Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Electrical energy from CO2 emissions by direct gas feeding in capacitive cells
Legrand, L. ; Schaetzle, O. ; Tedesco, M. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. - \ 2019
Electrochimica Acta 319 (2019). - ISSN 0013-4686 - p. 264 - 276.
Capacitive cell - Capacitive deionization - CO - Membrane potential - Mixing energy

This work demonstrates the possibility to harvest electrical power from CO2 emissions by feeding CO2 and air gas directly into a capacitive cell. Hamelers et al. previously showed, that the available mixing energy of CO2 emitted into the air can be converted into electricity, but at high energy costs for gas-sparging in the process. In the present work, electrical power is generated by feeding the gas directly into the capacitive cell. We investigated three different cell designs (namely, “conventional”, “flow-by(wire)”, and “flow-by(flat)”), by changing both electrode and cell geometry. The flow-by(flat), inspired from fuel cell design, showed the best performance thanks to a high membrane potential (≈190 mV), which is the highest value so far reported from CO2 and air. A maximum membrane permselectivity between CO2 and air of 90% was obtained, i.e., almost double of values reported in previous studies. On the contrary, the “conventional” cell design gave poor performance due to non-optimal gas flow in the cell. We highlight the importance of water management and internal electrical resistance, to indicate directions for future developments of the technology.

The Lemon Car Game Across Cultures: Evidence of Relational Rationality
Hofstede, G.J. ; Jonker, Catholijn ; Verwaart, T. ; Yorke-Smith, Neil - \ 2019
Group Decision and Negotiation 1 (2019). - ISSN 0926-2644 - 29 p.
Negotiation - Culture - Experimental studies - Power distance - Long-term orientation - Lemon car
In cross-cultural business negotiation, culture is known to influence negotiation processes. As a lens to study this effect we deployed the Lemon Car Game, an online negotiation game developed for this purpose (Hofstede et al. in: Proceedings of 39th international simulation and gaming association conference (ISAGA). Technologia, Kaunas, pp 39–46, 2009a; Hofstede et al. in: David, Sichman (eds) Multi-agent-based simulation IX, international workshop, MABS 2008, revised selected papers, LNAI 5269. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–16, 2009b). In this article we report the results from the game, obtained from over 800 players from more than 70 countries. We employ several complementary analyses in a mixed-methods approach.Our findings show that to make sense of the players’ actions during negotiation, economic rationality falls short. A pan-cultural individual-level analysis of actions and stated intentions also fails to yield a coherent picture. Within countries, however, actions and intentions do cohere, as shown by an ecological country-level factor analysis, from which three factors emerge for the sellers at country level: trustworthiness, opportunism, and fairness. We conclude from these findings that, in this game, players are driven by what we call relational rationality: they are rational from the perspective of the social world in which they live, with interpersonal relationships weighing heavily. Relational rationality changes players’ perspective of economic rationality, and thus their observed behaviour in negotiation. Based on this evidence, we extrapolate that relational rationality significantly influences negotiation processes in all cultures.
Data from: Quantitative visual soil observation for visual soil evaluation on dairy farms
Leeuwen, M.W.J. van; Schols, Anne ; Quik, C. - \ 2019
dairy farm - soil quality assessment - visual soil evaluation
Quantitative visual observations were collected for two studies on dairy farms in the Netherlands. Data were collected following the same methodology (Van Leeuwen et al., 2018) based on Visual Soil Assessment of Shepherd (2009).
Invang van mosselzaad in MZI’s : Resultaten 2018
Capelle, Jacob ; Stralen, Marnix van - \ 2019
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C057/19) - 27
Voorliggend technisch rapport behandelt de resultaten van de oogst van mosselzaad van de zogenaamde Mosselzaadinvangsinstalaties (MZI’s) in de Oosterschelde, Voordelta en Waddenzee in 2018 met als doel: Inzicht te geven in de oogstresultaten in relatie tot de afspraken in het mosselconvenant. Inzicht te geven in de geschiktheid van locaties voor MZI’s en de daarbij gebruikte invangsystemen. Dit rapport is opgesteld in opdracht van de PO Mosselcultuur. In 2018 is in de Nederlandse wateren totaal 20,7 miljoen kg (207 duizend mosselton) mosselzaad geoogst van de MZI’s. Het merendeel hiervan, 18,5 miljoen kg (waarvan 17,5 Mkg door transitiebedrijven en 1,0 Mkg door experimenteerbedrijven) is ingevangen in de Waddenzee. In de Oosterschelde is 1,8 miljoen kg en in de Voordelta 0,4 miljoen kg mosselzaad geoogst. Binnen het mosselconvenant is afgesproken de bodemzaadvisserij stapsgewijs af te bouwen in een tempo waarin alternatieve bronnen van mosselzaad productie/vangst kunnen worden ontwikkeld waarmee een rendabele kweek mogelijk blijft. Inmiddels zijn twee stappen gezet en de derde stap is gepland voor 2019. Voor de eerste twee stappen dient respectievelijk 11 Mkg en 14 Mkg mosselzaad beschikbaar te zijn uit MZI’s Met de productie van 18 Mkg mosselzaad in alleen al de Waddenzee kan hierin ruimschoots worden voorzien. Er is totaal 29% meer mosselzaad ingevangen dan in 2017 en 5% meer dan in 2015 (het jaar met de hoogste productie voorafgaand aan 2018). Er is zowel in de Zeeuwse Delta als in de Waddenzee meer substraat in het water gehangen dan in voorgaande jaren. In combinatie met over het algemeen goede oogstresultaten heeft dit geleidt tot een goede oogst in 2018. Uitzonderingen zijn (relatief aan voorgaande jaren) het Malzwin, de Zuidwal, Neeltje Jans en de Voordelta. De oorzaak hiervoor is te vinden in de tegenvallende oogst aan de nettensystemen op deze locaties. Daar staat tegenover dat de oogst per meter touw hoger was dan in voorgaande jaren.
Lelystad Open Teelten: strokenteelt nu al veelbelovend
Apeldoorn, Dirk van; Rijk, Joost - \ 2019
Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, R. ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, D. ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, M.V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-lópez, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, J.A. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
biodiversity - agroecosystem - landscape composition - landscape configuration - functional traits - arthropods - natural pest control - pollination - yields
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non‐crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7‐ and 1.4‐fold respectively. Arable‐dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield‐enhancing ecosystem services.
Data from: Functional diversity and composition of Caatinga woody flora are negatively impacted by chronic anthropogenic disturbance
Ribeiro, Elâine M.S. ; Lohbeck, M.W.M. ; Santos, Braulio ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Leal, Inara R. - \ 2019
human disturbance - community assembly - functional plant traits - seasonally dry tropical forest - wood plant assemblages - biodiversity loss - semiarid ecosystem
Data base describing the functional traits measured and species/abundance data for wood species from Brazilian Caatinga. Ribeiro et al. 2019 - Functional diversity and composition of Caatinga woody flora are negatively impacted by chronic anthropogenic disturbance. Journal of Ecology
Correction: Responses of canopy growth and yield of potato cultivars to weather dynamics in a complex topography: Belg farming seasons in the gamo highlands, Ethiopia
Minda, Thomas T. ; Molen, Michiel K. Van Der; Arellano, Jordi Vilà Guerau De; Chulda, Kanko C. ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2019
Agronomy 9 (2019)5. - ISSN 2073-4395

In Minda et al. [1], an error was introduced. We propose the following amendment: Figure 9, in Section 3.2.4 (Days to Maturity and Yield), should be replaced by the following updated figure. (Figure Presented) The authors apologize for any inconvenience caused to the readers by these changes. The manuscript will be updated and the original will remain online on the article webpage, with a reference to this correction.

Bodembiologie in het natuurbeheer : Nieuwe inzichten en perspectieven
Gerrits, Gijs ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2019
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap (2019)156. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 3 - 7.
Natuurbeheerders denken bij bodem al snel aan abiotische factoren zoals de concentratie stikstof en fosfaat, het organisch stofgehalte, de pH en de structuur. Dit leer je in de meeste groene opleidingen. Langzaam aan groeit echter het besef bij natuurbeheerders dat ook de bodembiologie een belangrijke rol speelt in de structurering van de vegetatie. Dit artikel geeft een inkijkje in belangrijke nieuwe kennis, hypotheses en mogelijke nieuwe perspectieven voor het natuurbeheer.
Future directions for the concept of salutogenesis: a position article
Bauer, G.F. ; Roy, M. ; Bakibinga, P. ; Contu, P. ; Downe, S. ; Eriksson, M. ; Espnes, G.A. ; Jensen, B.B. ; Juvinya Canal, D. ; Lindström, B. ; Mana, A. ; Mittelmark, M.B. ; Morgan, A.R. ; Pelikan, J.M. ; Saboga-Nunes, L. ; Sagy, S. ; Shorey, S. ; Vaandrager, L. ; Vinje, H.F. - \ 2019
Health Promotion International (2019). - ISSN 0957-4824
Aaron Antonovsky advanced the concept of salutogenesis almost four decades ago (Antonovsky, Health, Stress and Coping. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1979; Unravelling the Mystery of Health. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1987). Salutogenesis posits that life experiences shape the sense of coherence (SOC) that helps to mobilize resources to cope with stressors and manage tension successfully (determining one’s movement on the health Ease/Dis-ease continuum). Antonovsky considered the three-dimensional SOC (i.e. comprehensibility, manageability, meaningfulness) as the key answer to his question about the origin of health. The field of health promotion has adopted the concept of salutogenesis as reflected in the international Handbook of Salutogenesis (Mittelmark et al., The Handbook of Salutogenesis. Springer, New York, 2016). However, health promotion mostly builds on the more vague, general salutogenic orientation that implies the need to foster resources and capacities to promote health and wellbeing. To strengthen the knowledge base of salutogenesis, the Global Working Group on Salutogenesis (GWG-Sal) of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education produced the Handbook of Salutogenesis. During the creation of the handbook and the regular meetings of the GWG-Sal, the working group identified four key conceptual issues to be advanced: (i) the overall salutogenic model of health; (ii) the SOC concept; (iii) the design of salutogenic interventions and change processes in complex systems; (iv) the application of salutogenesis beyond health sector. For each of these areas, we first highlight Antonovsky’s original contribution and then present suggestions for future development. These ideas will help guide GWG-Sal’s work to strengthen salutogenesis as a theory base for health promotion.
Planty Organic: voortgang 2018
Burgt, G.J. van der; Rietema, C. ; Bus, M. ; Timmermans, B.G.H. - \ 2019
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 45 p.
Planty Organic is a project and an experimental field in which an arable farming system is developed based on 100% nitrogen input by fixation and non-ploughing. It is started in 2012. An evaluation report has been published (Van der Burgt et al., 2017b) on the period 2012-2016. The system can be used to earn new knowledge that can be applied in the organic or conventional agriculture, on the themes of nitrogen-, phosphorus- or soil-dynamics.This report focuses on the 2018 practice and results, referring to the evaluation report. The 2018 experiences confirm the system performance as described in the evaluation. All goals are achieved: it is a productive system with a high nitrogen efficiency and a very low environmental and climate impact.The production in 2017 was roughly the level as it is expected in the evaluation. This is confirmed in a system simulation with the Ndicea model. It is not plausible that the 2017 production level will be continuously realized. Research questions remain on the internal nutrient dynamics (nitrogen and phosphorus), soil life, rooting systems and CO2 footprint.
Paardengenomica: wiki Groen Kennisnet
Ducro, B.J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
Genomica (of genomics) verwijst naar de techniek waarmee we de opbouw en de werking van het DNA kunnen bestuderen. Op het DNA ligt de genetische aanleg voor de bouw en functionering van het lichaam. Dus als we het DNA beter kunnen lezen en begrijpen dan kunnen we een betere inschatting van de genetische aanleg maken. Genomica doet nu in snel tempo zijn intrede in de paardenfokkerij. Het wordt al veelvuldig gebruikt in de fokkerij van landbouwhuisdieren zoals koeien, varkens en kippen, en heeft tot grote veranderingen in de fokprogramma’s geleid. Genomica biedt grote voordelen waardoor we efficiënter kunnen fokken en dus ook sneller vooruit kunnen gaan.
Wie is er bang... Wil Nederland wel samenleven met de wolf?
Jacobs, Maarten ; Elands, Birgit ; Bovenkerk, Bernice - \ 2019

Ecologen wachten met smart op beschuit met muisjes van de Veluwe. Misschien zíjn er zelfs al welpjes geboren. Het maakt de vraag prangend: hoe welkom is de wolf eigenlijk? Experts zijn er pessimistisch over. ‘In Finland houden ze al protestmarsen.’

Kracht van tegel-voor-plantruilacties is dat er weinig voor nodig is om al een effect te hebben
Krekels, Daan ; Metselaar, K. ; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2019
Vakblad Groen 2019 (2019)05. - ISSN 1660-3534 - p. 18 - 21.
Agricultural Development in Iraq: Opportunities and Challenges
Jongerden, Joost - \ 2019
High level meeting and conference on agricultural development and water management in Iraq, The conference included from Iraqi side the first lady Dr Sarbagh Salih, minister of Agriculture Dr. Saleh al-Hassani and Minister of Environment Dr. Jamal al Adely, and from the side of the Netherlands the deputy ambassador in Iraq, Mr Eric Strating. At the meeting rector Prof. dr. Arthur Mol and Dr Sarbagh Salih signed a letter of intent for cooperation in the field of agriculture.
Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus suis S10, a Virulent Strain Used in Experimental Pig Infections
Gaiser, R.A. ; Zomer, A.L. ; Wells, J.M. ; Baarlen, P. van - \ 2019
Microbiology Resource Announcements 8 (2019)23. - ISSN 2576-098X - 3 p.
Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus suis strain S10, isolated from the tonsils of a healthy pig. S. suis S10 belongs to the highly virulent serotype 2, which includes isolates that cause infectious diseases, including meningitis, in pigs and human. The genome contains a complete prophage that encodes a candidate virulence gene.
What is the best housing temperature to translate mouse experiments to humans?
Keijer, Jaap ; Li, Min ; Speakman, John R. - \ 2019
Molecular Metabolism 25 (2019). - ISSN 2212-8778 - p. 168 - 176.
Basal metabolic rate - Comparative physiology - Housing temperature - Human - Mouse - Thermoneutrality

Objectives: Ambient temperature impinges on energy metabolism in a body size dependent manner. This has implications for the housing temperature at which mice are best compared to humans. In 2013, we suggested that, for comparative studies, solitary mice are best housed at 23–25 °C, because this is 3–5 °C below the mouse thermoneutral zone and humans routinely live 3–5 °C below thermoneutrality, and because this generates a ratio of DEE to BMR of 1.6–1.9, mimicking the ratio found in free-living humans. Methods: Recently, Fischer et al. (2017) challenged this estimate. By studying mice at 21 °C and at 30 °C (but notably not at 23–25 °C) they concluded that 30 °C is the optimal housing temperature. Here, we measured energy metabolism of C57BL/6 mice over a range of temperatures, between 21.4 °C and 30.2 °C. Results: We observed a ratio of DEE to BMR of 1.7 at 27.6 °C and of 1.8 at 25.5 °C, suggesting that this is the best temperature range for housing C57BL/6 mice to mimic human thermal relations. We used a 24 min average to calculate the ratio, similar to that used in human studies, while the ratio calculated by Fisher et al. dependent on short, transient metabolic declines. Conclusion: We concur with Fisher et al. and others that 21 °C is too cool, but we continue to suggest that 30 °C is too warm. We support this with other data. Finally, to mimic living environments of all humans, and not just those in controlled Western environments, mouse experimentation at various temperatures is likely required.

