall, in both experiments, bag size explained the

largest proportion of experimental error and started to deviate earlier than substrate, fertiliser

supply or their two and three way interactions. Curve fitting showed different growth models

for height, root-collar diameter and number of leaves. The analysis of growth rates showed

that (relative and absolute) growth rates were mainly affected by bag size in both years with

larger F-values than for substrate, fertiliser supply, and interactions. Experimental findings

indicated that pot size matters and cannot be compensated by fertiliser addition and should

therefore be considered carefully for tree seedling production in nurseries.

We analysed the joint experiment as a multi-stakeholder process and contributed to

understand how the way of organising social learning affects stakeholders’ ownership of

process outcomes. Stakeholders’ perceptions of seedling quality and their appreciation of

treatment performance varied with the use they make of planting material. While farmers, as

end-users, put forward seedling vigour when describing quality seedlings, nursery holders

underlined production costs and reported that seedling quality is a compromise with

production costs. Field observations further to the joint experiment indicated changes in

practices among nursery holders, research, and farmers. The level of stakeholders’

involvement increased their participation, ownership of the learning process, and could lead to

sustainable practices.

The research approach developed in this thesis to analyse seed systems performance

contributed to the methodology for seed systems analysis. It also contributed to knowledge of

dysfunctions of seed systems for perennials, tree nursery seedling production and social

learning processes.

