Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A comprehensive assessment of agriculture in lowlands of south Brazil: characterization and comparison of current and alternative concepts
Theisen, Giovani - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Niels Anten, co-promotor(en): Lammert Bastiaans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436380 - 234
cropping systems - farming systems - crop management - lowland areas - wetlands - pampas - brazil - intensification - sustainability - productivity - indicators - soil management - rice - flooded rice - oryza sativa - maize - zea mays - glycine max - cover crops - livestock - rotation - mixed farming - seedbed preparation - farm machinery - teeltsystemen - bedrijfssystemen - gewasteelt - laaglandgebieden - pampa's - brazilië - intensivering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - productiviteit - indicatoren - bodembeheer - rijst - natte rijst - maïs - dekgewassen - vee - rotatie - gemengde landbouw - zaaibedbereiding - landbouwwerktuigen

Agriculture in the lowlands of south Brazil is of strategic importance at the national level, since it supplies around 80% of the rice consumed by the Brazilian population. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state in Brazil, three million hectares of lowlands are ready for grain-based agriculture. Of this area, about half is fallow, partly used for cattle grazing, and irrigated rice is the predominant crop, cultivated annually on 1.1 million ha. The remaining area is used for soybean and other crops. The predominant cropping system is a combination of irrigated rice and cattle. Over the last decades, rice yields have steadily increased, but this rise in yield level has to a large extent been obtained at the expense of a continuously higher use of external inputs. The recent introduction of soybean in rotation with rice has partially improved the system, but in most areas the situation is becoming incompatible with the modern demands for sustainability. This thesis presents a long-term study (2006-2015) of five cropping systems for lowlands. Next to monocrop rice and two rice-soybean rotations conducted in either conventional or minimum tillage, the experiment contained two novel systems based on large ridges, on which soybean and maize were combined with either cover crops or crop-livestock integration in winter. In these last systems, 8-m-wide ridges were built to avoid flooding, thus allowing for diversification of cash crops and the cultivation of cover crops or pastures in winter time, as well as the use of no-tillage. All systems were evaluated at process-level, including soil preparation, seeding, plant nutrition, pest management, irrigation, harvesting, transport and cattle management, as well as regarding their performance for the different dimensions of sustainability, particularly environment, land productivity, economics, energy-use and labour. Next to system assessment, two additional experiments were conducted for the evaluation of two specific technologies for soil management in these areas. Crop livestock integration on the ridge-based system offered the best balance between food production, environmental impact and economics. This system is well suited to be used in fields that are kept fallow, thereby enlarging the agricultural productivity of the lowlands. The additional experiments revealed that a knife-roller can successfully substitute plough-and-harrow for soil preparation after rice harvest, and that germination of weed seeds can be reduced if crop seeding is conducted at a lower speed or using a no-tillage seeder equipped with an improved cutting mechanism. Overall the results show that by using alternative cropping systems that allow for diversification and new methods of field management it is possible to simultaneously attain a larger agricultural production and improved sustainability in the lowlands.