Institutionalized Communication in Markets and Firms
Dolfsma, Wilfred - \ 2019
Journal of Economic Issues 53 (2019)2. - ISSN 0021-3624 - p. 341 - 348.
communication - firms as institutionalized communication - institutions - markets as institutionalized communication

Abstract: How markets and firms function is critically related to what knowledge and information is exchanged between whom, how quickly. Exchange of (symbolic) information needs to be properly institutionalized in order to be understood by others, on the one hand, but, on the other hand, cannot avoid being ambiguous to some degree as well (Dolfsma et al. 2011). Ambiguity allows for the dissent that allows for innovation in the broadest sense of the term. Institutionalization of communication is community-specific. The tension between institutionalization of and ambiguity in communication explains why innovations cannot depart too much from what is known and accepted in a community to be (ultimately) accepted as a legitimate novelty. The view of markets and firms as settings for institutionalized communication and knowledge exchange offers a perspective that institutional economists are well positioned for to offer insights on.

Soil Salinity Limits Plant Shade Avoidance
Hayes, Scott ; Pantazopoulou, Chrysoula K. ; Gelderen, Kasper van; Reinen, Emilie ; Tween, Adrian Louis ; Sharma, Ashutosh ; Vries, Michel de; Prat, Salomé ; Schuurink, Robert C. ; Testerink, Christa ; Pierik, Ronald - \ 2019
Current Biology 29 (2019)10. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 1669 - 1676.e4.
abscisic acid - brassinosteroids - phytochrome - phytohormones - PIF - plant photobiology - salt response - salt stress

Global food production is set to keep increasing despite a predicted decrease in total arable land [1]. To achieve higher production, denser planting will be required on increasingly degraded soils. When grown in dense stands, crops elongate and raise their leaves in an effort to reach sunlight, a process termed shade avoidance [2]. Shade is perceived by a reduction in the ratio of red (R) to far-red (FR) light and results in the stabilization of a class of transcription factors known as PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) [3, 4]. PIFs activate the expression of auxin biosynthesis genes [4, 5] and enhance auxin sensitivity [6], which promotes cell-wall loosening and drives elongation growth. Despite our molecular understanding of shade-induced growth, little is known about how this developmental program is integrated with other environmental factors. Here, we demonstrate that low levels of NaCl in soil strongly impair the ability of plants to respond to shade. This block is dependent upon abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and the canonical ABA signaling pathway. Low R:FR light enhances brassinosteroid (BR) signaling through BRASSINOSTEROID SIGNALING KINASE 5 (BSK5) and leads to the activation of BRI1 EMS SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1). ABA inhibits BSK5 upregulation and interferes with GSK3-like kinase inactivation by the BR pathway, thus leading to a suppression of BES1:PIF function. By demonstrating a link between light, ABA-, and BR-signaling pathways, this study provides an important step forward in our understanding of how multiple environmental cues are integrated into plant development. Intensively farmed crops often experience multiple stresses simultaneously. Here, Hayes et al. show that low-level soil salinity suppresses shade avoidance in plants. Through investigation of the mechanisms underlying this trait, they uncover a regulatory pathway that converges at the level of brassinosteroid signaling.

Phosphorus recovery from co-digested pig slurry : development of the RePeat process
Regelink, Inge ; Ehlert, Phillip ; Smit, Geo ; Everlo, Sjoerd ; Prinsen, Arjan ; Schoumans, Oscar - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2949) - 65
In the Netherlands, the agricultural sector produces more manure than can be applied on agricultural land within the P application standards. The excess amount of manure should be exportedto other regions with a demand for P fertilisers. An alternative for current manure export is manure processing in which manure is processed into valuable fertiliser products. This reports describes a process in which the solid fraction of co-digested manure is processed into a concentrated P fertiliser and a nutrient-poor organic soil improver. The recovered P fertiliser can be used as a secondary raw material for fertiliser production or for export whereas the soil improver can be used on arable soils in the nearby region of the manure treatment plant. The separation process, called RePeat, consists of a acidification and dilution step to extract P from the solid fraction followed by a base addition step to recovery P. The proof of principle was given in a previous report (Schoumans et al., 2017). This reports describes additional laboratory and pilot tests (Chapter 2-4). Attention was given to the reuse of water within the process, the dewatering of calcium phosphate versus struvite and the selection of separation equipment for a demonstration plant. Chapter 5 gives the process mass balances calculated using a mass balance model. Chapter 6 assesses the quality of the organic soil improver in terms of its carbon- and nitrogen mineralisation rate. An example of a business case for the process is included in Chapter 7. The results were used to design a demonstration plant for the RePeat process to be built at Groot Zevert Vergisting B.V. in Beltrum.
'Theoretisch bieden daken genoeg plek': Waar laat Nederland al die zonnepanelen?
Zee, Friso van der - \ 2019
Effects of sub-optimal mobility on production performance of pasture-based dairy cows
O'Connor, A. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2019
In: Advances in Animal Biosciences. - - p. 73 - 73.
Sub-optimal mobility has been identified as the third most important health-related economic loss, after
fertility and mastitis (Bruijnis et al., 2010, Alawneh et al., 2011, Huxley, 2013). It is well known that severe forms of suboptimal
mobility cause losses in terms of milk yield (Enting et al., 1997); however, less is known about the effects of mild
forms of sub-optimal mobility on milk yield and other production performance parameters. Therefore, the objective of this
study was to investigate the effect of sub-optimal mobility on production performance in pasture-based dairy cows.
Selecting the dose metric in reverse dosimetry based QIVIVE : Reply to: ‘Comment on ‘Use of an in vitro–in silico testing strategy to predict inter-species and inter-ethnic human differences in liver toxicity of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids lasiocarpine and riddelliine’ by Ning et al.
Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Ning, Jia ; Chen, Lu ; Wesseling, Sebastiaan ; Strikwold, Marije ; Louisse, Jochem - \ 2019
Archives of Toxicology 93 (2019)5. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 1467 - 1469.
Vissen bij wisselend tij : een notitie over de (cumulatieve) sociaaleconomische effecten van ontwikkelingen die invloed hebben op de Nederlandse kottervisserij
Mol, A. ; Zaalmink, B.W. ; Steins, N.A. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-063) - 17
Naar aanleiding van het rapport ‘Wind op zee’ (Mol et al. 2019) is de vraag gesteld of en hoe de huidige ontwikkelingen, waar de visserijsector mee te maken heeft (Brexit, aanlandplicht en het intrekken van de pulsontheffingen), invloed hebben op de economische waarde voor de visserij in de windparkgebieden en hoe deze ontwikkelingen elkaar beïnvloeden. In deze notitie worden deze interacties kwalitatief omschreven. Daarnaast worden aanbevelingen gedaan om tot een kwantitatieve berekening van de economische gevolgen te komen door middel van het bepalen van scenario’s en het bouwen van een model.
A diagnostic equation for the maximum urban heat island effect of a typical Chinese city: A case study for Xi'an
Zhang, Xi ; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan ; Zhou, Dian ; Duan, Chengjiang ; Holtslag, Albert A.M. - \ 2019
Building and Environment 158 (2019). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 39 - 50.
China - Diagnostic equation - Neighborhood-scale - Urban heat island - Urban morphology - Xi'an

To reduce the vulnerability of urban areas facing high temperatures, it is useful to develop methods to obtain the urban heat island (UHI)intensity. However, it is hard to equip all cities with extensive measurement networks and alternative UHI diagnostic methods are needed. Accordingly, in this paper we evaluate and revise the diagnostic equation designed by Theeuwes et al. (2017)and analyze its application for Xi'an (China), based on long-term summer meteorology data. The evaluation of the default diagnostic equation shows that limited accuracy for Xi'an is caused by the sum of morphological parameters being used outside the original range of calibration. Subsequently, we propose an extended equation, which adds the building fraction to express the morphology of additional spatial categories. This new equation is calibrated against a 3-year dataset and independently validated with data from another year. In addition, a class prediction with three spatial categories is proposed, and verified by independent data of 20 stations in Xi'an in 2018, which enables this formula to be applied in more cities. Altogether, the extended diagnostic equation is an effective method to evaluate the daily maximum UHI intensity (UHI max )on neighborhood-scale, which can be generalized for a whole city area and presents internal intensity differences with multi-points.

Steeds agressievere Phytophthora vraagt nog preciezer werken
Schepers, Huub ; Kessel, Geert Jan - \ 2019

De opkomst van nieuwe agressievere stammen van Phytophthora infestans vraagt volgens WUR-onderzoekers Huub Schepers en Geert Kessel extra alertheid. "De nieuwe klonen EU-36 (Geel 36) en EU-37 (dondergroen 370 verdringen de ook al lastig te bestrijden EU-13 (blauw 13). De middelkeuze, dosering en timing van de bespuitingen komen dus nog preciezer in aanwezigheid van deze twee nieuwe klonen dan tijdens de situatie van zo'n twee jaar geleden, benadrukken de phytophthoraspecialisten.

Hoe goed zuiveren planten de lucht nu echt?
Visser, P.H.B. de - \ 2019
Onder Glas 16 (2019)1. - p. 35 - 35.
Al langere tijd wordt beweerd dat planten de lucht zuiveren van vluchtige organische stoffen.
High sediment export from a trans-Himalayan semi-desert driven by late Holocene climate change and human impact
Reimann, T. ; Menges, Johanna ; Hovius, Niels ; Andermann, Christoff ; Dietze, Michael ; Swoboda, Charlie ; Cook, Kirsten ; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea ; Bonnet, Stephane ; Sachse, Dirk - \ 2019
- 1 p.
Sediment export rates are sensitive to changes in climate, vegetation and human impact, but the direct response of a given landscape to such changes is difficult to unravel. Here, we report a strong landscape response to a disturbance
of a stable, soil covered landscape in a trans-Himalayan valley, which was pushed over an eco-geomorphic tipping point resulting in fast and widespread erosion. We then identify potential drivers for this transition. The upper Kali Gandaki (KG) river valley in Nepal drains the southern edge of the Tibetan plateau in the rain shadow of the High Himalayas, where a scarcely vegetated semi-desert is dissected by deep gullies. These badlands formed in a graben structure storing large amounts of unconsolidated sediments which provide a source of erosion product to the high stream-power river. Due to the high erodibility of this material, the region is particularly sensitive to changes in climate and land use. At the outlet of the upper valley, we estimate that river
suspended sediment concentrations are up to two orders of magnitude higher for a given river discharge than downstream in the monsoon dominated High Himalayan river segment. Even though precipitation rates are low in the upper valley (160 mm/yr to 250 mm/yr) and discharges rarely exceed 100 m3/s, we show that modern erosion efficiency is around five times higher than in the steep and wet, landslide dominated southern part of the catchment. In stark contrast to this modern setting, widespread occurrence of paleosol horizons reflects the persistence of geomorphologically stable conditions during the Holocene until 2.4 ka based on OSL and 14C ages. What pushed this landscape from a soil covered stable state into the erosional state observed today?We investigated human land use and climate change as possible drivers of this transition. Human impact on the landscape has been suggested from 5.4 ka onwards (Miehe et al., 2009) and an increased occurence of archeological sites and evidence of
grazing animals has been reported from 3 ka (Simons et al.,1994). We estimated paleo-hydrological conditions using the hydrogen isotopic composition of plant lipids (Dwax) extracted from the paleosol horizons in the upper KG valley (3500 - 4100 m asl., n=24). Dwax values range from 214 h to 236 h which is offset by 40 h 6 h from the Dwax values of modern shrub leaves sampled at the paleosol sites and modern topsoils sampled along the wetter fringes of the valley. This strongly suggests that soil formation took place under substantially wetter conditions, i.e. an enhanced monsoonal precipitation in the past. The subsequent Late Holocene drying trend combined with human land use likely reduced vegetation cover which then initiated the transition to badland development observed today. Current erosion rates suggest a catchment-average surface lowering rate of one meter per 1000 years, resulting in a strong and irreversible degradation of the landscape and its soils.
Grey mould of strawberry, a devastating disease caused by the ubiquitous necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea
Petrasch, Stefan ; Knapp, Steven J. ; Kan, Jan A.L. van; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara - \ 2019
Molecular Plant Pathology 20 (2019)6. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 877 - 892.
disease management - fruit ripening - fruit-pathogen interaction - plant breeding - plant defence - primary infection - secondary infection

The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea causes grey mould, a commercially damaging disease of strawberry. This pathogen affects fruit in the field, storage, transport and market. The presence of grey mould is the most common reason for fruit rejection by growers, shippers and consumers, leading to significant economic losses. Here, we review the biology and epidemiology of the pathogen, mechanisms of infection and the genetics of host plant resistance. The development of grey mould is affected by environmental and genetic factors; however, little is known about how B. cinerea and strawberry interact at the molecular level. Despite intensive efforts, breeding strawberry for resistance to grey mould has not been successful, and the mechanisms underlying tolerance to B. cinerea are poorly understood and under-investigated. Current control strategies against grey mould include pre- and postharvest fungicides, yet they are generally ineffective and expensive. In this review, we examine available research on horticultural management, chemical and biological control of the pathogen in the field and postharvest storage, and discuss their relevance for integrative disease management. Additionally, we identify and propose approaches for increasing resistance to B. cinerea in strawberry by tapping into natural genetic variation and manipulating host factors via genetic engineering and genome editing.

MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) modified α-alumina membranes for efficient adsorption of dyes from organic solvents
Amirilargani, Mohammad ; Merlet, Renaud B. ; Hedayati, Pegah ; Nijmeijer, Arian ; Winnubst, Louis ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. De; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. - \ 2019
Chemical Communications 55 (2019)28. - ISSN 1359-7345 - p. 4119 - 4122.

To the best of our knowledge, for the first time MIL-53(Al) and NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) modified α-alumina membranes are investigated for the adsorption of organic dyes from organic solvents. These new, modified membranes show excellent adsorption of high concentrations of Rose Bengal dye in methanol and isopropanol solutions.

The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agroecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, David ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, Mario V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair-Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
Ecology Letters (2019). - ISSN 1461-023X
Agroecology - arthropod community - biological control - edge density - pest control - pollination - response trait - semi-natural habitat - trait syndrome - yield

Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non-crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7- and 1.4-fold respectively. Arable-dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield-enhancing ecosystem services.