Vegetable breeding innovation in China and the Netherlands : a study at sectoral, company and project level
Liu, Z. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta; Hans Dons, co-promotor(en): Maarten Jongsma; C.C. Huang. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736536 - 167
zaden - zaadproductie - voedselproductie - groenten - vermeerderingsmateriaal - plantenveredeling - innovaties - productontwikkeling - duurzame landbouw - china - nederland - seeds - seed production - food production - vegetables - propagation materials - plant breeding - innovations - product development - sustainable agriculture - netherlands
The seed business plays a crucial role at the basis of the food supply chain, and companies which are active in plant breeding and production and sales of seeds are embedded in a competitive environment. They continuously face challenges to develop higher yielding varieties with better or new qualities, optimized for sustainable production under a wide variety of growing conditions. To meet those challenges innovation through R&D is extremely important. For this study, I chose the vegetable breeding industry as the subject of this research and focused on two similar business sectors in two different parts of the world, China and the Netherlands.
Pesticides, pollination and native bees : Experiences from Brazil, Kenya and the Netherlands (policy brief)
Koomen, I. - \ 2013
Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR
bestuivers (dieren) - gewassen - zaadproductie - honingbijen - bombus - insecticiden - klimaatverandering - destructie - habitatdegradatie - risicofactoren - bewustzijn (awareness) - kenya - nederland - brazilië - projecten - pollinators - crops - seed production - honey bees - insecticides - climatic change - destruction - habitat degradation - risk factors - awareness - netherlands - brazil - projects
Pollinators contribute greatly to food security. Effective pollination results in increased crop production, commodity quality and greater seed production. Many fruits, vegetables, edible oil crops, stimulant crops and nuts are highly dependent on bee pollination. Even where honey bees or bumble bees are used to pollinate high value crops, concurrence of native bees, both social and solitary species, increases yield and quality of those crops. A serious threat to this essential pollination service is the increasing evidence of a global decline in insect pollinators, both native and managed. Various causes for this decline have been identified, including loss, destruction and degradation of habitats; reduced genetic diversity of nectar plants; pests and pathogens; competition by introduced pollinators; climate change; and pesticide use – all individually or in concert, potentially causing direct and indirect adverse effects on pollinator populations.
Groentenzaad voorziening in Suriname
Everaarts, A.P. ; Doelahasori, E. ; Kromokardi, R. ; Dipotaroeno, M. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Applied Plant Research - 22
zaadproductie - groenten - rassen (planten) - zaden - zaaizaadindustrie - suriname - seed production - vegetables - varieties - seeds - seed industry
In mei 2012 is een verkenning uitgevoerd van de voorziening van groentezaden in Suriname. Zaden voor de groenteteelt in Suriname kunnen lokaal worden geproduceerd of de zaden worden door bedrijven of particulieren geïmporteerd. De eigen zaadproductie is kleinschalig en voor eigen gebruik. Het betreft vooral groentegewassen die van belang zijn voor de export van groenten. Contacten met buitenlandse zaadbedrijven voor de import van groentezaad door agrarische handelsbedrijven komen veelal tot stand via internet. Telers en andere particulieren brengen van buitenlandse reizen zaden mee voor de teelt in Suriname. Er bestaat geen systematische import en toetsing van alle potentieel voor Suriname geschikte groenterassen. Er worden aanbevelingen gedaan voor het professionaliseren van de Surinaamse zaadgoedsector.
Farm seed opportunities : conservation, breeding and production
Kik, C. ; Louwaars, N.P. ; Burg, W.J. van der; Almekinders, C.J.M. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Centre for Genetic Resources - 25
genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - zaadproductie - vermeerderingsmateriaal - plantenveredeling - genetische diversiteit - conservering - in-situ conservering - plant genetic resources - seed production - propagation materials - plant breeding - genetic diversity - conservation - in situ conservation
Farm Seed Opportunities (FSO), a research project in the FP6 European Research Framework (2007-2009), was targeted to support the implementation of seed regulations on conservation varieties (directive 98/95/EC and new directives 2008/62/EC and 2009/145/CE) and to propose complementary seed regulation scenarios taking into account the diversity of the European seed systems. The FSO project is a collaborative effort of farmers and scientists from France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This publication highlights the main FSO conclusions and presents FSO policy recommendations.
Seed Systems and Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Louwaars, N.P. ; Coent, P. le; Osborn, T. - \ 2011
Rome, Italy : FAO - 24
zaadproductie - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - beleid - wetgeving - Nederland - seed production - plant genetic resources - plant breeding - breeders' rights - policy - legislation - Netherlands
This report examines the role of seed and seed systems in the conservation and the use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. It focuses on developments since the publication of the first report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.
Xcc besmetting Brassica zaad. Hoe raakt Brassica zaad besmet met Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris?
Wolf, J.M. van der; Zouwen, P.S. van der - \ 2011
zaadproductie - brassica - vollegrondsteelt - xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - zaadbesmetting - seed production - outdoor cropping - seed contamination
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie over Xcc-bemetting tijdens de zaadproductie van Brassica.
Het onderzoek in 2010
Groot, S.P.C. ; Scholten, O.E. ; Raaijmakers, M. - \ 2010
Wageningen [etc.] : Wageningen UR etc. (BioKennis bericht. Uitgangsmateriaal en veredeling 1 (aug. 2010)) - 4
akkerbouw - zaadproductie - koolsoorten - penen - pompoenen - aardappelen - uien - preien - lupinen - biologische plantenveredeling - vollegrondsgroenten - kiemkracht - arable farming - seed production - cabbages - carrots - pumpkins - potatoes - onions - leeks - lupins - organic plant breeding - field vegetables - germinability
Biologische telers zijn verplicht biologisch uitgangsmateriaal te gebruiken, maar daarvan is niet altijd voldoende beschikbaar. Onderzoek op het gebied van uitgangsmateriaal, gerichte veredeling en samenwerking in de keten moeten het aanbod en het gebruik van biologisch uitgangsmateriaal stimuleren. Dit bioKennisbericht geeft een tussenstand van de lopende onderzoeksprojecten.
PhD project: Productiviteit van de mosselkweekcyclus in de Waddenzee. Introductie en verkenning data van Mei 2009 tot Februari 2010
Capelle, J. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. - \ 2010
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C084/10) - 47
mossels - mosselteelt - onderzoek - groei - overleving - dierlijke productie - zaadproductie - mussels - mussel culture - research - growth - survival - animal production - seed production
Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de methodiek en een verkenning van de resultaten van bemonsteringen die zijn uitgevoerd tijdens het eerste jaar voor het PhD project: “de productiviteit van de mosselkweek cyclus in de Waddenzee”. Als onderdeel van dit project zijn mosselen gevolgd van zaad tot veiling. Hiertoe zijn op percelen in de Waddenzee vier maal per jaar metingen verricht aan deze mosselen. Een ruimtelijke indeling op basis van de relatieve Theoretische Productie Waarde (TPW) van de percelen lijkt een goede indicator te zijn voor verschillen in groei en overleving. In de discussie en conclusie worden aanbevelingen gedaan voor nader onderzoek. Het onderzoek zoals het in dit rapport wordt beschreven zal nog twee jaar doorlopen.
Peenrassendemo 2009 : vergelijking B-peenrassen voor de biologische teelt
Berg, C. ter; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2010
[S.l.] : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie LT 32) - 19
rassen (planten) - penen - biologische landbouw - zaadproductie - smaak - biologische voedingsmiddelen - vollegrondsteelt - varieties - carrots - organic farming - seed production - taste - organic foods - outdoor cropping
De resultaten van deze rassendemo zijn tijdens een demomiddag besproken met de telers en de zaadfirma’s met het doel om te kijken of er op korte termijn een geschikt assortiment is te realiseren, of waar er nog specifieke eisen aan deze rassen ontbreken. Met de uitkomsten kunnen zaadbedrijven gerichter werken om een adequaat en sluitend assortiment met biologisch vermeerderde peenrassen te realiseren, en daarmee de kans te vergroten om peen op de nationale annex te krijgen
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