Duurzaam bodembeheer maïs : Maïs en Bodem jaarrapport 2016
Riemens, Marleen ; Huiting, Hilfred ; Deru, Joachim ; Schooten, Herman van; Weide, Rommie van der - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research (Wageningen Plant Research rapport 731) - 61
maïs - zea mays - bodembeheer - ruwvoer (forage) - akkerbouw - maize - soil management - forage - arable farming
Hoe kunnen veetelers met minder input meer resultaten halen bij snijmaïsteelt? Dat is de centrale vraag van het project “Duurzaam bodembeheer maïs” (BO-31.03-001-003). Veel melkveehouderijbedrijven telen snijmaïs, een gemakkelijk te telen ruwvoergewas met een goede productie van constante hoge kwaliteit. Als zetmeelbron met een ruime energie/eiwitverhouding past het goed in het runderdieet, naast gras en graskuil. De maïsteelt kan echter nadelige effecten hebben voor de bodem door gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en het uit- en afspoelen van nutriënten. Wageningen UR en het Louis Bolk Instituut onderzoeken in opdracht van het ministerie van EZ duurzame en praktisch haalbare verbeteringen en vernieuwingen. Teeltsystemen die zorgen voor een gezonde bodem worden daarbij gezien als sleutel tot duurzame teelt. Op drie locaties worden diverse teeltsystemen vergeleken in meerjarige proeven uitgevoerd op zand- en kleigrond. Daarbij wordt onder andere gekeken naar opbrengst, onkruiddruk, bodemstructuur, aanwezigheid van regenwormen, indringingsweerstand, waterinfiltratie, stikstofdynamiek en economische aspecten. Deze kennis wordt vervolgens doorgegeven aan de praktijk middels o.a. de beslisboom snijmaïs, een instrument om praktische kennis naar veetelers en erfbezoekers te brengen. De resultaten uit het vijfde projectjaar (2016) worden in deze rapportage beschreven. Onderstaande paragrafen geven eerst per proeflocatie een korte samenvatting van de bevindingen van 2016.
Effect onkruidbestrijdingsstrategieën op de opbrengstreductie van snijmaïs : Resultaten van een éénjarige veldproef in 2016
Huiting, H.F. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2017
Lelystad : Wageningen Plant Research - 25 p.
zea mays - maïs - onkruiden - onkruidbestrijding - herbiciden - experimenteel veldonderzoek - nederland - maize - weeds - weed control - herbicides - field experimentation - netherlands
On yield gains and yield gaps in wheat-maize intercropping : opportunities for sustainable increases in grain production
Gou, Fang - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Wopke van der Werf. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579811 - 202
zea mays - triticum - intercropping - crop yield - grain crops - crop production - models - photosynthesis - tussenteelt - gewasopbrengst - graangewassen - gewasproductie - modellen - fotosynthese

Intercropping is the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, while relay intercropping means that the growing periods of the crop species are only partially overlapping. Intercropping has advantages with respect to productivity, resource capture, build-up of soil organic matter, and pest and disease suppression. This thesis aims to quantify and explain the yield advantages in wheat-maize relay intercropping and to assess the importance of intercropping for food production and land use efficiency.

Wheat-maize intercropping had land equivalent ratios around or above one in two experiments in the Netherlands. Wheat in border rows showed major yield increases, and this yield increase was due to increases in the number of tillers per plant and the number of kernels per ear. The yield advantage of intercropped wheat was associated with a high radiation interception and radiation use efficiency (RUE). Under Dutch growing conditions, maize performance in the intercrop was constrained. Intercropping had a negative effect on the yield per plant and radiation use efficiency of maize. A strip intercrop model was developed, parameterized and tested with data on wheat-maize intercropping in the Netherlands. The model simulates radiation interception and growth in relay-strip intercrops with two species in different planting configurations. The model also allows simulating the consequences of border row effects for total system productivity. Bayesian analysis was applied to calibrate radiation use efficiency of wheat and maize in sole crops and intercrop. Intercropped wheat had higher a RUE than sole wheat, while intercropped maize had a lower RUE than sole maize. Intercropped maize had less favourable leaf traits (e.g. nitrogen content) during the flowering stage than sole maize in 2014, but the leaves in the intercrop had a higher photosynthetic rate than those in the sole crop. Possible explanations for this finding include differences between sole and mixed crops in water acquisition from soil, light distribution in the canopy, nitrogen distribution within the leaf and the contribution of the ear leaf to the growth of the cob. The low radiation use efficiency in intercropped maize may relate to nitrogen deficiency during grain filling. New concepts for potential yield, yield gain and yield gap in intercropping were developed in this thesis. Using crop model simulations and farm survey data, those concepts were operationalized in the context of wheat and maize production in an oasis area (Zhangye city) in northwest China. Wheat-maize intercropping resulted in substantial yield gains under potential and actual growing conditions. A comparison of potential and actual yields indicated a yield gap of 33% for sole wheat, 49% for sole maize, 15% for intercropped wheat, and 51% for intercropped maize. The land use analysis showed that discontinuing the use of intercropping in this region will decrease grain production substantially.

Overall, this thesis studied the growth and productivity of wheat-maize intercropping at organ, plant and cropping system level, and also assessed its contribution to grain production at a regional level. The findings suggest that intercropping of food crops provides opportunities to meet increasing food demands. New technologies are needed to make strip intercropping efficient in terms of labour use and breeding should pay attention to cultivars that are suitable for intercropping.