Monitoring effecten zandsuppletie Leuvenumse beek 2018
Verdonschot, Ralf ; Verdonschot, Piet - \ 2019
Wageningen : Zoetwaterecosystemen, Wageningen Environmental Research (Notitie Zoetwatersystemen, Wageningen Environmental Research ) - ISBN 9789463439282 - 59
In de Leuvenumse beek wordt vanaf 2014 het suppleren van zand als beekherstelmaatregel toegepast door Waterschap Vallei en Veluwe en Natuurmonumenten. Omdat over deze relatief nieuwe maatregel nog niet veel kennis voorhanden is, worden sindsdien de hydromorfologische en biologische ontwikkelingen gevolgd. In 2018zijn metingen verricht aan het profiel van de beekop drie suppletielocaties en is de macrofaunasamenstelling van vijf suppletielocaties onderzocht. Beide zijn herhalingen van al eerder uitgevoerde metingen in 2014-2017, om zo de veranderingen in beeld te krijgen die in gang zijn gezet door het uitvoeren van de maatregelen. Daarnaast is ook de macrofauna van het beekmoeras bovenstrooms van het projectgebied onderzocht, dat in de loop van de jaren vernat is als gevolg van de suppleties.In 2018 speelde het weer een belangrijke rol: hoge afvoerpieken in de winter, zware storm met als gevolg een grote aanvoer van nieuw dood hout en extreme droogte in de zomer en herfsthadden allemaal effect op het beeksysteem. Metingen aan de dwarsprofieltransecten lieten zien dat drie jaar na de laatste suppletie nog steeds zandtransport plaatsvindt. Dit zijn afvoergerelateerde sedimentpulsen(ophoging in het voorjaar, erosie in het najaar), die leiden tot een langzame verplaatsing van zand naar benedenstrooms waar op veel plekken nog steeds ophoging plaatsvindt. Een tweede aanjager van het transport zijn lokale veranderingen van de stromingspatronen in de beek door plotselinge veranderingen in de beek, bijvoorbeeld het invallenvan nieuw dood hout. De macrofaunasamenstelling in de suppletietrajecten week in 2018 af van de eerdere jarenen kenmerkte zich door een grotere variatie in taxonsamenstelling tussen de monsters. Het totaal aantal taxa was daarnaast veel hoger, maar dit werd deels veroorzaakt door het verschijnen van stilstaand-water-soorten die waarschijnlijk profiteerden van de lage afvoer. De meeste kenmerkende beektaxa handhaafden zich, al lieten een klein aantal taxa wel een teruggang zien in de frequentie van voorkomen. Daar stond tegenover dat er ook een aantal kenmerkende soorten nieuw zijn waargenomen in de trajecten in het projectgebiedof zich hadden uitgebreid. Op de suppletielocaties was nog steeds de het eerst gestabiliseerdezone vlakbij de oorspronkelijke suppletieplek het rijkst aan kenmerkende taxa, terwijl de dynamische zone ten opzichte van eerdere bemonsteringen ook een duidelijke stijging in het aantal kenmerkende taxa liet zien met het verouderen van het systeem.Ondanks de veranderde omstandigheden in het beekmoeras ten opzichte van de oorspronkelijke beekloop, met minder stroming en meer waterplanten en organisch materiaal, werdde ecologische kwaliteit als goed beoordeeld op basis van de KRW maatlat voor R5 en zelfszeer goed op basis van de nieuwe moerasbeekmaatlat. Het beekmoeras draagt bij aan de totale biodiversiteit van het stroomgebied omdat er een aantal taxa zijn gevonden die niet op de andere locaties zijn aangetroffen.Het onderzoek laat zien dat het projectgebied drie jaar na de suppleties nog volop in ontwikkeling is; hoe ‘extremere’ jaren zoals 2018 doorwerken op de langere termijn in zowel hydromorfologisch als ecologisch opzicht moet de komende jaren blijken.
Author Correction: The potential of future foods for sustainable and healthy diets
Parodi, A. ; Leip, A. ; Boer, I.J.M. De; Slegers, P.M. ; Ziegler, F. ; Temme, E.H.M. ; Herrero, M. ; Tuomisto, H. ; Valin, H. ; Middelaar, C.E. Van; Loon, J.J.A. Van; Zanten, H.H.E. Van - \ 2019
Nature Sustainability 2 (2019)4. - ISSN 2398-9629 - p. 342 - 347.

In the version of this Article originally published, in Supplementary Table 7, the energy and land-use values for mealworms in Thevenot et al. were mistakenly swapped. The correct values are 65.39 MJ for energy use and 4.31 m 2 for land use. In the same table, the energy and land use values for black soldier fly in Salome et al. were incorrectly given as 0.14 MJ and 41.67 m 2 ; they should have read 7.248 MJ and 0.024 m 2 (respectively). Correcting these values has led to corresponding changes in Fig. 3, Supplementary Figs 2 and 4 and Supplementary Table 8. Additionally, in the panel of Fig. 3 that contains information about vitamin A, the land-use values of 593 for pork and 1914 for beef were incorrect, and should have been 666 and 3238, respectively.

Social network analysis for facilitating the innovative water technologies towards more efficient water use in industrial zone
Tran, Trang - \ 2019
Vietnam Journal of Construction 58 (2019)4-2019. - ISSN 0866-8762 - p. 103 - 108.
Social network analysis - industrial zone - water use efficiency - network
Industrial zones (IZs) in Vietnam require a huge quantity of water for production activities to develop society an economy. However, the quality and quantity of IZ-related water resources are depleted and threatened. In order to prevent water scarcity, mismanagement and wasting of water supplies, it is necessary to develop new technologies to increase water use efficiency in the IZs. However, new technologies would be not fit with the existing socio-institutional framework so that the societal aspects could be transformed to facilitate the innovative technologies. This paper aims to analyse the existing actor network for facilitating the innovative water technologies towards more efficient water use in Hiep Phuoc IZ. Using the results from the collected data, Social Network Analysis (SNA) is applied to understand the social structure and dimension of the four networks (policy, economic, societal and research networks) that govern IZ's water flows (Borgatti et al., 2002; Domenech, 2009; Reed et al., 2009; Ashton, 2008; Steveson and Greenberg, 2000). The findings contribute insight to how the actors correlate among the four networks and their roles in facilitating the technological innovation in Hiep Phuoc Industrial Zone in the South of Vietnam.
Starch gelatinization temperature in sugar and polyol solutions explained by hydrogen bond density
Sman, R.G.M. van der; Mauer, Lisa J. - \ 2019
Food Hydrocolloids 94 (2019). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 371 - 380.
Glass transition - Plasticizers - Starch gelatinization - Viscosity

In this paper we show that the shift of the gelatinization temperature of starch in sugar and polyol solutions is explained by nOH,eff , the volumetric density of hydrogen bonds in the solutions. nOH,eff is computed using the dry glass transition temperatures of the low molecular weight carbohydrates. This correlation of starch gelatinization temperature to nOH,eff is shown for 19 different sugar and polyol compounds in solutions at different concentrations, as measured in an earlier study by Allan et al. (2018). The earlier study found that the measured viscosity of the solutions best correlated to starch gelatinization temperature, but it was assumed that there is a more fundamental property of the sweetener that alters both the viscosity and the starch gelatnization behaviour. Here, it is shown that nOH,eff is this fundamental property responsible for controlling both the viscosity and starch gelatinization temperature differences in the used sugar and polyol solutions. Because nOH,eff is also related to Tg, the glass transition temperature of the carbohydrate solutions, the viscosity of a wide variety of carbohydrate solutions can be mapped to a single master curve if plotted against Tg/T, the ratio of glass transition and the actual temperature. Older hypotheses concerning the shift of the starch gelatinization temperature in carbohydrate solutions have explained it in terms of water activity. However, we show that nOH,eff relates to water activity only for carbohydrates with similar molecular weights. We conclude that sugar and polyol solutions can be viewed effectively as a single solvent, which is characterized by nOH,eff . This measure for volumetric density of hydrogen bonds in these solutions can be used to predict the starch gelatinization temperature in different formulations.

A participatory and practical irrigation scheduling in semiarid areas: the case of Gumselassa irrigation scheme in Northern Ethiopia
Yohannes, Degol Fissahaye ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Eyasu, Y. ; Solomon, H. ; Dam, J.C. van; Froebrich, J. ; Ritzema, H.P. ; Meressa, A. - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 218 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 102 - 114.
CropWat - Hargreaves - Maize - Simple irrigation schedule - Tigray - Water productivity - Yield and yield component

Poor irrigation scheduling practices have been quoted as the major challenges for sustainability of small-scale irrigation schemes in Ethiopia due to complexity of scheduling techniques, cost and inaccessibility of soil-water monitoring tools, lack of various local climatic data and soil-water parameters. For local experts to easily schedule irrigation and to promote adoption by farmers, a cheap and simple computation procedure of irrigation scheduling is needed that considers local resources and opinions. So far, there is no such study in the context of Ethiopia. A simple irrigation scheduling method (Practical) was developed based on the FAO procedure (Brouwer et al., 1989), employing Hargreaves ET 0 equation and the opinions of local farmers and extension agents. Then, the method was validated on-farm through participatory and close observation of farmers by comparing with CropWat simulated (Sophisticated) and local (Traditional) scheduling practices for 2015and 2015/16 irrigation seasons considering maize as indicator crop. Data on irrigation depths, yield and yield components and soil salinity were collected and analysed. Furthermore, a farmers’ day was arranged to collect opinions on the crop stand and scheduling techniques. In both irrigation seasons, the practical irrigation schedule method resulted in higher grain yield while saving substantial amount of water and in significantly higher water productivity (WP) compared to the other methods. Maximum (0.68 kg m −3 in 2015) and minimum (0.47 kg m −3 in 2015/16) WP were found in the practical and sophisticated approaches, respectively. The average root zone salinities among the alterative irrigation scheduling methods were not significantly different, in both irrigation seasons. Farmers’ and experts’ opinions were in favour of the practical scheduling method. The practical irrigation scheduling method is thus recommended for maize, around Gumselassa area. Further, the presented procedure can be adopted for preparation of irrigation calendars of other cops and in other regions.

A Migratory Divide Among Red-Necked Phalaropes in the Western Palearctic Reveals Contrasting Migration and Wintering Movement Strategies
Bemmelen, Rob S.A. van; Kolbeinsson, Yann ; Ramos, Raül ; Gilg, Olivier ; Alves, José A. ; Smith, Malcolm ; Schekkerman, Hans ; Lehikoinen, Aleksi ; Petersen, Ib Krag ; Þórisson, Böðvar ; Sokolov, Aleksandr A. ; Välimäki, Kaisa ; Meer, Tim Van Der; Okill, J.D. ; Bolton, Mark ; Moe, Børge ; Hanssen, Sveinn Are ; Bollache, Loïc ; Petersen, Aevar ; Thorstensen, Sverrir ; González-Solís, Jacob ; Klaassen, Raymond H.G. ; Tulp, Ingrid - \ 2019
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7 (2019). - ISSN 2296-701X - 17 p.
flexibility - itinerancy - migration strategy - Phalaropus lobatus - red-necked phalarope
Non-breeding movement strategies of migratory birds may be expected to be flexibly adjusted to the distribution and quality of habitat, but few studies compare movement strategies among populations using distinct migration routes and wintering areas. In our study, individual movement strategies of red-necked phalaropes (Phalaropus lobatus), a long-distance migratory wader which uses saline waters in the non-breeding period, were studied using light-level geolocators. Results revealed a migratory divide between two populations with distinct migration routes and wintering areas: one breeding in the north-eastern North Atlantic and migrating ca. 10,000 km oversea to the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, and the other breeding in Fennoscandia and Russia migrating
ca. 6,000 km—largely over land—to the Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean). In line with our expectations, the transoceanic migration between the North Atlantic and the Pacific was associated with proportionately longer wings, a more even spread of stopovers in autumn and a higher migration speed in spring compared to the migration between Fennoscandian-Russian breeding grounds and the Arabian Sea. In the wintering period, van Bemmelen et al. Contrasting Movement Strategies in Phalaropes birds wintering in the Pacific were stationary in roughly a single area, whereas individuals wintering in the Arabian Sea moved extensively between different areas, reflecting differences in spatio-temporal variation in primary productivity between the two wintering areas. Our study is unique in showing how habitat distribution shapes movement strategies over the entire non-breeding period within a species.
Moderate intensity Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) as alternative mild preservation technology for fruit juice
Timmermans, R.A.H. ; Mastwijk, H.C. ; Berendsen, L.B.J.M. ; Nederhoff, A.L. ; Matser, A.M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. Van; Nierop Groot, M.N. - \ 2019
International Journal of Food Microbiology 298 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 63 - 73.
Electric field strength - Microbiology - Ohmic heating - Preservation - Pulse width - Thermal reference

Moderate intensity Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) was studied for microbial inactivation as an alternative to high intensity PEF or to classical thermal pasteurization. The process is characterized by the application of electric pulses, allowing an increase of the product temperature by the ohmic heat generated by the pulses. A systematic evaluation of the effect of parameters electric field strength (E) and pulse width (τ) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus plantarum, Salmonella Senftenberg and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in orange juice was carried out in a continuous flow system. A wide range of conditions was evaluated, and both E and τ were shown to be important in the efficacy to inactivate micro-organisms. Remarkably, PEF conditions at E = 2.7 kV/cm and τ = 15–1000 μs showed to be more effective in microbial inactivation than at E = 10 kV/cm and τ = 2 μs. Inactivation kinetics of the tested PEF conditions were compared to an equivalent thermal process to disentangle non-thermal effects (electroporation) from thermal effects responsible for the microbial inactivation. At standard high intensity PEF treatment a non-thermal inactivation at E = 20 kV/cm and τ = 2 μs pulses was observed and attributed to electroporation. Non-thermal effects could also be resolved with moderate intensity PEF at E = 2.7 kV/cm and pulse width between τ = 15–1000 μs. Microbial inactivation at these moderate intensity PEF conditions was studied in more detail at different pH and medium conductivity for E. coli and L. monocytogenes in watermelon juice and coconut water. Under moderate intensity PEF conditions the effectiveness of treatment was independent of pH for all evaluated matrices in the pH range of 3.8–6.0, whereas under high intensity PEF conditions the pH of the product is a critical factor for microbial inactivation. This suggests that the inactivation proceeds through a different mechanism at moderate intensity PEF, and speculations for this mechanism are presented. In conclusion, moderate intensity PEF conditions at E = 2.7 kV/cm and pulse width of 15–1000 μs has potential for industrial processing for the preservation of fruit juices and pH neutral liquid food products.

Source partitioning of H 2 O and CO 2 fluxes based on high-frequency eddy covariance data : A comparison between study sites
Klosterhalfen, Anne ; Graf, Alexander ; Brüggemann, Nicolas ; Drüe, Clemens ; Esser, Odilia ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Heinemann, Günther ; Jacobs, Cor M.J. ; Mauder, Matthias ; Moene, Arnold F. ; Ney, Patrizia ; Pütz, Thomas ; Rebmann, Corinna ; Rodríguez, Mario Ramos ; Scanlon, Todd M. ; Schmidt, Marius ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Thomas, Christoph K. ; Valler, Veronika ; Zeeman, Matthias J. ; Vereecken, Harry - \ 2019
Biogeosciences 16 (2019)6. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1111 - 1132.

For an assessment of the roles of soil and vegetation in the climate system, a further understanding of the flux components of H 2 O and CO 2 (e.g., transpiration, soil respiration) and their interaction with physical conditions and physiological functioning of plants and ecosystems is necessary. To obtain magnitudes of these flux components, we applied source partitioning approaches after Scanlon and Kustas (2010; SK10) and after Thomas et al. (2008; TH08) to high-frequency eddy covariance measurements of 12 study sites covering different ecosystems (croplands, grasslands, and forests) in different climatic regions. Both partitioning methods are based on higher-order statistics of the H 2 O and CO 2 fluctuations, but proceed differently to estimate transpiration, evaporation, net primary production, and soil respiration. We compared and evaluated the partitioning results obtained with SK10 and TH08, including slight modifications of both approaches. Further, we analyzed the interrelations among the performance of the partitioning methods, turbulence characteristics, and site characteristics (such as plant cover type, canopy height, canopy density, and measurement height). We were able to identify characteristics of a data set that are prerequisites for adequate performance of the partitioning methods. SK10 had the tendency to overestimate and TH08 to underestimate soil flux components. For both methods, the partitioning of CO 2 fluxes was less robust than for H 2 O fluxes. Results derived with SK10 showed relatively large dependencies on estimated water use efficiency (WUE) at the leaf level, which is a required input. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation used for the estimation of foliage temperature (used in WUE) could slightly increase the quality of the partitioning results. A modification of the TH08 approach, by applying a cluster analysis for the conditional sampling of respiration-evaporation events, performed satisfactorily, but did not result in significant advantages compared to the original method versions developed by Thomas et al. (2008). The performance of each partitioning approach was dependent on meteorological conditions, plant development, canopy height, canopy density, and measurement height. Foremost, the performance of SK10 correlated page1112 negatively with the ratio between measurement height and canopy height. The performance of TH08 was more dependent on canopy height and leaf area index. In general, all site characteristics that increase dissimilarities between scalars appeared to enhance partitioning performance for SK10 and TH08.

De bevolking in Afrika verdubbelt, hoe gaan we de monden voeden?
Ittersum, Martin van - \ 2019
Vegetation classification as a mirror of evolution? Thoughts on the syntaxonomy and management of bramble scrubs of the Prunetalia (Rhamno-Prunetea)
Haveman, Rense ; Ronde, Iris de - \ 2019
Biologia 74 (2019)4. - ISSN 0006-3088 - p. 395 - 404.
Apomicts - Inherited ecology - Pruno-Rubion radulae - Pruno-Rubion sprengelii - Rubus - Vegetation geography - Vegetation history

In Germany and the Netherlands, many bramble scrub associations are distinguished on the basis of the occurrence of Rubus species. The associations belonging to the Prunetalia spinosae Tüxen 1952 are usually assigned to the Pruno-Rubion radulae Weber Osnabr Naturwiss Mitt 3:143–150, 1974, but published tables show inconsistencies in the occurrence of alliance character species. In this paper, we compare synoptic tables from different sources from the Netherlands and Germany. From this comparison, it is concluded that the associations can be divided over two alliances, the Pruno-Rubion radulae in central Europe, and the Pruno-Rubion sprengelii Weber Osnabr Naturwiss Mitt 3:143–150, 1974 in northwest Europe (excluding the UK). The differential species of both these alliances coincide to a considerable degree with the indicator species of the phytogeographical Rubus territories as defined by Haveman et al. (J Biogeogr 43:1360-1371, 2016). As can be deduced from recent molecular studies (Sochor et al. Mol Phylogenet Evol 89:13-27, 2015), these territories have an evolutionary background. This is an effect of the unsaturated distribution areas of a large portion of the very young Rubus agamospecies. The same holds true for the two alliances: although they have a different ecology, we argue that their current distribution areas are not a reflection of this ecology, but both their ecology and distribution area are caused by different evolutionary developments.

Corrigendum to “Opinion paper about organic trace pollutants in wastewater: Toxicity assessment in a European perspective"
Pedrazzani, Roberta ; Bertanza, Giorgio ; Brnardić, Ivan ; Cetecioglu, Zeynep ; Dries, Jan ; Dvarionienė, Jolanta ; García-Fernández, Antonio J. ; Langenhoff, Alette ; Libralato, Giovanni ; Lofrano, Giusy ; Škrbić, Biljana ; Martínez-López, Emma ; Meriç, Süreyya ; Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana ; Papa, Matteo ; Schröder, Peter ; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. ; Vogelsang, Christian - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 669 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1062 - 1062.

The authors regret that, despite thoroughly reviewing the manuscript, the content of a paragraph has been duplicated and has to be ignored <For the aerobic acute tests; laboratory-scale fill-and-draw reactors with hydraulic retention time of one day were established and sustained at sludge ages of 10 and 2 days at steady state under aerobic conditions and a series of fully aerated batch reactors for kinetic investigations of peptone-meat extract mixture biodegradation and acute/chronic inhibition of the selected antibiotics (Pala-Ozkok, 2012). Fill and-draw reactors were fed with peptone-meat extract mixture at concentrations characterizing domestic wastewaters. To determine the acute and chronic inhibition effects of the selected antibiotics, batch experiments were conducted with 50 mg/L antibiotic additions. Respirometric tests were performed to determine the effect of antibiotics on unacclimated (acute effect) and acclimated (chronic) biomass, which yielded oxygen uptake rate (OUR) profiles. Obtained OUR profiles were used for simulation to determine the kinetic properties of each activated sludge biomass. The inhibitory impact of selected antibiotics was observed as a decrease in the amount of oxygen consumed in the OUR tests, which led to the conclusion that antibiotics have the property to block the microbial substrate consumption (Ozkok et al., 2011). The kinetic evaluation revealed that antibiotic substances mainly increase endogenous decay levels, the half-saturation constant of the substrate and inhibit hydrolysis of different COD fractions (Pala-Ozkok, 2012).>.

Comparative genomics of plant pathogenic Botrytis species with distinct host specificity
Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A. ; Veloso, Javier ; Staats, Martijn ; Kan, Jan A.L. van - \ 2019
BMC Genomics 20 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2164
Effector - Grey mould - Necrotroph - Secondary metabolite - Secretome

Background: Fungi of the genus Botrytis (presently containing ~ 35 species) are able to infect more than 1400 different plant species and cause losses in a wide range of crops of economic importance. The best studied species is B. cinerea, which has a broad host range and is one of the best studied necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi. Most other Botrytis spp. have a narrow host range and have been studied in less detail. To characterize genomic variation among different representatives of Botrytis spp., we sequenced and annotated the draft genomes of nine Botrytis species: B. calthae, B. convoluta, B. elliptica, B. galanthina, B. hyacinthi, B. narcissicola, B. paeoniae, B. porri and B. tulipae. Results: Bioinformatics and comparative genomics tools were applied to determine a core of 7668 shared protein families in all Botrytis species, which grouped them in two distinct phylogenetic clades. The secretome of all nine Botrytis spp. was similar in number (ranging from 716 to 784 predicted proteins). A detailed analysis of the molecular functions of the secretome revealed that shared activities were highly similar. Orthologs to effectors functionally studied in B. cinerea were also present in the other Botrytis species. A complex pattern of presence/absence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic key enzymes was observed. Conclusions: Comparative genomics of Botrytis show that overall, species share the main signatures and protein families in the secreted proteins, and of known effectors. Our study provides leads to study host range determinants in the genus Botrytis and provides a stepping stone to elucidate the roles of effector candidates in the infection process of these species.

Potential of novel desert microalgae and cyanobacteria for commercial applications and CO2 sequestration
Schipper, Kira ; Muraikhi, Mariam Al; Alghasal, Ghamza Saed H.S. ; Saadaoui, Imen ; Bounnit, Touria ; Rasheed, Rihab ; Dalgamouni, Tasneem ; Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S.J. Al; Wijffels, René H. ; Barbosa, Maria J. - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Phycology (2019). - ISSN 0921-8971 - 13 p.
Carbon capture - CO - Cyanobacteria - Microalgae - Thermotolerance
CO2 fixation by phototrophic microalgae and cyanobacteria is seen as a possible global carbon emissions reducer; however, novel microalgae and cyanobacterial strains with tolerance to elevated temperatures and CO2 concentrations are essential for further development of algae-based carbon capture. Four novel strains isolated from the Arabian Gulf were investigated for their thermotolerance and CO2-tolerance, as well as their carbon capture capability. Two strains, Leptolyngbya sp. and Picochlorum sp., grew well at 40 °C, with productivities of 106.6 ± 10.0 and 87.5 ± 2.1 mg biomass L−1 d−1, respectively. Tetraselmis sp. isolate showed the highest biomass productivity and carbon capture rate of 157.7 ± 10.3 mg biomass L−1 d−1 and 270.8 ± 23.9 mg CO2 L−1 d−1, respectively, both at 30 °C. Under 20% CO2, the biomass productivity increased over 2-fold for both Tetraselmis and Picochlorum isolates, to 333.8 ± 41.1 and 244.7 ± 29.5 mg biomass L−1 d−1. These two isolates also presented significant amounts of lipids, up to 25.6 ± 0.9% and 28.0 ± 2.0% (w/w), as well as presence of EPA and DHA. Picochlorum sp. was found to have a suitable FAME profile for biodiesel production. Both Tetraselmis and Picochlorum isolates showed promising characteristics, making them valuable strains for further investigation towards commercial applications and CO2 capture.
Temporal stability of Orbicella annularis symbioses: a case study in The Bahamas
Kennedy, E.V. ; Tonk, Linda ; Foster, N.L. ; Mumby, P.J. ; Stevens, J.R. - \ 2019
Bulletin of Marine Science 95 (2019)2. - ISSN 0007-4977 - p. 289 - 304.
Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander, 1786), a key reef building species, is unusual among Caribbean corals in the flexibility it displays in its symbioses with dinoflagellates in the family Symbiodiniaceae. This variability has been documented at a range of spatial scales; from within and between colonies to scales spanning the entire species range. However, temporal variability in Symbiodiniaceae communities found within O. annularis colonies is not well understood. Evidence suggests that symbiont communities in this coral species fluctuate temporally in response to environmental stressors (sporadic changes in abundance and in community composition). In this study, we investigated temporal stability of symbiont communities in O. annularis at four sites in The Bahamas over a period spanning 6 yrs. While the dominant symbiont species, Breviolum minutum (LaJeunesse et al.) J.E.Parkinson & LaJeunesse (formerly ITS2-type B1), remained stable across four patch-reef study sites, finer resolution molecular techniques revealed inter-annual variability in the presence/ absence of cryptic species Durusdinium trenchii (LaJeunesse) LaJeunesse (formerly ITS2-type D1a). Durusdinium trenchii is known to play a role in resistance to environmental stress and may have a protective effect under warm conditions. These results suggest that, while it might take an extreme environmental perturbation to trigger a long-term shift in the dominant symbiont, at background levels, less prevalent symbiont taxa are likely to be continually shuffling their relative abundances as they change in response to seasonal or environmental changes.
Pest categorisation of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex
Bragard, C. ; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina ; Serio, Francesco Di; Gonthier, Paolo ; Miret, Josep Anton Jaques ; Fejer Justesen, Annemarie ; MacLeod, A. ; Magnusson, C. ; Milonas, P.G. ; Navas-Cortes, Juan A. ; Werf, W. van der; Wolf, J.M. van der - \ 2019
EFSA Journal 17 (2019)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
bacterial wilt - European Union - intraspecific diversity - pest risk - plant health - plant pest - quarantine
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC), a distinguishable cosmopolitan group of bacterial plant pathogens (including R. solanacearum, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and two
subspecies of Ralstonia syzygii) of the family Burkholderiaceae. The RSSC causes bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops, such as potato, tomato and pepper, but can also cause wilts in other important food crops such as fruit banana, plantain banana and cassava. The pest survives in the soil, and a number of
weed species can also be infected by the pest, often asymptomatically. The RSSC is regulated in Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IAII) (indicated by its former name R. solanacearum, as delimited by Yabuuchi et al.) as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. In addition, Council Directive 1998/57/EC (amended by Commission Directive 2006/63/CE) concerns the measures to be taken within EU Member States (MS) against the RSSC to (a) detect it and determine its distribution, (b) prevent its occurrence and spread, and (c) control it with the aim of eradication. The pest is present in several EU MS, but in all cases with a restricted distribution and under official control. New
phylotypes of the RSSC could enter the EU primarily via host plants for planting (including seed tubers).
The pest could establish in the EU, as climatic conditions are favourable, hosts are common and the pathogen has high adaptability. Spread is mainly via plants for planting. Substantial crop losses in the EU would occur in the presence of RSSC epidemics. The RSSC is regarded as one of the world’s most important phytopathogenic bacteria due to its broad geographical distribution, large host range, aggressiveness, genetic diversity and long persistence in soil and water. The list of hosts and commodities for which the pest is regulated is incomplete due to the high diversity of hosts and the lack of knowledge of the complete host range. Moreover, the comparative epidemiology of the different pathogen species has not yet been studied. The criteria assessed by the Panel for consideration of the RSSC as potential quarantine pest are met, while, for regulated non-quarantine pests, the criterion on the widespread presence in the EU is not met.
Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests
Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Bongers, Frans ; Aide, T.M. ; Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; Calvo-Rodriguez, Sofia ; Chave, Jerome ; César, Ricardo G. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Condit, Richard ; Dallinga, Jorn S. ; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. De; Jong, Ben de; Oliveira, Alexandre De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Dutrieux, Loïc P. ; Espírito-Santo, Mario M. ; Fandino, María C. ; Fernandes, G.W. ; Finegan, Bryan ; García, Hernando ; Gonzalez, Noel ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Hubbell, Stephen ; Jakovac, Catarina C. ; Hernández, Alma Johanna ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Larpin, Denis ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Licona, Juan-Carlos ; Lebrija-trejos, Edwin ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita C.G. ; Mora, Francisco ; Müller, Sandra C. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Oliveira Neto, Silvio Nolasco De; Norden, Natalia ; Nunes, Yule R.F. ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Caros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Aguilar-Cano, José ; Rodriguez-Buritica, Susana ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Romero, Marco Antonio ; Ruíz, Jorge ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Silver, Whendee L. ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Thomas, William Wayt ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Sá Sampaio, Everardo Valadares De; Breugel, Michiel van; Wal, Hans van der; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio ; Veloso, Maria D.M. ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima C.G. ; Villa, Pedro ; Williamson, G.B. ; Zanini, Kátia J. ; Zimmerman, Jess ; Poorter, Lourens - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)3. - ISSN 2375-2548 - 10 p.
Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during secondary succession across gradients in environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbance in an unprecedented multisite analysis for the Neotropics. Secondary forests recover remarkably fast in species richness but slowly in species composition. Secondary forests take a median time of five decades to recover the species richness of old-growth forest (80% recovery after 20 years) based on rarefaction analysis. Full recovery of species composition takes centuries (only 34% recovery after 20 years). A dual strategy that maintains both old-growth forests and species-rich secondary forests is therefore crucial for biodiversity conservation in human-modified tropical landscapes.
Estimating architecture-based metabolic scaling exponents of tropical trees using terrestrial LiDAR and 3D modelling
Lau, Alvaro ; Martius, Christopher ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Jackson, Tobias ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Herold, Martin ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick - \ 2019
Forest Ecology and Management 439 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 132 - 145.
The geometric structure of tree branches has been hypothesized to relate to the mechanical safety and efficiency of resource transport within a tree. As such, the topology of tree architecture links physical properties within a tree and influences the interaction of the tree with its environment. Prior work suggests the existence of general principles which govern tree architectural patterns across of species and bio-geographical regions. In particular, West, Brown and Enquist (WBE, 1997) and Savage et al. (2010) derive scaling exponents (branch radius scaling ratio α and branch length scaling ratio β) from symmetrical branch parameters and from these, an architecture-based metabolic scaling rate (θ) for the whole tree. With this key scaling exponent, the metabolism (e.g., number of leaves, respiration, etc.) of a whole tree, or potentially a group of trees, can be estimated allometrically. Until now, branch parameter values have been measured manually; either from standing live trees or from harvested trees. Such measurements are time consuming, labour intensive and susceptible to subjective errors. Remote sensing, and specifically terrestrial LiDAR (TLS), is a promising alternative, being objective, scalable, and able to collect large quantities of data without destructive sampling. In this paper, we calculated branch length, branch radius, and architecture-based metabolic rate scaling exponents by first using TLS to scan standing trees and then fitting quantitative structure models (TreeQSM) models to 3D point clouds from nine trees in a tropical forest in Guyana. To validate these TLS-derived scaling exponents, we compared them with exponents calculated from direct field measurements of all branches >10 cm at four scales: branch-level, cumulative branch order, tree-level and plot-level. We found a bias on the estimations of α and β exponents due to a bias on the reconstruction of the branching architecture. Although TreeQSM scaling exponents predicted similar θ as the manually measured exponents, this was due to the combination of α and β scaling exponents which were both biased. Also, the manually measured α and β scaling exponents diverged from the WBE's theoretical exponents suggesting that trees in tropical environments might not follow the predictions for the symmetrical branching geometry proposed by WBE. Our study provides an alternative method to estimate scaling exponents at both the branch- and tree-level in tropical forest trees without the need for destructive sampling. Although this approach is based on a limited sample of nine trees in Guyana, it can be implemented for large-scale plant scaling assessments. These new data might improve our current understanding of metabolic scaling without harvesting trees
Hogere opbrengst wordt al gehaald met CO2 dosering
Marcelis, Leo - \ 2019

Onderzoekers in de Verenigde Staten zijn erin geslaagd om tabaksplanten zo te veranderen dat de groei met 40% toeneemt. Wat kan dit betekenen voor de Nederlandse sierteelt? Voor gewassen onder glas zal het niet zo veel effect hebben verwacht Leo Marcelis, hoogleraar Tuinbouw en Productfysiologie. Door de dosering van CO2 wordt een vergelijkbaar effect bereikt. Anderzijds is er in de toekomst wellicht geen CO2 dosering meer nodig

Cancer Prevention Europe
Wild, Christopher P. ; Espina, Carolina ; Bauld, Linda ; Bonanni, Bernardo ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brown, Karen ; Dillner, Joakim ; Forman, David ; Kampman, Ellen ; Nilbert, Mef ; Steindorf, Karen ; Storm, Hans ; Vineis, Paolo ; Baumann, Michael ; Schüz, Joachim - \ 2019
Molecular Oncology 13 (2019)3. - ISSN 1574-7891 - p. 528 - 534.
cancer - Cancer Prevention Europe - Europe

The case for cancer prevention in Europe is the same as for all other parts of the world. The number of cancers is increasing, driven by demographic change and evolution in the exposure to risk factors, while the cost of treating patients is likewise spiralling. Estimations suggest that around 40% of cancers in Europe could be prevented if current understanding of risk and protective factors was translated into effective primary prevention, with further reductions in cancer incidence and mortality by screening, other approaches to early detection, and potentially medical prevention. However, the infrastructure for cancer prevention tends to be fragmented between and within different countries in Europe. This lack of a coordinated approach recently led to the foundation of Cancer Prevention Europe (Forman et al., 2018), a collaborative network with the main aims of strengthening cancer prevention in Europe by increasing awareness of the needs, the associated required resources and reducing inequalities in access to cancer prevention across Europe. This article showcases the need for strengthening cancer prevention and introduces the objectives of Cancer Prevention Europe and its foreseen future role in reducing the European cancer burden.