Mais en bodem rapport 2015
Riemens, M.M. ; Huiting, H.F. ; Deru, J.G.C. ; Schooten, H.A. van; Weide, R.Y. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen Plant Research - 76 p.
zea mays - maïs - bodem - bodembeheer - teeltsystemen - maize - soil - soil management - cropping systems
Hoe kunnen veetelers met minder input meer resultaten halen bij snijmaïsteelt? Dat is de centrale vraag van het project “Duurzaam bodembeheer maïs” (BO-31.03-001-003). Veel melkveehouderijbedrijven telen snijmaïs, een gemakkelijk te telen ruwvoergewas met een goede productie van constante hoge kwaliteit. Als zetmeelbron met een ruime energie/eiwitverhouding past het goed in het runderdieet, naast gras en graskuil. De maïsteelt kan echter nadelige effecten hebben voor de bodem door gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en het uit- en afspoelen van nutriënten. Wageningen UR en het Louis Bolk Instituut onderzoeken in opdracht van het ministerie van EZ duurzame en praktisch haalbare verbeteringen en vernieuwingen. Teeltsystemen die zorgen voor een gezonde bodem worden daarbij gezien als sleutel tot duurzame teelt. Op drie locaties worden diverse teeltsystemen vergeleken in meerjarige proeven uitgevoerd op zand- en kleigrond. Daarbij wordt onder andere gekeken naar opbrengst, onkruiddruk, bodemstructuur, aanwezigheid van regenwormen, indringingsweerstand, waterinfiltratie, stikstofdynamiek en economische aspecten. Deze kennis wordt vervolgens doorgegeven aan de praktijk middels o.a. de beslisboom snijmaïs, een instrument om praktische kennis naar veetelers en erfbezoekers te brengen.
The use of Eucalyptus in agroforestry systems of southern Rwanda : to integrate of segregate
Mugunga, C. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren; Ken Giller. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577534 - 162 p.
eucalyptus - agroforestry - eucalyptus saligna - zea mays - agroforestry systems - rotations - water use - rwanda - agroforestrysystemen - rotaties - watergebruik
Variation in phosphorus acquisition efficiency among maize varieties as related to mycorrhizal functioning
Wang, X.X. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper; Ellis Hoffland, co-promotor(en): G. Feng. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577985 - 168 p.
zea mays - mycorrhizas - maize - phosphorus - nutrient use efficiency - vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas - nutrient uptake - varieties - mycorrhizae - maïs - fosfor - nutriëntengebruiksefficiëntie - vesiculair-arbusculaire mycorrhizae - voedingsstoffenopname (planten) - rassen (planten)

Phosphorus (P) is a main limiting factor for agricultural production, but overusing P fertilizer has brought serious environmental damages in China. Improving P acquisition efficiency of agricultural crops is an urgent topic. It has been proven repeatedly that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and genetic diversity within one crop plant can play important roles in P uptake by crops. The main objective of this thesis was to understand the role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in P acquisition efficiency of different maize varieties. The specific objectives were to test: 1) how P uptake by maize varieties responds to colonization by the native AMF community in the field; and 2) whether AMF hyphae take up P for plants from phytate which is the most abundant organic P form in soil; 3) whether mixing maize cultivars can improve maize productivity and whether AMF can play a role in this system; and 4) how AMF species (or community) legacy affects successional maize growth. In this thesis, I combined field experiments and greenhouse experiments and made use of maize genetic diversity and (native) AMF to improve P (including inorganic and organic P) acquisition.

The effects of one single AMF species on maize growth and nutrient uptake have been well studied, but how maize varieties respond to the native AMF community has been insufficiently studied. In Chapter 2, I focused on how maize varieties responded to the native AMF community by using rotated cores in the field, to compare mycorrhizal responsiveness among 20 maize varieties and the difference of the AMF native community of four maize varieties (two old landraces and two modern hybrids). The results indicated that, 1) increased P fertilizer significantly reduced mycorrhizal responsiveness in the field; 2) a complicated relationship exists between mycorrhizal responsiveness in the field and pot experiment; 3) there was no significant difference between old and modern maize varieties in terms of mycorrhizal responsiveness and colonization; 4) there were only small differences in AMF community composition among the four maize varieties. By comparing mycorrhizal responsiveness of maize varieties between in the pot experiment and in the field experiment (with in-growth cores), I found mycorrhizal responsiveness of maize varieties in the pot experiment was significantly larger than that in the field experiment. Thus, mycorrhizal responsiveness of varieties within one cereal plant species tested classically in pots may not present their realistically mycorrhizal responsiveness in field.