From water as curative agent to enabling waterscapes : Diverse experiences of the ‘therapeutic
Doughty, Karolina - \ 2019
In: Blue Space, Health and Wellbeing / Foley, Ronan, Kearns, Robin, Kistemann, Thomas, Wheeler, Ben, Routledge - ISBN 9780815359142 - p. 79 - 94.
Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention applied to the experiential relationship between humans and water. Significant insights have been gained into the human-water relationship more broadly, for instance in regard to the rich and evolving meanings of seascapes (Brown and Humberstone, 2015), as well as the growing literature on the health-enabling potential of being in or near water (Foley, 2010, 2011, 2014; Foley and Kistemann, 2015). In relation to questions about water and health, the literature within and beyond health geography exploring ‘therapeutic blue space’ has emerged strongly, contributing to the already large body of work which has applied the concept of therapeutic landscape (Gesler, 1992) to a wide range of contexts, to investigate how environmental, societal and individual factors interact in the creation of health-enabling places (for a scoping review, see Bell et al., 2018). In Gesler’s (1992) original conceptualisation, a therapeutic landscape is a place (a) where a material setting has been created to support the pursuit of health and wellbeing, (b) which is culturally associated with health and (c) where social practices related to ‘healing’ take place. Through these three elements the ‘healing process’ is situated geographically in places. As such, the therapeutic landscape concept has been applied to a wide range of environments from the perspective of exploring the attribution of health-related meaning to places and landscapes by individuals, groups and more broadly societies.
CRISPR-Cas Systems Reduced to a Minimum
Almendros, Cristóbal ; Kieper, Sebastian N. ; Brouns, Stan J.J. - \ 2019
Molecular Cell 73 (2019)4. - ISSN 1097-2765 - p. 641 - 642.

In two recent studies in Molecular Cell, Wright et al. (2019) report complete spacer integration by a Cas1 mini-integrase and Edraki et al. (2019) describe accurate genome editing by a small Cas9 ortholog with less stringent PAM requirements.

Highly Porous Nanocrystalline UiO-66 Thin Films via Coordination Modulation Controlled Step-by-Step Liquid-Phase Growth
Semrau, A.L. ; Wannapaiboon, Suttipong ; Pujari, Sidharam P. ; Vervoorts, Pia ; Albada, Bauke ; Zuilhof, Han ; Fischer, Roland A. - \ 2019
Crystal Growth and Design 19 (2019)3. - ISSN 1528-7483 - p. 1738 - 1747.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) possess exciting properties, which can be tailored by rational material design approaches. Integration of MOFs in functional nano- and mesoscale systems require selective crystallite positioning and thin-film growth techniques. Stepwise layer-by-layer liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) emerged as one of the methods of choice to fabricate MOF@substrate systems. The layer-by-layer approach of LPE allows a precise control over the film thickness and crystallite orientation. However, these advantages were mostly observed in cases of tetra-connected dinuclear paddle-wheel MOFs and Hoffmann-type MOFs. Higher connected MOFs (consisting of nodes with 8-12 binding sites), such as the Zr-oxo cluster based families, are notoriously hard to deposit in an acceptable quality by the stepwise liquid-phase process. Herein, we report the use of coordination modulation (CM) to assist and enhance the LPE growth of UiO-66, Zr 6 O 4 (OH) 4 (bdc) 6 (bdc 2- = 1,4-benzene-dicarboxylate) films. Highly porous and crystalline thin films were obtained with good control of the crystallite domain size and film thickness in the nanoscale regime. The crystallinity (by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction), morphology (by scanning electron microscopy, atomic form microscopy), elemental composition (by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), binding properties (by infrared spectroscopy), and adsorption capacity (by quartz crystal microbalance adsorption experiments) for volatile organic compounds (e.g. CH 3 OH) of the fabricated thin films were investigated. These results substantiate a proof-of-concept of CM-LPE of MOFs and could be the gateway to facilitate in general the deposition of chemically very robust and higher-connected MOF thin films with automatic process-controlled LPE techniques under mild synthetic conditions.

Composition of dissolved organic matter controls interactions with La and Al ions : Implications for phosphorus immobilization in eutrophic lakes
Du, Yingxun ; Zhang, Qiaoying ; Liu, Zhengwen ; He, Hu ; Lürling, Miquel ; Chen, Musong ; Zhang, Yunlin - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 248 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 36 - 47.
Al - Dissolved organic matter - EEM-PARAFAC - Interaction - La - Phosphorus immobilization

Applications of aluminium (Al) salt or lanthanum (La) modified bentonite (LMB) have become popular methodologies for immobilizing phosphorus (P) in eutrophic lakes. The presence of humic substances, has been shown to inhibit this form of treatment due to the complexation with La/Al. However, the effects of other dissolved organic matter (DOM), especially that derived from phytoplankton (the dominant source in eutrophic lakes) are unknown. In this study, the interaction with La/Al of Suwannee River Standard Humic Acid Standard II (SRHA) and algae-derived DOM (ADOM) were investigated and compared. Differed to SRHA which was dominated by polyphenol-like component (76.8%, C1-SRHA), majority in ADOM were protein-like substance, including 41.9% tryptophan-like component (C2-ADOM) and 21.0% tyrosine-like component (C3-ADOM). Two reactions of complexation and coprecipitation were observed between SRHA/ADOM and La/Al. Complexation dominated at low metal inputs less than 10 μM and coprecipitation was the main reaction at higher metal inputs. For ADOM, the tryptophan-like component (C2-ADOM) was the important component to react with metal. The reaction rate for C2-ADOM with La were about two-third of that for C1-SRHA, indicating that the influence of C2-ADOM was significant during the P immobilization by La/Al-based treatment in eutrophic lakes. The P removal data in the presence of ADOM confirmed the significant inhibition of ADOM. In addition, based on the composition of coprecipitates and relatively biodegradable character of tryptophan-like substances (C2-ADOM), the coprecipitation of ADOM was assumed to reduce the stability of precipitated P in eutrophic lakes. The release of P from the potential biodegradation of the coprecipitates and thus the possible decline of the performance of P immobilization by La/Al-based treatments is an important work in the future.

Stekende insecten Griendtsveen 2015-2018
Verdonschot, Piet F.M. ; Dekker, Dorine T.B.M. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Zoetwaterecosystemen, Wageningen Environmental Research (Notitie Zoetwatersystemen, Wageningen Environmental Research ) - ISBN 9789463434232 - 60
De inventarisatie van steekmuglarven leverde in 2016 vier kleinere gebiedsdelen op met hoge aantallen steekmuglarven (de zogenaamde ‘hotspots’). In april-mei 2017 en 2018 zijn de larveninventarisaties herhaald. Hieruit bleek dat de larven van de moerassteekmug A. cinereus over het gehele gebied verspreid zijn met op twee van de vier ‘hotspots’ de hoogste aantallen. In de periode daarna vielen in beide jaren de meeste locaties droog. Het jaar 2017 was een droog jaar waarbij al vroeg in het voorjaar, mogelijk zelfs in de winter, veel potentiële tijdelijke wateren droog stonden. Na een natte winter werd 2018 een nog extremer droog jaar met veel droogval in het gebied. Het patroon van ontwikkeling van volwassen steekmuggen liet over 2017 een ‘klassiek’ beeld van een moerassteekmuggenpopulatie zien met hoge aantallen in het voorjaar die daarna snel uitdoven. Alleen in juni trad additioneel een kleine populatie van plantenboorsteekmuggen op. Dit beeld is een gevolg van het opdrogen van tijdelijke wateren in het voorjaar. De in totaal lagere aantallen in het gehele gebied en de beperking van deze aantallen tot de maand mei hebben ertoe geleid dat in het dorp Griendtsveen in 2017 geen overlast is ervaren. 2018 daarentegen was in de winter normaal nat wat, mogelijk in combinatie met de natheid van het gebied, leidde tot zeer hoge aantallen moerassteekmuggen. Dit waren de hoogste aantallen tot nu toe gemeten. De verdeling van de aantallen over de jaren 2015-2018 naar zone rondom en in het dorp laat zien dat er ieder jaar een afname van de aantallen optreedt richting de dorpskern. In de periode 2015-2018 is het aantallen verzamelde knutten jaarlijks toegenomen. De aantallen zijn in 2018 viermaal hoger t.o.v. 2015. Dit kan samenhangen met grotere oppervlakken nattere gebiedsdelen, nattere weilanden aan de zuidzijde, in het dorp en aan de westzijde. Ondanks de aanpak van de knutten hotspot, wat lokaal voor een aanzienlijke vermindering heeft gezorgd, zet de ontwikkeling van de knutten in andere gebiedsdelen (nog) door. De adviezen voor maatregelen om de ‘hotspots’ aan te pakken zijn in 2017 in gang gezet en ten dele in 2018 uitgevoerd. De resultaten zijn nog niet zichtbaar in de voorjaarsmetingen van 2018 omdat op dat moment de maatregelen nog moesten worden geïmplementeerd.
On-farm trials as 'infection points'? a response to Wall et al.
Andersson, J.A. ; Krupnik, T.J. ; Roo, N. De - \ 2019
Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)2. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 195 - 199.

In their response to our paper on the problems of using on-farm trials in efforts to scale-out new crop production technologies and practices among smallholder farmers, Wall et al. (2018) focus on our descriptions of on-farm trials in just one of the three case studies of Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D) projects that were presented. They argue we did not understand the projects' philosophy and that the biases in farmer and site selection we discussed, do not exist in the southern Africa case study.

Mogelijk grootste landbouwdoorbraak in tijden: 40 procent meer opbrengst uit gewassen
Marcelis, Leo - \ 2019

Het is mogelijk de grootste landbouwtechnologische doorbraak in tijden. Amerikaanse gewastechnologen zijn erin geslaagd de fotosynthese van planten op te voeren – een truc waar wetenschappers al decennia naar op zoek zijn. In eerste veldproeven levert dat nu al 40 procent extra opbrengst op.

Anaerobic fungal communities differ along the horse digestive tract
Mura, Erica ; Edwards, Joan ; Kittelmann, Sandra ; Kaerger, Kerstin ; Voigt, Kerstin ; Mrázek, Jakub ; Moniello, Giuseppe ; Fliegerova, Katerina - \ 2019
Fungal Biology 123 (2019)3. - ISSN 1878-6146 - p. 240 - 246.
Anaerobic fungi - Diversity - Equine hindgut - ITS1 - Uncultured

Anaerobic fungi are potent fibre degrading microbes in the equine hindgut, yet our understanding of their diversity and community structure is limited to date. In this preliminary work, using a clone library approach we studied the diversity of anaerobic fungi along six segments of the horse hindgut: caecum, right ventral colon (RVC), left ventral colon (LVC), left dorsal colon (LDC), right dorsal colon (RDC) and rectum. Of the 647 ITS1 clones, 61.7 % were assigned to genus level groups that are so far without any cultured representatives, and 38.0 % were assigned to the cultivated genera Neocallimastix (35.1 %), Orpinomyces (2.3 %), and Anaeromyces (0.6 %). AL1 dominated the group of uncultured anaerobic fungi, particularly in the RVC (88 %) and LDC (97 %). Sequences from the LSU clone library analysis of the LDC, however, split into two distinct phylogenetic clusters with low sequence identity to Caecomyces sp. (94–96 %) and Liebetanzomyces sp. (92 %) respectively. Sequences belonging to cultured Neocallimastix spp. dominated in LVC (81 %) and rectum (75.5 %). Quantification of anaerobic fungi showed significantly higher concentrations in RVC and RDC compared to other segments, which influenced the interpretation of the changes in anaerobic fungal diversity along the horse hindgut. These preliminary findings require further investigation.

Touch and plant defence : volatile communication with neighbours
Douma, Jacob C. ; Anten, Niels P.R. - \ 2019
Journal of Experimental Botany 70 (2019)2. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 371 - 374.
Plants use many cues to get the latest news on their environment, from different parts of the light spectrum predicting future shading by neighbours, to volatiles released by insect-infested plants preparing neighbouring plants for future attack, or touch providing information about impending mechanical stress or herbivore attacks. Markovic et al. (2019) have now shown that gentle touching of leaves leads to emission of volatiles that can activate the same set of defence genes in neighbouring plants as were up-regulated in the touched plant.
DOF2.1 Controls Cytokinin-Dependent Vascular Cell Proliferation Downstream of TMO5/LHW
Smet, Wouter ; Sevilem, Iris ; Luis Balaguer, Maria Angels de; Wybouw, Brecht ; Mor, Eliana ; Miyashima, Shunsuke ; Blob, Bernhard ; Roszak, Pawel ; Jacobs, Thomas B. ; Boekschoten, Mark ; Hooiveld, Guido ; Sozzani, Rosangela ; Helariutta, Ykä ; Rybel, Bert De - \ 2019
Current Biology 29 (2019)3. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 520 - 529.e6.
cytokinin signaling - DOF-type transcription factor - plant vascular development - procambium divisions

Smet et al. capture the transcriptional responses upon simultaneous TMO5/LHW induction and identify DOF2.1 as part of the cytokinin-dependent downstream responses. Furthermore, they show that DOF2.1 and its closest homologs control periclinal and radial procambium divisions in distinct zones of this tissue.

Does artemether-lumefantrine administration affect mosquito olfactory behaviour and fitness?
Boer, Jetske G. de; Busula, Annette O. ; Berge, Jet Ten; Dijk, Tessa S. van; Takken, Willem - \ 2019
Malaria Journal 18 (2019). - ISSN 1475-2875
Antimalarial medication - Epidemiology - Gametocytes - Host-searching - Olfaction - Post-treatment transmission - Skin odour

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the recommended treatment against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections, and ACT is widely used. It has been shown that gametocytes may be present after ACT and transmission to mosquitoes is still possible. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is a broadly used artemisinin-based combination medicine. Here, it is tested whether AL influences behaviour and fitness of Anopheles mosquitoes, which are the main vectors of P. falciparum. RESULTS: Dual-choice olfactometer and screenhouse experiments showed that skin odour of healthy human individuals obtained before, during and after AL-administration was equally attractive to Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, apart from a small (but significant) increase in mosquito response to skin odour collected 3 weeks after AL-administration. Anopheles coluzzii females fed on parasite-free blood supplemented with AL or on control-blood had similar survival, time until oviposition and number of eggs produced. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, AL does not appear to influence malaria transmission through modification of vector mosquito olfactory behaviour or fitness. Extending these studies to Plasmodium-infected individuals and malaria mosquitoes with parasites are needed to further support this conclusion.

How Does the Seasonal Cycle Control Equatorial Atlantic Interannual Variability?
Prodhomme, C. ; Voldoire, A. ; Exarchou, E. ; Deppenmeier, A.L. ; García-Serrano, J. ; Guemas, V. - \ 2019
Geophysical Research Letters 46 (2019)2. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 916 - 922.
Atlantic Niño - Bjerkness feedback - coupled model - systematic error - Tropical Atlantic

It has long been thought that reducing mean-state biases would lead to improvements in variability. However, so far, there is no confirmation of a relation between model mean biases and variability. While most coupled models exhibit substantial sea surface temperature (SST) biases in the Tropical Atlantic, they are still able to reproduce reasonable SST variability in the basin. We investigate the relationship between the first- and second-order moments of the SST distribution in the equatorial Atlantic using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 simulations. Results suggest that the ability of the coupled models to properly reproduce the interannual variability is linked to their ability to simulate a realistic seasonal cycle evolution, that is, a realistic cold tongue development and a realistic Bjerknes feedback during the beginning of summer, rather than to their ability to represent the summer SST climatology.

Global atmospheric CO2 inverse models converging on neutral tropical land exchange, but disagreeing on fossil fuel and atmospheric growth rate
Gaubert, Benjamin ; Stephens, Britton B. ; Basu, Sourish ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Deng, Feng ; Kort, Eric A. ; Patra, Prabir K. ; Peters, Wouter ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Saeki, Tazu ; Schimel, David ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der; Wofsy, Steven ; Yin, Yi - \ 2019
Biogeosciences 16 (2019)1. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 117 - 134.

We have compared a suite of recent global CO2 atmospheric inversion results to independent airborne observations and to each other, to assess their dependence on differences in northern extratropical (NET) vertical transport and to identify some of the drivers of model spread. We evaluate posterior CO2 concentration profiles against observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-To-Pole Observations (HIPPO) aircraft campaigns over the mid-Pacific in 2009-2011. Although the models differ in inverse approaches, assimilated observations, prior fluxes, and transport models, their broad latitudinal separation of land fluxes has converged significantly since the Atmospheric Carbon Cycle Inversion Intercomparison (TransCom 3) and the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) projects, with model spread reduced by 80% since TransCom 3 and 70% since RECCAP. Most modeled CO2 fields agree reasonably well with the HIPPO observations, specifically for the annual mean vertical gradients in the Northern Hemisphere. Northern Hemisphere vertical mixing no longer appears to be a dominant driver of northern versus tropical (T) annual flux differences. Our newer suite of models still gives northern extratropical land uptake that is modest relative to previous estimates (Gurney et al., 2002; Peylin et al., 2013) and near-neutral tropical land uptake for 2009- 2011. Given estimates of emissions from deforestation, this implies a continued uptake in intact tropical forests that is strong relative to historical estimates (Gurney et al., 2002; Peylin et al., 2013). The results from these models for other time periods (2004-2014, 2001-2004, 1992-1996) and reevaluation of the TransCom 3 Level 2 and RECCAP results confirm that tropical land carbon fluxes including deforestation have been near neutral for several decades. However, models still have large disagreements on ocean-land partitioning. The fossil fuel (FF) and the atmospheric growth rate terms have been thought to be the best-known terms in the global carbon budget, but we show that they currently limit our ability to assess regional-scale terrestrial fluxes and ocean-land partitioning from the model ensemble.

Comparing Arabidopsis receptor kinase and receptor protein-mediated immune signaling reveals BIK1-dependent differences
Wan, Wei Lin ; Zhang, Lisha ; Pruitt, Rory ; Zaidem, Maricris ; Brugman, Rik ; Ma, Xiyu ; Krol, Elzbieta ; Perraki, Artemis ; Kilian, Joachim ; Grossmann, Guido ; Stahl, Mark ; Shan, Libo ; Zipfel, Cyril ; Kan, Jan A.L. van; Hedrich, Rainer ; Weigel, Detlef ; Gust, Andrea A. ; Nürnberger, Thorsten - \ 2019
New Phytologist 221 (2019)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 2080 - 2095.
Arabidopsis - immune receptor - immune signaling comparison - plant immunity - receptor kinase - receptor protein

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense microbial patterns and activate innate immunity against attempted microbial invasions. The leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RK) FLS2 and EFR, and the LRR receptor protein (LRR-RP) receptors RLP23 and RLP42, respectively, represent prototypical members of these two prominent and closely related PRR families. We conducted a survey of Arabidopsis thaliana immune signaling mediated by these receptors to address the question of commonalities and differences between LRR-RK and LRR-RP signaling. Quantitative differences in timing and amplitude were observed for several early immune responses, with RP-mediated responses typically being slower and more prolonged than those mediated by RKs. Activation of RLP23, but not FLS2, induced the production of camalexin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that RLP23-regulated genes represent only a fraction of those genes differentially expressed upon FLS2 activation. Several positive and negative regulators of FLS2-signaling play similar roles in RLP23 signaling. Intriguingly, the cytoplasmic receptor kinase BIK1, a positive regulator of RK signaling, acts as a negative regulator of RP-type immune receptors in a manner dependent on BIK1 kinase activity. Our study unveiled unexpected differences in two closely related receptor systems and reports a new negative role of BIK1 in plant immunity.

FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes : Citrus-derived flavoring ingredients
Cohen, Samuel M. ; Eisenbrand, Gerhard ; Fukushima, Shoji ; Gooderham, Nigel J. ; Guengerich, F.P. ; Hecht, Stephen S. ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Bastaki, Maria ; Davidsen, Jeanne M. ; Harman, Christie L. ; McGowen, Margaret ; Taylor, Sean V. - \ 2019
Food and Chemical Toxicology 124 (2019). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 192 - 218.
Botanical - Citrus - GRAS - Natural flavor complex - Safety evaluation

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavoring ingredients. This publication is the first in a series and summarizes the evaluation of 54 Citrus-derived NFCs using the procedure outlined in Smith et al. (2005) and updated in Cohen et al. (2018) to evaluate the safety of naturally-occurring mixtures for their intended use as flavoring ingredients. The procedure relies on a complete chemical characterization of each NFC intended for commerce and organization of each NFC's chemical constituents into well-defined congeneric groups. The safety of the NFC is evaluated using the well-established and conservative threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept in addition to data on absorption, metabolism and toxicology of members of the congeneric groups and the NFC under evaluation. As a result of the application of the procedure, 54 natural flavor complexes derived from botanicals of the Citrus genus were affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under their conditions of intended use as flavoring ingredients based on an evaluation of each NFC and the constituents and congeneric groups therein.

Neoliberalism in Denial in Actor-oriented PES Research? A Rejoinder to Van Hecken et al. (2018) and a Call for Justice
Fletcher, Robert ; Büscher, Bram - \ 2019
Ecological Economics 156 (2019). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 420 - 423.
Agency - Justice - Neoliberalism - Payment for ecosystem services - Structure

In this response to Van Hecken et al. (2018), we seek to clarify the analysis (Fletcher and Büscher, 2017) they critique in the face of gross distortion and redirect the discussion back to the point we sought to make: that it is crucial to point out that PES is a neoliberal conservation paradigm, and that this acknowledgement should be made even if PES implementation is far from any neoliberal “ideal” in practice. Only by following this nuanced perspective on PES that integrates agency and structure can we acknowledge what is inherently flawed about the paradigm: namely that it constrains broader opportunities for social and environmental justice beyond how local actors subject to PES interventions creatively appropriate the mechanism. This is why we titled our original article “The PES Conceit,” as its promotion constrains these broader opportunities, even as they do not work out as planned.

Photo-stability of a flavonoid dye in presence of aluminium ions
Villela, Alexandre ; Vuuren, Monique S.A. van; Willemen, Hendra M. ; Derksen, Goverdina C.H. ; Beek, Teris A. van - \ 2019
Dyes and Pigments 162 (2019). - ISSN 0143-7208 - p. 222 - 231.
Flavonoid - Light-fastness - Luteolin - Natural dye - Reseda luteola - Weld

The main colouring compounds of the dye plant weld (Reseda luteola L.) are the flavones luteolin (lut), lut-7-O-glucoside and lut-7,3ʹ-O-diglucoside. Alum (an aluminium salt)-premordanted wool dyed with weld leads to yellow colours that are of low resistance to light. The photo-stability of lut in aerated methanol–water 8:2 (v/v) solution upon irradiation with light above 300 nm was studied at different lut–Al3+ ratios. Experiments using extracts of weld to dye wool premordanted with increasing quantities of aluminium salts were also carried out. The photo-stability of lut in the polar protic solvent and the photo-resistance (light-fastness) of the colour of weld-dyed wool decrease with increasing concentrations of aluminium ions. Thus, the lower the [Al3+] used for mordanting the wool, the more light-fast its colour. Lowering the [Al3+] appears to have no negative influence on the wash-fastness of the colour. As the gain in light-fastness by the use of low [Al3+] to premordant the wool is not extensive, however, this does not seem to be a way to meet today's requirement of light-fastness of the colours of dyed textiles by itself. Nevertheless, it may be part of a bigger strategy to address the need for increased light-fastness of the colour of wool dyed with weld. Implementation of this approach by dyers is expected to clarify whether it results in benefits for textile dyeing practice.

Managing Eutrophication in a Tropical Brackish Water Lagoon : Testing Lanthanum-Modified Clay and Coagulant for Internal Load Reduction and Cyanobacteria Bloom Removal
Magalhães, Leonardo de; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Furtado, Luciana Lima ; Drummond, Erick ; Leite, Vivian Balthazar Gonçalves ; Mucci, Maíra ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Moraes Huszar, Vera Lúcia de; Lürling, Miquel ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi - \ 2019
Estuaries and coasts 42 (2019)2. - ISSN 1559-2723 - p. 390 - 402.
Geo-engineering - Lake restoration - PAC - Phoslock - Phosphorus control - Sediment release

The release of phosphorus (P) stored in the sediment may cause long-term delay in the recovery of lakes, ponds, and lagoons from eutrophication. In this paper, we tested on a laboratory scale the efficacy of the flocculant polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and a strong P-binding agent (lanthanum-modified bentonite, LMB) on their ability to flocculate a cyanobacterial bloom and hamper P release from a hypertrophic, brackish lagoon sediment. In addition, critical P loading was estimated through PCLake. We showed that cyanobacteria could be effectively settled using a PAC dose of 2 mg Al L−1 combined with 400-mg L−1 LMB; PAC 8 mg Al L−1 alone could also remove cyanobacteria, although its performance was improved adding low concentrations of LMB. The efficacy of LMB to bind P released from the sediment was tested based on potentially available sediment P. A dose of 400 g LMB m−2 significantly reduced the P release from sediment to over-standing water (either deionized water or water from the lagoon with and without cyanobacteria). In sediment cores, LMB + PAC reduced sediment P flux from 9.9 (± 3.3) to − 4.6 (± 0.3) mg P m−2 day−1 for the experimental period of 3 months. The internal P load was 14 times higher than the estimated P critical load (0.7 mg P m−2 day−1), thus even if all the external P sources would be ceased, the water quality will not improve promptly. Hence, the combined LMB + PAC treatment seems a promising in-lake intervention to diminish internal P load bellow the critical load. Such intervention is able to speed up recovery in the brackish lagoon once external loading has been tackled and at a cost of less than 5% of the estimated dredging costs.

Coarse-grained models for diffusion in oil-filled hydrogel microbeads
Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2019
Food Hydrocolloids 89 (2019). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 294 - 301.
hydrogel microbeads - diffusion - Fick's Law - Maxwell-Cattaneo - Multi-mode model
Diffusion of digestive enzymes in oil-filled hydrogel microbeads is a highly complex process which is difficult to model, particularly for systems with high volume fractions of incorporated nano-droplets. In this paper coarse-grained models for this process are compared. The results show that the interplay between adsorption at the oil-water interface and diffusion through the matrix of the bead can lead to a front-like motion of the enzyme. This motion can be described by combining the mass balance for the enzyme with a Maxwell-Cattaneo type equation for the mass flux vector. Solutions of the resulting partial differential equation show that when τ<<td (where τ and td are characteristic times for adsorption and diffusion) the time evolution of the enzyme concentration is identical to the profile calculated using Fick's law. For τ>>td and time t≤τ the enzyme migrates through the hydrogel as a sharp front. The position of the front changes linearly with time, and this corresponds well with findings of a recent experimental study (van Leusden et al. (2018), Food Hydrocolloids, 85, 242–247). The effects of poly-dispersity of the interior oil droplet phase were described using a multi-mode generalization of the Maxwell-Cattaneo model, and the results show that a widening of the droplet size distribution leads to smoothing of the front. The results show that this level of coarse-grained modelling can capture the dynamics of these complex systems quite accurately.
Beyond the blind spot of knowledge-based territorial development: the mission of Metropolitan Food Clusters
Gerritsen, A.L. ; Lagendijk, A. ; Kranendonk, R.P. ; Cofino, M. - \ 2019
European Planning Studies 27 (2019)1. - ISSN 0965-4313 - p. 1 - 20.
The rise of knowledge-based territorial development has been fuelled primarily by aspirations of competitiveness and wealth creation. Another upcoming ambition is that of sustainability, not only as an accompanying goal but as a core mission driving territorial initiatives such as clusters development. This paper explores mission-driven territorial development along theoretical and empirical lines. The paper starts by discussing a basic heuristic model intersecting the three concepts of ‘mission’, ‘knowledge’ (distinguishing ‘substantive’ and ‘significant’ knowledge) and ‘governance’. This leads to an analytical framework for territorial development focusing on (1) mission formulation, (2) production and exchange of knowledge in supportive milieus, (3) embedding of substantive knowledge, (4) anchoring of significant knowledge, and (5) feeding of significant knowledge into the (re) design of institutions and strategies of policy design and implementation. This framework is applied to three cases of ‘Metropolitan Food Clusters’ to illustrate and test the framework. The paper shows how especially the continuous anchoring of significant knowledge poses major challenges to knowledge-based territorial development and should be a central issue in future research and policy.
Sampling for digital soil mapping : A tutorial supported by R scripts
Brus, D.J. - \ 2019
Geoderma 338 (2019). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 464 - 480.
K-means sampling - Kriging - Latin hypercube sampling - Model-based sampling - Spatial coverage sampling - Spatial simulated annealing - Variogram

In the past decade, substantial progress has been made in model-based optimization of sampling designs for mapping. This paper is an update of the overview of sampling designs for mapping presented by de Gruijter et al. (2006). For model-based estimation of values at unobserved points (mapping), probability sampling is not required, which opens up the possibility of optimized non-probability sampling. Non-probability sampling designs for mapping are regular grid sampling, spatial coverage sampling, k-means sampling, conditioned Latin hypercube sampling, response surface sampling, Kennard-Stone sampling and model-based sampling. In model-based sampling a preliminary model of the spatial variation of the soil variable of interest is used for optimizing the sample size and or the spatial coordinates of the sampling locations. Kriging requires knowledge of the variogram. Sampling designs for variogram estimation are nested sampling, independent random sampling of pairs of points, and model-based designs in which either the uncertainty about the variogram parameters, or the uncertainty about the kriging variance is minimized. Various minimization criteria have been proposed for designing a single sample that is suitable both for estimating the variogram and for mapping. For map validation, additional probability sampling is recommended, so that unbiased estimates of map quality indices and their standard errors can be obtained. For all sampling designs, R scripts are available in the supplement. Further research is recommended on sampling designs for mapping with machine learning techniques, designs that are robust against deviations of modeling assumptions, designs tailored at mapping multiple soil variables of interest and soil classes or fuzzy memberships, and probability sampling designs that are efficient both for design-based estimation of populations means and for model-based mapping.