Phytate is the most abundant form of organic P in soil. To explore the potential of phytate utilization by plants is agriculturally and environmentally essential. Increased P nutrition of mycorrhizal plants derived from phytate has been reported, indicating that phytate can be a potential P source. However, earlier studies assessed phytate use by using acid phosphatase rather than phytase, and did not consider that phytate adsorption could lead to phosphate release. Thus, I investigated the effect of mycorrhizal hyphae-mediated phytase activity on P uptake by maize in Chapter 3. I conducted a rhizobox experiment to explore phytate use by mycorrhizal hyphae for two maize varieties. The results showed that: 1) phytate addition increased phytase and acid phosphatase activity, and resulted in increased P uptake and plant biomass; 2) the increase in P uptake and biomass were correlated with the increase of phytase activity but not with the increase of acid phosphatase activity; 3) lower phytate addition rate increased, but higher addition rates decreased hyphal length density. I conclude that P from phytate can be used by mycorrhizal plants, but that the phytate contribution to plant nutrition is likely limited. Phytase activity is a more relevant indicator to assess phytate use. In addition, there was a significant interaction between maize varieties and AMF species in taking up P from phytate, which implies there is a possibility to combine different maize varieties to increase total yield using phytate. Besides, I used an empirical relationship to assess phosphate release due to phytate addition. My calculation implies that phosphate desorption cannot be ignored when assessing phytate use, particularly when a large amount of phytate is applied as a P source.

In multispecies natural ecosystems, AMF can play a key role in enhancing plant productivity. However, their role in enhancing crop productivity in mixed cropping systems is still poorly understood. In Chapter 4, I conducted both greenhouse and field experiments to investigate whether mixing maize varieties with different P acquisition strategies could lead to overyielding, and what roles AMF play in this system with two maize varieties. The results showed that mixing maize varieties resulted in overyielding, both in P uptake and shoot biomass, but only when plants were mycorrhizal. At the same time, I found higher hyphal length density and higher AMF diversity in mixtures compared to the monocultures in the field experiment, and higher colonization rate and higher hyphal length density in mixtures in the pot experiment. Thus, I propose that overyielding by mixing maize varieties might be due to increased mycorrhizal performance leading to more P uptake. I also used the partitioning formula to calculate the contribution through the selection effect and complementarity effect to overyielding. I found that the increase of the total yield and P uptake in mixtures was largely due to complementarity effect, implying that relative overyielding and enhanced P uptake were not due to enhanced competitive ability by the larger variety. The results of Chapter 4 suggest that mixing mycorrhizal maize varieties might be beneficial for enhancing productivity and P uptake efficiency.

Plant - soil feedback experiments have shown that AMF can play a crucial role in determining the direction and magnitude of that feedback. Most studies investigated plant - soil feedback dynamics between different plant species. However, it is unknown to what extent one variety of an agricultural crop can affect the performance of another variety of that same crop through plant - soil feedback. In Chapter 5, I carried out a two-phase experiment in a greenhouse, including conditioning phase and test phase to determine plant - soil feedbacks in the absence and presence of AMF species or community, to test the effects of AMF on feedback dynamics. The results in Chapter 5 showed that: 1) in the conditioning phase, both maize varieties were differentially influenced by different AMF species compared to non-mycorrhizal control; 2) in the feedback phase, non-mycorrhizal maize exhibited negative feedback dynamics for biomass and P-uptake; 3) on the feedback phase, mycorrhizal maize generally exhibited positive feedback dynamics for biomass and P-uptake. The interaction coefficient was largest with the mixture of three different AMF species. The interaction coefficient for shoot and P uptake were significantly correlated with the coefficient for mycorrhizal colonization. These results imply that different maize varieties are affected differently by different AMF species, thereby influencing the productivity of the subsequent maize variety. The results also raise questions how AMF influence rhizosphere biota and how maize varieties may select more beneficial AMF.