Large-scale generation and analysis of filamentous fungal DNA barcodes boosts coverage for kingdom fungi and reveals thresholds for fungal species and higher taxon delimitation
Vu, D. ; Groenewald, M. ; Vries, M. de; Gehrmann, T. ; Stielow, B. ; Eberhardt, U. ; Al-Hatmi, A. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Cardinali, G. ; Houbraken, J. ; Boekhout, T. ; Crous, P.W. ; Robert, V. ; Verkley, G.J.M. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 135 - 154.
Automated curation - Biological resource centre - Fungi - ITS - LSU - Taxonomic thresholds

Species identification lies at the heart of biodiversity studies that has in recent years favoured DNA-based approaches. Microbial Biological Resource Centres are a rich source for diverse and high-quality reference materials in microbiology, and yet the strains preserved in these biobanks have been exploited only on a limited scale to generate DNA barcodes. As part of a project funded in the Netherlands to barcode specimens of major national biobanks, sequences of two nuclear ribosomal genetic markers, the Internal Transcribed Spaces and 5.8S gene (ITS) and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S Large Subunit (LSU), were generated as DNA barcode data for ca. 100 000 fungal strains originally assigned to ca. 17 000 species in the CBS fungal biobank maintained at the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Utrecht. Using more than 24 000 DNA barcode sequences of 12 000 ex-type and manually validated filamentous fungal strains of 7 300 accepted species, the optimal identity thresholds to discriminate filamentous fungal species were predicted as 99.6 % for ITS and 99.8 % for LSU. We showed that 17 % and 18 % of the species could not be discriminated by the ITS and LSU genetic markers, respectively. Among them, ∼8 % were indistinguishable using both genetic markers. ITS has been shown to outperform LSU in filamentous fungal species discrimination with a probability of correct identification of 82 % vs. 77.6 %, and a clustering quality value of 84 % vs. 77.7 %. At higher taxonomic classifications, LSU has been shown to have a better discriminatory power than ITS. With a clustering quality value of 80 %, LSU outperformed ITS in identifying filamentous fungi at the ordinal level. At the generic level, the clustering quality values produced by both genetic markers were low, indicating the necessity for taxonomic revisions at genus level and, likely, for applying more conserved genetic markers or even whole genomes. The taxonomic thresholds predicted for filamentous fungal identification at the genus, family, order and class levels were 94.3 %, 88.5 %, 81.2 % and 80.9 % based on ITS barcodes, and 98.2 %, 96.2 %, 94.7 % and 92.7 % based on LSU barcodes. The DNA barcodes used in this study have been deposited to GenBank and will also be publicly available at the Westerdijk Institute's website as reference sequences for fungal identification, marking an unprecedented data release event in global fungal barcoding efforts to date.

Software Development for Deterministic Prediction of Selection Response in Livestock Breeding Programs Using Genomic Information
Su, H. ; Bijma, P. ; Werf, Julius van der; Dekkers, J.C.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Science 96 (2018)Supplement 2. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 19 - 19.
Theory to predict selection response in traditional livestock breeding programs has been well developed, validated and implemented in software in the past decades, for example in SelAction (Rutten et al. 2002), which has been successful as a tool to predict selection response in traditional livestock breeding programs for a wide range of population structures and selection strategies. This software used standard quantitative genetics theory and selection index theory to develop deterministic recursive equations, which model changes of trait means and variance-covariance structures to predict asymptotic response to multiple trait selection using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) estimated breeding values (EBV). Nowadays genetic improvement can further be enhanced by genomic predictions, which provide more accurate estimates of breeding values of animals in their earlier life and can improve the efficiency of breeding programs. While statistical methods to estimate genomic breeding values are now widely available, optimizing the use of genomics in practical livestock breeding programs is limited due to the lack of computer software that implements available theories. We're hereby to present a computer program that extends SelAction. Genomic information is included as the average phenotype of groups of individuals with both genotypic and phenotypic information following Wientjes et al. (2016). The heterogeneity of genomic information is considered in terms of the degree of relationship between selection candidates and the individuals that are both genotyped and phenotyped (van der Werf et al., 2015). This software can be used by breeders to reliably compare alternative breeding programs and for investment decisions for breeding programs that include genomic information.
Gene expression polymorphism underpins evasion of host immunity in an asexual lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen
Pais, Marina ; Yoshida, Kentaro ; Giannakopoulou, Artemis ; Pel, M. ; Cano, Liliana M. ; Oliva, Ricardo F. ; Witek, Kamil ; Lindqvist-Kreuze, Hannele ; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. ; Kamoun, Sophien - \ 2018
asexual reproduction - clonal lineage - Phytophthora infestans - emergent pathogen - evolution - immunity - phenotypic plasticity - expression polymorphism - structural variation - copy number variation - loss of heterozygosity
Background Outbreaks caused by asexual lineages of fungal and oomycete pathogens are a continuing threat to crops, wild animals and natural ecosystems (Fisher MC, Henk DA, Briggs CJ, Brownstein JS, Madoff LC, McCraw SL, Gurr SJ, Nature 484:186–194, 2012; Kupferschmidt K, Science 337:636–638, 2012). However, the mechanisms underlying genome evolution and phenotypic plasticity in asexual eukaryotic microbes remain poorly understood (Seidl MF, Thomma BP, BioEssays 36:335–345, 2014). Ever since the 19th century Irish famine, the oomycete Phytophthora infestans has caused recurrent outbreaks on potato and tomato crops that have been primarily caused by the successive rise and migration of pandemic asexual lineages (Goodwin SB, Cohen BA, Fry WE, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:11591–11595, 1994; Yoshida K, Burbano HA, Krause J, Thines M, Weigel D, Kamoun S, PLoS Pathog 10:e1004028, 2014; Yoshida K, Schuenemann VJ, Cano LM, Pais M, Mishra B, Sharma R, Lanz C, Martin FN, Kamoun S, Krause J, et al. eLife 2:e00731, 2013; Cooke DEL, Cano LM, Raffaele S, Bain RA, Cooke LR, Etherington GJ, Deahl KL, Farrer RA, Gilroy EM, Goss EM, et al. PLoS Pathog 8:e1002940, 2012). However, the dynamics of genome evolution within these clonal lineages have not been determined. The objective of this study was to use a comparative genomics and transcriptomics approach to determine the molecular mechanisms that underpin phenotypic variation within a clonal lineage of P. infestans. Results Here, we reveal patterns of genomic and gene expression variation within a P. infestans asexual lineage by comparing strains belonging to the South American EC-1 clone that has dominated Andean populations since the 1990s (Yoshida K, Burbano HA, Krause J, Thines M, Weigel D, Kamoun S, PLoS Pathog 10e1004028, 2014; Yoshida K, Schuenemann VJ, Cano LM, Pais M, Mishra B, Sharma R, Lanz C, Martin FN, Kamoun S, Krause J, et al. eLife 2:e00731, 2013; Delgado RA, Monteros-Altamirano AR, Li Y, Visser RGF, van der Lee TAJ, Vosman B, Plant Pathol 62:1081–1088, 2013; Forbes GA, Escobar XC, Ayala CC, Revelo J, Ordonez ME, Fry BA, Doucett K, Fry WE, Phytopathology 87:375–380, 1997; Oyarzun PJ, Pozo A, Ordonez ME, Doucett K, Forbes GA, Phytopathology 88:265–271, 1998). We detected numerous examples of structural variation, nucleotide polymorphisms and loss of heterozygosity within the EC-1 clone. Remarkably, 17 genes are not expressed in one of the two EC-1 isolates despite apparent absence of sequence polymorphisms. Among these, silencing of an effector gene was associated with evasion of disease resistance conferred by a potato immune receptor. Conclusions Our findings highlight the molecular changes underpinning the exceptional genetic and phenotypic plasticity associated with host adaptation in a pandemic clonal lineage of a eukaryotic plant pathogen. We observed that the asexual P. infestans lineage EC-1 can exhibit phenotypic plasticity in the absence of apparent genetic mutations resulting in virulence on a potato carrying the Rpi-vnt1.1 gene. Such variant alleles may be epialleles that arose through epigenetic changes in the underlying genes.
LPJmL4 model output for the publications in GMD: LPJmL4 - a dynamic global vegetation model with managed land: Part I – Model description and Part II – Model evaluation
Schaphoff, Sibyll ; Bloh, Werner von; Rammig, Anja ; Thonicke, Kirsten ; Biemans, H. ; Forkel, Matthias ; Gerten, Dieter ; Heinke, Jens ; Jägermeyr, Jonas ; Knauer, Jürgen ; Langerwisch, Fanny ; Lucht, Wolfgang ; Müller, Christoph ; Rolinski, Susanne ; Waha, Katharina - \ 2018
soil carbon - vegetation carbon - global carbon balance - permafrost distribution - discharge - fractional burned area - crop yields - global dynamic vegetation model - vegetation dynamics
LPJmL4 is a process-based model that simulates climate and land-use change impacts on the terrestrial biosphere, the water and carbon cycle and on agricultural production. The LPJmL4 model combines plant physiological relations, generalized empirically established functions and plant trait parameters. The model incorporates dynamic land use at the global scale and is also able to simulate the production of woody and herbaceous short-rotation bio-energy plantations. Grid cells may contain one or several types of natural or agricultural vegetation. A comprehensive description of the model is given by Schaphoff et al. (2017a, The data presented here represent some standard LPJmL4 model results for the land surface described in Schaphoff et al. (2017a,). Additionally, these results are evaluated in the companion paper of Schaphoff et al. (2017b, The data collection includes some key output variables made with different model setups described by Schaphoff et al. (2017b). The data cover the entire globe with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and temporal coverage from 1901-2011 on an annual basis for soil, vegetation, aboveground and litter carbon as well as for vegetation distribution, crop yields, sowing dates, maximum thawing depth, and fire carbon emissions. Vegetation distribution is given for each plant functional type (PFT), crop yields, and sowing dates are given for each crop functional type (CFT), respectively. Monthly data are provided for the carbon fluxes (net primary production, gross primary production, soil respiration) and the water fluxes (transpiration, evaporation, interception, runoff, and discharge) and for absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and albedo.
Detecting signatures of pathogen-mediated selection using population genomics
Buckley, James ; Holub, Eric B. ; Koch, Marcus A. ; Vergeer, P. ; Mable, Barbara K. - \ 2018
SRP148549 - PRJNA472246 - Arabidopsis lyrata
This study used RAD-sequencing of Arabidopsis lyrata individuals sampled from across the range of two subspecies, A.l. lyrata (N.American) and A.l .petraea (European), to determine genome-wide patterns of polymorphism and genetic structure in this species. Using these data we also investigated whether genomic smoothing approaches across RAD loci could detect genomic regions showing signatures of balancing selection, specifically significantly elevated diversity and either elevated differentiation among geographic regions or shifts towards intermediate allele frequencies within regions. We then identified annotated disease resistance loci within these genomic regions of interest. Together this project shows that genome scans based on a small number of individuals sampled from a wide range of populations confirmed the relative scarcity of signatures of balancing selection across the genome, but also identified new potential disease resistance candidates within genomic regions showing signatures of balancing selection that would be strong candidates for further sequencing efforts.
Het is de bodem…
Visser, S.M. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
Er zijn talloze dagelijkse handelingen waar we nauwelijks bij stilstaan. We trekken ’s ochtends de deur achter ons dicht, eten groenten, drinken een glas water en gaan met de auto naar ons werk. Heeft u zich wel eens afgevraagd wat er aan de basis van al deze handelingen ligt? Geen idee? Het is de bodem.
De vloek van het vlees: slecht voor klimaat, milieu en mensheid
Zanten, Hannah van - \ 2018

Al meer dan tien jaar is duidelijk: vlees eten is slecht voor het klimaat, het milieu en de emnsheid. De ene wetenschapper zegt: helemaal stoppen. De ander zegt: 20 gram dierlijk eiwit per dag moet nog wel kunnen.

Increased water-use efficiency and reduced CO₂ uptake by plants during droughts at a continental-scale
Peters, W. - \ 2018
Model data used in analysis and figures of the Peters et al., (2018) Nature Geoscience paper. This zip file contains 7 individual CSV files with annual mean numbers for Net Ecosystem Exchange (units of PgC/yr), and discrimination for δ¹³C of vegetation (units of ‰). These numbers are averaged over all Northern Hemisphere land grid boxes of each model.
Van meerdere kanten bekeken : een meervoudig analyse- & evaluatiekader voor beleid gericht op maatschappelijkebetrokkenheid bij natuur : op maat te maken met behulp van kaarten
Westerink, J. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Wit, E. de; Heide, C.M. van der; Boer, T.A. de; Gerritsen, A.L. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (Rapporten Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur &amp; Milieu. WOt-rapport 130) - 147
Encouraging societal engagement with nature has become a goal of Dutch nature policy in its ownright. As such, there is a growing need to evaluate policies for societal engagement. However, lessexperience has been gained on evaluating this type of policy than, for example, policies for protectingand promoting biodiversity. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) asked StatutoryResearch Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment of Wageningen University & Research to develop ananalysis & evaluation framework for policies that seek to foster societal engagement with nature. The framework can be used for the reflexive evaluation of the Nature Pact (Natuurpact) and of theAssessments of the Dutch Human Environment. This report contains a multiple analysis & evaluation framework that can be used to compile specific analysis & evaluation frameworks for policies that seek to foster societal engagement with nature. The framework is presented in the form of a set of cards in the Appendix. The main body of the reportcontains the conceptual underpinnings and explanatory manual.
Data from: Brassicales phylogeny inferred from 72 plastid genes: a reanalysis of the phylogenetic localization of two paleopolyploid events and origin of novel chemical defenses
Edger, Patrick P. ; Hall, Jocelyn C. ; Harkess, Alex ; Tang, Michelle ; Mohammadin, S. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Xiong, Zhiyong ; Leebens-Mack, James ; Meyers, Blake C. ; Sytsma, Kenneth J. ; Koch, Marcus A. ; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A. ; Pires, J.C. - \ 2018
Glucosinolates - Phylogenetics - Plastomes - polyploidy - Whole Genome Duplications
PREMISE OF THE STUDY - Previous phylogenetic studies employing molecular markers have yielded various insights into the evolutionary history across Brassicales, but many relationships between families remain poorly supported or unresolved. A recent phylotranscriptomic approach utilizing 1155 nuclear markers obtained robust estimates for relationships among 14 of 17 families. Here we report a complete family‐level phylogeny estimated using the plastid genome. METHODS - We conducted phylogenetic analyses on a concatenated data set comprising 44,926 bp from 72 plastid genes for species distributed across all 17 families. Our analysis includes three additional families, Tovariaceae, Salvadoraceae, and Setchellanthaceae, that were omitted in the previous phylotranscriptomic study. KEY RESULTS - Our phylogenetic analyses obtained fully resolved and strongly supported estimates for all nodes across Brassicales. Importantly, these findings are congruent with the topology reported in the phylotranscriptomic study. This consistency suggests that future studies could utilize plastid genomes as markers for resolving relationships within some notoriously difficult clades across Brassicales. We used this new phylogenetic framework to verify the placement of the At‐α event near the origin of Brassicaceae, with median date estimates of 31.8 to 42.8 million years ago and restrict the At‐β event to one of two nodes with median date estimates between 85 to 92.2 million years ago. These events ultimately gave rise to novel chemical defenses and are associated with subsequent shifts in net diversification rates. CONCLUSIONS - We anticipate that these findings will aid future comparative evolutionary studies across Brassicales, including selecting candidates for whole‐genome sequencing projects.
Data from: Comparative genomics of the nonlegume Parasponia reveals insights into evolution of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium symbioses
Velzen, R. van; Holmer, R. ; Bu, F. ; Rutten, L.J.J. ; Zeijl, A.L. van; Liu, W. ; Santuari, L. ; Cao, Q. ; Sharma, Trupti ; Shen, D. ; Roswanjaya, Yuda ; Wardhani, T. ; Seifi Kalhor, M. ; Jansen, Joelle ; Hoogen, D.J. van den; Gungor, Berivan ; Hartog, M.V. ; Hontelez, Jan ; Verver, J.W.G. ; Yang, Wei-Cai ; Schijlen, E.G.W.M. ; Repin, Rimi ; Schilthuizen, M. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Heidstra, R. ; Miyata, Kana ; Fedorova, E. ; Kohlen, W. ; Bisseling, A.H.J. ; Smit, S. ; Geurts, R. - \ 2018
comparative genomics - copy number variation - evolution - nitrogen fixation - symbiosis - Parasponia andersonii - Parasponia rigada - Parasponia rugosa - Trema levigata - Trema orientalis - Trema tomentosa
Nodules harboring nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are a well-known trait of legumes, but nodules also occur in other plant lineages, with rhizobia or the actinomycete Frankia as microsymbiont. It is generally assumed that nodulation evolved independently multiple times. However, molecular-genetic support for this hypothesis is lacking, as the genetic changes underlying nodule evolution remain elusive. We conducted genetic and comparative genomics studies by using Parasponia species (Cannabaceae), the only nonlegumes that can establish nitrogen-fixing nodules with rhizobium. Intergeneric crosses between Parasponia andersonii and its nonnodulating relative Trema tomentosa demonstrated that nodule organogenesis, but not intracellular infection, is a dominant genetic trait. Comparative transcriptomics of P. andersonii and the legume Medicago truncatula revealed utilization of at least 290 orthologous symbiosis genes in nodules. Among these are key genes that, in legumes, are essential for nodulation, including NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) and RHIZOBIUM-DIRECTED POLAR GROWTH (RPG). Comparative analysis of genomes from three Parasponia species and related nonnodulating plant species show evidence of parallel loss in nonnodulating species of putative orthologs of NIN, RPG, and NOD FACTOR PERCEPTION. Parallel loss of these symbiosis genes indicates that these nonnodulating lineages lost the potential to nodulate. Taken together, our results challenge the view that nodulation evolved in parallel and raises the possibility that nodulation originated ∼100 Mya in a common ancestor of all nodulating plant species, but was subsequently lost in many descendant lineages. This will have profound implications for translational approaches aimed at engineering nitrogen-fixing nodules in crop plants
Van Nederlandse plantensoorten krijgt bijna de helft het te warm
Wamelink, Wieger - \ 2018