In Chapter 6, I integrate the results from previous chapters. I discuss possible relationships between (negative) plant - soil feedback effect (due to pathogen) and the mycorrhizal effect on overyielding and improved P uptake due to mixing maize varieties (compared to the monoculture). I also discuss the linkage between phosphorus acquisition efficiency and mycorrhizal responsiveness within one crop species, and the relationship between plant genetic diversity and plant - soil feedback effects, and try to come up with a conceptual model how mixing maize varieties in the presence of AMF could be beneficial.

Grondig boeren met maïs in Drenthe: eindverslag project periode 2012-2015
Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Schans, D.A. van der; Schooten, H.A. van; Groten, J. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 94
zea mays - maïs - drenthe - duurzame landbouw - duurzaam bodemgebruik - duurzame ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - systeeminnovatie - innovaties - onderzoeksimplementatie - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - maize - sustainable agriculture - sustainable land use - sustainable development - rural development - system innovation - innovations - implementation of research - demonstration farms
De duurzaamheid van agroproductie in Nederland staat onder toenemende belangstelling. Duurzaamheid wordt niet alleen meer gezien als een ecologisch en sociaal-economisch aspect van agroproductie maar ook steeds meer als unique selling point. De duurzaamheid van de maïsteelt in Nederland staat onder druk en de noodzaak om een flinke stap te zetten naar meer duurzaamheid is groot. Inmiddels worden steeds meer duurzaamheidsproblemen geassocieerd met de huidige maïsteelt, zoals uit- en afspoeling van nutriënten, een slechte bodemstructuur, lager wordende gehaltes aan organische stof in de bodem, achteruitgaande bodembiodiversiteit, toenemende druk van ziekten en plagen en productie van broeikasgassen als lachgas. Op de langere termijn zal dit niet houdbaar blijken te zijn. Om deze problemen de baas te worden is een stap nodig naar een ander, innovatief teeltsysteem dat genoemde problemen niet heeft en daardoor de maïssector een substantiële stap op het pad naar meer duurzaamheid te zetten. Dit nieuwe teeltsysteem bestaat uit een vruchtwisseling met gras, een geslaagde nateelt en een maïs met kortere groeiduur die de nateelt ondersteunt aangevuld met innovaties als niet-kerende grondbewerking en aangepaste teeltwijze. Dit nieuwe teeltsysteem geeft het gebruikelijke rendement als de huidige teeltwijze, maar draagt bij aan 1) een beter bodemkwaliteit en structuur met een geleidelijk hoger wordend organisch stofgehalte (koolstof vastlegging) en een lager wordende uitstoot van overige broeikasgassen (lachgas) 2) vermindering van de ziektedruk door bodem- en gewasgebonden ziekten, plagen en onkruiden 3) een hogere bodembiodiversiteit en 4) vermindering van de uit- en afspoeling van nutriënten naar het grond- en oppervlaktewater. 5) Een rendabele teeltwijze ook na aanscherping van mineralen gebruiksnormen. Dit teeltsysteem is in onderzoek nu zo ver ontwikkeld dat implementatie in de praktijk mogelijk is. Voor de provincie Drenthe is daarom een demonstratieproject ontwikkeld onder de titel “Grondig Boeren met Maïs”. In dit project zullen de projectpartners Agrifirm en Wageningen UR een tweetal demonstratiepercelen in de praktijk aanleggen waarin verschillende systeemvarianten getoond worden samen met relevante deelinnovaties. De demonstraties worden ondersteund met waarnemingen om de beoogde milieueffecten aan te tonen. Via zomer- en winterbijeenkomsten worden maïstelers en loonwerkers uitgenodigd mee te denken. Een communicatieplan zal er zorg voor dragen dat inzicht, kennis en kunde over dit nieuwe teeltsysteem ingebed wordt in de Drentse maïspraktijk.
Handboek snijmaïs
Schooten, H.A. van; Philipsen, A.P. ; Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Handboek / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 27) - 199 p.
voederkwaliteit - maïs - voedergewassen - maïskuilvoer - zea mays - rassen (planten) - rassenlijsten - teeltsystemen - teelt - plantenvoeding - bemesting - rentabiliteit - melkveehouderij - akkerbouw - forage quality - maize - fodder crops - maize silage - varieties - descriptive list of varieties - cropping systems - cultivation - plant nutrition - fertilizer application - profitability - dairy farming - arable farming
Na gras is snijmaïs het belangrijkste gewas voor de melkveehouderij. Dit handboek beschrijft de actuele stand van zaken over teelt, oogst, voeding en economie van snijmaïs.
Goede snijmaïs telen bij lagere bemestingsnormen
Curth-van Middelkoop, J.C. - \ 2015
zea mays - bemesting - ontwerpberekeningen - organische meststoffen - opbrengsten - fertilizer application - design calculations - organic fertilizers - yields
De flyer geeft advies over het telen van snijmais binnen de strenger geworden gebruiksnormen. Gekeken wordt naar de opbrengsten en het principe van organische mest in de rij.
Handleiding betere mestbenutting
Bussink, D.W. - \ 2015
bemesting - weiden - zea mays - mestgiften - bekalking - voedingsstoffen - dierlijke meststoffen - kunstmeststoffen - opbrengsten - voederkwaliteit - fertilizer application - pastures - dressings - liming - nutrients - animal manures - fertilizers - yields - forage quality
Voor de groei van gras en mais is de juiste (kunst)mestsoort van belang voor een goede groei en ontwikkeling. Deze handleiding gaat hierop in en sluit tevens aan bij de leidraad 'Benut N-meststoffen optimaal, te beginnen in het voorjaar’.
Rassenbulletin ultravroege snijmais 2015
Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2014
zea mays - maïs - rassenlijsten - rassen (planten) - rassenproeven - cultivars - akkerbouw - krachtvoeding - nederland - maize - descriptive list of varieties - varieties - variety trials - arable farming - force feeding - netherlands
Rassenonderzoek ultravroege snijmaïs/kortseizoen krachtvoer maïs (KKM) 2014 :Gemiddelde resultaten over 2011 t/m 2014
Handboek snijmaïs
Schooten, H.A. van; Philipsen, A.P. ; Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Handboek / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 27) - 198
maïs - handboeken - grondbewerking - bemesting - rassenkeuze (gewassen) - zaaien - onkruidbestrijding - plantenplagen - gewasopbrengst - diervoeding - agrarische economie - melkveehouderij - voedergewassen - akkerbouw - teelthandleidingen - maïskuilvoer - zea mays - maize - handbooks - tillage - fertilizer application - choice of varieties - sowing - weed control - plant pests - crop yield - animal nutrition - agricultural economics - dairy farming - fodder crops - arable farming - cultivation manuals - maize silage
Na gras is snijmaïs het belangrijkste gewas voor de melkveehouderij. Een optimale teelt en benutting van dit gewas zijn daarmee van belang voor het rendement van de sector. Een actueel en compleet overzicht van de nieuwste informatie kan daar een belangrijke bijdrage aan leveren. De nieuwe informatie en ontwikkelingen over teelt en gebruik van maïs komen vaak nogal versnipperd en soms beperkt bij de melkveehouders. Dit heeft tot gevolg dat het lastig is voor de gebruiker om de juiste informatie te vinden. Dit handboek beschrijft de actuele stand van zaken over teelt, oogst, voeding en economie van snijmaïs. Jaarlijks wordt het handboek geactualiseerd met de nieuwste informatie.
Vakkundig zaaien vanggewas op maisland loont
Hilhorst, G.J. ; Verloop, J. - \ 2014
V-focus 11 (2014)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 29 - 31.
melkveehouderij - zea mays - akkerbouw - ondergewassen - teeltsystemen - ruwvoer (roughage) - zaaien - dairy farming - arable farming - catch crops - cropping systems - roughage - sowing
In de afgelopen twee jaar heeft ‘Koeien & Kansen’ aandacht besteed aan de verbetering van de teelt van een vanggewas na de oogst van mais, een belangrijk aspect van de ruwvoerteelt op melkveebedrijven. Er is geëxperimenteerd met tegelijkzaai, onderzaai en nazaai. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de voor- en nadelen van de verschillende werkwijzes.
Extreem weer remt opbrengst snijmais
Colenbrander, E. ; Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2014
Melkvee Magazine 13 (2014)2. - p. 32 - 33.
zea mays - weer - gewasopbrengst - maïskuilvoer - bemesting - kalium - dosering - weather - crop yield - maize silage - fertilizer application - potassium - dosage
Een opbrengst van 50 ton per hectare. Een dergelijk resultaat is mogelijk als de weersomstandigheden meezitten. Maar het weer wordt extremer en er dreigt kalitekort. Er is ook goed nieuws: er komen telkens nieuwe rassen, die nog beter scoren in opbrengst en voederwaarde.
Topbodem voor topmais
Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2014
Grondig : vakblad voor de cumelasector, specialisten in groen, grond en infra 9 (2014). - ISSN 2210-3260 - p. 52 - 53.
akkerbouw - maïs - zea mays - maïskuilvoer - organische stof - normen - bemesting - groenbemesters - teeltsystemen - wisselbouw - organische stikstof - arable farming - maize - maize silage - organic matter - standards - fertilizer application - green manures - cropping systems - ley farming - organic nitrogen
De organische-stofbalans van een snijmaïsteelt is negatief en de bemestingsnormen liggen inmiddels onder het landbouwkundige advies. Hierdoor neemt de productiviteit van de grond af en daarmee de potentiële maïsopbrengst. Een deel van de oplossing is de teelt van een goed geslaagde groenbemester na de maïsoogst.
Bemestingsplan verdient meer aandacht
Verloop, J. ; Abbink, G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2014
V-focus 11 (2014)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 32 - 33.
melkveehouderij - mestbehoeftebepaling - graslandbeheer - zea mays - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - dairy farming - fertilizer requirement determination - grassland management - soil fertility management
Resultaten van de KringloopWijzer laten grote verschillen zien in stikstof- en fosfaatopbrengsten, die op verschillende bedrijven worden bereikt in maïs- en grasland. Deels wordt dat veroorzaakt door de manier waarop de bemesting wordt uitgevoerd. Met perceelsgericht bemesten kan de potentie van het land meer worden benut.
Genetics and bioenergy potential of forage maize: deconstructing the cell wall
Torres, A.F. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Luisa Trindade; Oene Dolstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570375 - 202
zea mays - maïs - voedergewassen - plantengenetica - bio-energie - celwanden - bioethanol - bioconversie - industriële grondstoffen - brandstofgewassen - maize - fodder crops - plant genetics - bioenergy - cell walls - bioconversion - feedstocks - fuel crops

Despite gaining prominence in scientific spheres and political agendas worldwide, the production of biofuels from plant biomass is yet to achieve an economic stronghold in the renewable-energy sector. Plant lignocellulose has evolved to resist chemical and enzymatic deconstruction, and its conversion into liquid fuels requires energetically stringent processes that currently render the industry economically and environmentally unviable.

To address this challenge, experts have envisioned the development of advanced bioenergy crops which require lower energetic and chemical inputs for their effective fractionation. At its core, this approach requires an in-depth understanding of the composition, synthesis and breeding amenability of the plant cell wall; the principal constituent of total plant dry biomass and the most recalcitrant fraction of the crop at physiological maturity to deconstruction. To this end, the primary aim of this thesis was to dissect and elucidate the biochemical and genetic factors controlling cell wall characteristics relevant to the development of bioenergy grasses with improved processing quality for cellulosic based fuel production. A focus on maize was warranted as it currently represents the de facto model system for bioenergy crop research; offering an unrivalled platform to underpin the complex genetic architecture of cell wall biosynthesis, develop advanced bioenergy-crop breeding strategies and translate cell wall research into innovations and commercial products.

This thesis exposed that the biomass-to-fuel conversion of crops is a highly complex trait dependent on both, the balance and synergy between multiple cell wall components, and the inherent effectiveness of the conversion technology. Concerning the production of cellulosic ethanol via the combined operations of dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification, our results revealed that the chemical mechanisms affecting biomass conversion efficiency depend on pretreatment severity. Whereas at harsh pretreatments biomass conversion efficiency was primarily influenced by the inherent efficacy of thermochemical cell wall deconstruction, at milder pretreatments, maximum fermentable glucose release was observed for maize genotypes exhibiting systematic cell wall changes leading to higher ruminal cell wall digestibility. These results confirmed that the selection and use of cellulosic feedstocks that best match the processing conditions used in the industry can aid in reaching industrial goals aimed at improving the commercial and environmental performance of cellulosic fuels.

In turn, the exhaustive characterization of a forage maize doubled haploid (DH) population demonstrated the vast degree of genetic diversity in maize cell wall composition and bioconversion potential amenable to breeding. Principally, these findings suggest that natural diversity in the biochemical composition of the maize cell wall and its physical properties is primarily ascribed to variation in the balance, monomeric make-up, and extent of cross-linking of non-cellulosic cell wall polymers (i.e. lignin and hemicellulose). Indeed, correlation analyses confirmed that the extent of enzymatic depolymerization of maize biomass was strongly and negatively associated to the concentration of cell wall phenolics, but positively impacted by the degree of glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) glycosylation and extent of hemicellulose-to-hemicellulose cross-linking. Our results also showed that natural variation in cell wall content and composition is quantitatively inherited and putatively ascribed to the segregation of multiple genetic loci with minor additive effects. In our population, genotypic diversity for cell wall composition and quality was found to be controlled by 52 quantitative trait loci (QTLs). From eight QTLs regulating bioconversion properties, five were previously unidentified and warrant further investigation.

Despite the apparent complexity of cell wall genetics, however, the high heritability and environmentally stability of cell wall compositional and degradability properties guarantee high selection efficacy during the development of superior DH/inbred material, and predispose that multi-environment testing will only be necessary at advanced stages of bioenergy-maize breeding programs. Moreover, because genetic variation for complex cell wall characteristics appears to be predominantly additive, preliminary selection at the inbred level will expectedly lead to successful hybrid selection; thereby minimizing the need for recurrent test-crossing procedures and evaluations. In this regard, maize cell wall bioconversion efficiency constitutes an excellent selection criterion for immediate application in modern maize breeding programs.

Ultimately, the convergence of classical selection schemes with inexpensive genotyping, advanced biometric models, high-throughput cell wall phenotyping and doubled haploid (DH) production technologies can accelerate development and commercial release of maize cultivars for bioenergy applications. To play a determinant role in the development and realization of sustainable and cost-effective cellulosic fuel processing technologies, however, novel dual-purpose maize cultivars (i.e. delivering both, grain for feed or food and fiber materials for bioconversion) will have to surpass the performance in lignocellulose processing quality and biomass yields of the best elite germplasm. These prospects seem realistic as the parallel advance of grain yield and stover productivity and quality characteristics is a feasible undertaking. Conceptually, the advance of superior bioenergy cultivars (surpassing the performance of modern elite material) would allow us to make the currently available biomass-to-fuel conversion systems more cost-effective and sustainable, and may also have favorable consequences for the ideal size and geographical distribution of biofuel refineries.

Water management for rainfed maize in semi-arid Zimbabwe
Nyakudya, I.W. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738981 - 148
waterbeheer - zea mays - regenafhankelijke landbouw - akkerbouw - semi-aride klimaatzones - zimbabwe - grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - water management - rainfed agriculture - arable farming - semiarid zones - conservation tillage
Ontwikkeling bodemvruchtbaarheid op Koeien & Kansen-bedrijven : fosfaat en organische stof
Verloop, J. ; Oenema, J. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Koeien & Kansen (Rapport / Koeien & Kansen nr. 73) - 42
melkveehouderij - bodemvruchtbaarheid - graslandbeheer - zea mays - fosfaten - fosformeststoffen - organische stof - bodemchemie - duurzaam bodemgebruik - teeltsystemen - bodemtypen - dairy farming - soil fertility - grassland management - phosphates - phosphorus fertilizers - organic matter - soil chemistry - sustainable land use - cropping systems - soil types
Op de melkveebedrijven die deelnemen aan het project ‘Koeien & Kansen’ werd onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de ontwikkeling van bodemvruchtbaarheid. Er was behoefte aan dit onderzoek om in beeld te krijgen of de maatregelen, die worden genomen op de bedrijven om de nutriënten (N en P) op efficiënte wijze te benutten, niet strijdig zijn met het behouden of verhogen van de bodemvruchtbaarheid. Een ander motief voor dit onderzoek is dat een goede bodemvruchtbaarheid van belang is als basis voor een efficiënt gebruik van nutriënten. In dit onderzoek is uitsluitend gekeken naar de ontwikkeling van het organisch stofgehalte van de bodem en van de fosfaattoestand, zoals aangegeven door het P-Al getal. Er is een analyse uitgevoerd van de ontwikkeling in de tijd. Dit werd gedaan voor ‘permanente’ graslandpercelen per bodemtype (zand, klei, veen en löss) en voor percelen waar gras en maïs worden afgewisseld.
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