Nederland is nu al eigenlijk te warm voor zo’n honderd plantensoorten. Bij een verdere temperatuurstijging met vier graden krijgen bijna vijfhonderd planten het moeilijk. Dat stelt het natuurbeheer voor dilemma’s

The remarkably high number of transitions from marine to terrestrial habitats and vice versa as an adaptation that could have contributed to the ecological success of nematodes
Helder, J. ; Schratzberger, M. ; Holterman, M.H.M. - \ 2018
Nematodes have been most successful in colonizing soils and marine sediments: it is the only major metazoan group which is persistently abundant and diverse across realms. In marine sediments of shallow waters, nematodes are present at densities between 0,5 and 5 million individuals per m2 (Soetaert et al., 2009). In soil, the number of nematodes under non-extreme environmental conditions ranges from 2-20 million individuals per m2 (Bongers, 1994). In both soil and marine sediments, the density of other, second most abundant metazoans, including polychaetes and harpacticoid copepods in marine sediments, and mites and springtails in terrestrial soils, are about an order of magnitude lower. These data about nematode abundance and diversity prompt questions about the factors underlying the ecological success of this rather basal Ecdysozoan group. One of the main factors contributing to their ecological success could be their ecological flexibility. Using a phylum-wide SSU rDNA data base harbouring over 3,500 taxa allowed us to pinpoint at least 30 major habitat transitions. In Clades 1-6 (formerly referred to as Adenophorea) these transitions were bidirectional, whereas most likely members of Clades 8-12 (previously known as Secernentea) showed exclusively transitions from terrestrial to marine systems. We relate these transitions to the evolution and diversification of the secretory-excretory (S-E) systems as well as to feeding habits. Their ability to feed on types of food sources that are available both in soils and marine sediments such as bacteria, protists, and other nematodes, and to parasitize organismal groups present in both systems including lower and higher plants as well as a wide range of (in)vertebrates will have contributed to the ecological flexibility and the evolutionary success of nematodes.
Ontwikkeling van enkele droogvallende mosselbanken in de Nederlandse Waddenzee: situatie 2017
Glorius, S.T. ; Meijboom, A. ; Wal, J.T. van der; Cremer, J.S.M. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 138) - 55
Wageningen Marine Research bestudeert de ontwikkeling op de lange termijn van een aantal individuele droogvallende mosselbanken in de Nederlandse Waddenzee met speciale aandacht voor de eigenschappen die het al dan niet overleven van mosselbanken bepalen. Het onderzoek wordt uitgevoerd in het WOT-thema Informatievoorziening Natuur. Een groot deel van de hier bestudeerde banken blijkt zich te kunnen handhaven sinds de start van het onderzoek dan wel ontstaan van de bank. In zijn algemeenheid blijkt dat de mosselbanken na het jaar van ontstaan langzaam in oppervlakte, bedekkingspercentage en populatiedichtheid achteruitgaan en dat het aandeel lege schelpen, macroalgen, en zeepokken toeneemt. De afname in oppervlakte en bedekking wordt af en toe tenietgedaan door een goede mosselbroedval waarna het proces opnieuw begint. Zo ontstaat er een mosselbank met meerdere jaarklassen. Introductie van Japanse oesters in bestaande mosselbanken blijkt een algemeen verschijnsel wat resulteert in een hoger bedekkingspercentage en een afname in de mosselbiomassa.---Wageningen Marine Research is studying the long-term development of a number of individual intertidal mussel beds in the Dutch Wadden Sea to identify the characteristics that determine the survival of such beds. The study is being carried out as part of the WOT theme Nature Information Infrastructure. A large proportion of the mussel beds have been able to maintain themselves since the beginning of the study or the establishment of the bed. After formation of a new mussel bed they gradually decline in area, coverage and population density, and the proportion of empty shells, macroalgae and barnacles increase. The decline in size and coverage is occasionally reversed by a good mussel spatfall, after which the process begins again. Japanese oysters have settled in all beds, leading to higher coverage and a decline in mussel biomass.
Pieter de Wolf over kringlooplandbouw
Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
Wat is kringlooplandbouw? En waarom is het volgens veel wetenschappers en minister Carola Schouten belangrijk dat we die kant op gaan? Wetenschapper Pieter de Wolf legt uit hoe veel Nederlandse boeren al actief bezig zijn met kringlooplandbouw en over zijn werk dat daarbij komt kijken.
‘Biobased is al lang volwassen’ : Jacco van Haveren
Haveren, Jacco van - \ 2018
biobased economy - industry - biobased materials - innovations - research - biomass - bioplastics - fibres

De biobased economie klein? Daar klopt niks van, als je het Jacco van Haveren vraagt. Hij is Programmamanager Biobased Chemicaliën en Brandstoffen bij Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research. 'Kijk maar eens om je heen; qua volume zijn er nu al veel meer biobased materialen, dan materialen gebaseerd op aardolie.'

The emerging accountability regimes for the Sustainable Development Goals and policy integration: Friend or foe?
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Dahl, A.L. ; Persson, Åsa - \ 2018
Loofbomen kunnen de aarde redden, maar misschien is het al te laat
Wamelink, Wieger - \ 2018
Natuur en landschap in de Omgevingswet
Kistenkas, F.H. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Broekmeyer, M.E.A. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 133) - 45
In 2021 wordt de nieuwe Omgevingswet ingevoerd. De exacte consequenties voor de praktijk van natuurbescherming zijn nog niet goed te overzien omdat nog niet alle teksten definitief zijn. Daarnaast is het onduidelijk of de stelselherziening van het omgevingsrecht met de Omgevingswet tot betere besluitvorming zal leiden voor de dossiers natuur en landschap. Eén van de redenen is dat er geen landelijk kader is voor integrale afweging. Wel is al duidelijk dat de omzetting van oude naar nieuwe wetgeving niet geheel beleidsneutraal verloopt. Hierdoor wordt bijvoorbeeld de bescherming van het nationaal natuurnetwerk minder sterk.---The new Environment and Planning Act comes into force in 2021. The exact consequences for nature conservation cannot yet be fully ascertained because the relevant documents have not all been completed. In addition, it is not clear whether or not the reform of environmental and planning law under the Environment and Planning Act will lead to better decision making on nature and landscape. One of the reasons for this is that there is no national framework for integrated appraisal. What is clear is that the transition from the old to the new legislation will not be entirely policy neutral. For one thing, the level of protection afforded the national ecological network will be reduced.
Applying cold incubation profiles during the last week of incubation in a commercial incubator: effects on broiler embryonic mortality, hatchability, and chick quality
Roovert, Inge van; Eijk-Priester, Marieke van; Wijnen, H.J. ; Pol, C. van der - \ 2018
In: The XVth European Poultry Conference (EPC). - Zagreb, Croatia : - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 126 - 126.
chick quality - eggshell temperature - hatchability - incubation
During incubation, an eggshell temperature (EST, as a reflection of embryo temperature) of 37.8°C was long considered to be optimal for broiler embryonic development. However, an EST of 36.7°C (Cold) from embryonic day (E)15 onward may result in a more developed heart at hatching than 37.8°C EST throughout (Control; Maatjens et al., 2016). Maatjens et al.’s study was performed in large incubation chambers with low air velocity, unlike commercial practice. To study Cold EST in a commercial situation with high air velocity and egg density, three trials were conducted. In all trials, EST for Cold was maintained at 37.8°C, decreased to 36.7°C with varying profiles in the last week, and then maintained at 36.7°C till hatching. Cold treatments were always compared to Control (37.8°C EST throughout incubation). 3,000-10,800 broiler eggs from a 30-39 week old parent flock were used. Firstly, EST was decreased within 30 minutes, on E15. Compared to Control, Cold resulted in 2.5x higher embryonic mortality around the time of the EST decrease (P = 0.015), 2.2% more second grade chicks (P = 0.049), and chicks were 0.4cm shorter (indicating lower development) at hatch (P = 0.001). Possibly, the EST decrease happened too early or abruptly. Secondly, EST was decreased gradually in 1 day, from E16-E17. No differences were found in hatchability (P = 0.68) or chick length (P = 0.93), but embryonic mortality around the time of the EST decrease tended to be 1.7x higher for Cold than for Control (P = 0.070). It was thought that an even slower EST decrease may optimize Cold further. Thirdly, EST was decreased using three different profiles. EST was decreased gradually from E16-E17, or quickly (to 36.9°C on E17) and then slowly (to 36.7°C on E18), or slowly (to 37.5°C on E17) and then quickly (to 36.7°C on E18). Embryonic mortality, hatchability, and navel quality did not differ between the Cold profiles and Control (P > 0.29). To conclude, results differed from the low air velocity trial situation. When EST was decreased from 37.8°C to 36.7°C abruptly or too early in development, hatchability and chick quality decreased. A slow transition from E16-E18 can result in chick quality and hatchability similar to Control. Knowledge on these optimal EST decrease profiles can be used to further investigate the effect of Cold incubation during the last days of incubation on post hatch performance and possibly apply it to commercial practice.
De kringlooplandbouw is al begonnen
Zanten, Hannah van; Scholten, Martin ; Boer, Imke de; Oenema, Oene ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Poppe, Krijn - \ 2018
biobased economy - agriculture - cycling - farmers - biomass - agricultural wastes
Vermaatschappelijking van natuur in onderzoek : overzicht van de kennisontwikkeling bij Wageningen Universiteit en Research, 2014-2018
Mattijssen, Thomas ; Kamphorst, Dana - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 48) - 12
Vermaatschappelijking van natuur is al een aantal jaren een centraal thema in het natuurbeleid. Overheden hebben de wens om de actieve betrokkenheid van burgers en bedrijven bij de natuur te vergroten. Ook vanuit de samenleving zelf ontstaan er vele initiatieven rondom natuur en landschap. De aandacht voor vermaatschappelijking van natuur is ook terug te zien in het onderzoek dat de afgelopen jaren bij Wageningen University & Research (WUR) is uitgevoerd. Een groot aantal studies bestudeert hoe vermaatschappelijking beleidsmatig kan worden vormgegeven en hoe maatschappelijke actoren in de praktijk met de natuur omgaan. Op basis van een analyse van 53 bij de WUR uitgevoerde studies rondom vermaatschappelijking van natuur in de periode 2014 - 2018 beschrijven we in deze paper de stand van zaken in het onderzoek.
Genetic analysis of udder conformation traits derived from AMS recording in dairy cows
Ducro, B.J. ; Poppe, H.W.M. ; Mulder, H.A. ; Jong, G. de - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. - WCGALP - 5 p.
Udder conformation is an important trait in dairy cattle breeding because of its relation to milk production (Short and Lawlor, 1992), udder health (Samoré and Groen, 2006) and longevity (Vollema et al., 2000). Breeding values for udder conformation are usually estimated based on udder traits scored by classifiers which show substantial heritability. Alternatively, udder conformation traits can be derived from teat coordinates recorded by automatic milking systems (AMS).
Advantages of deriving udder conformation traits from AMS records as compared to classification scores are that AMS records are more objective, they are recorded every day, and records of not only heifers, but also of older cows are available. Carlström et al. (2016) and Byskov et al. (2012) showed that heritabilities of udder conformation traits derived from AMS records were higher
than heritabilities of udder conformation traits scored by classifiers, and both studies showed that the genetic correlation between the two was close to unity. In both studies only data on first parity cows was used. However, AMS records teat coordinates of all visiting cows, including later parities.Aim of the study was to estimate genetic parameters of udder conformation derived from A S
information in first and higher parities as well as genetic correlation between
Stof tot nadenken : vier manieren om de mode-industrie duurzamer te maken
Louwerens, Tessa ; Poldner, Kim ; Fischer, Arnout ; Broek, Ben van den; Dam, Jan van; Houthoff, Iris - \ 2018
biobased materials - clothing - fibres - algae - biomass - hemp - dyes - pigments - bioplastics - biopolymers - ink - natural products
Mid season sale, twee halen één betalen, op=op. Mode wordt steeds goedkoper en wisselt steeds sneller. Leuk voor het oog, maar achter al die fashion gaat grote milieuschade schuil. WUR-wetenschappers zoeken naar manieren om de kledingindustrie duurzamer te maken. Van hennepstof tot algenverf, van chemisch recyclen tot vintage kleding.
Innovatievermogen van het Rotterdam Food Cluster : bedrijvigheid en vernieuwing in het verleden, heden en de Next Economy
Wubben, E.F.M. ; Huisink, W. ; Kooten, O. van; Huisink, W. ; Bram, E. ; Haren, J. van; Teunissen, D. ; Weerdt, N.P. van der - \ 2018
Rotterdam : - 124 p.
De derde industriële revolutie zal ook op de voedingsmiddelenindustrie van grote invloed zijn. Bedrijven uit de keten, van primaire producenten tot verwerkende industrie, handel en logistiek, worden geconfronteerd met majeure uitdagingen. Dat zien we nu al en zal in de nabije toekomst nog sterker voelbaar worden. Deze ‘agribusiness’ bedrijven zullenook een belangrijke rol moeten spelen in de oplossing van mondiale voedselvraagstukken en de transitie naar een circulaire economie. De vraag is daarom niet óf de keten moet veranderen, maar hoe? En wie zullen daarbij voorop gaan?
De vloek van het vee
Zanten, Hannah van - \ 2018

Al meer dan 10 jaar is duidelijk: vlees eten is slecht voor het klimaat, het milieu en de mensheid. De ene wetenschapper zegt: helemaal stoppen. De ander zegt: 20 gram dierlijk eiwit per dag moet nog wel kunnen.

Blad bemonsteren in essen voor genotypering in nieuw EU project
Copini, Paul - \ 2018

In juni is een Europees project van start gegaan, B4est, waaraan CGN en Wageningen Plant Research aan deelnemen. Er wordt o.a. gewerkt aan het zoeken naar resistentie tegen essentaksterfte door het genotyperen van essen. De eerste bomen zijn al bemonsterd.

Diepvriesproducten zijn normaliter geen issue voor listeria
Beumer, Rijkelt - \ 2018

Een grote listeria-uitbraak in de Hongaarse fabriek van fabrikant Greenyard zorgde in Europa voor 47 zieken en negen doden. Deze treft ook Nederland, al vielen hier geen doden te betreuren. Hoe voorkom je een uitbraak van listeria monocytogenes?

Jarenlang bezig met ontwikkelen van zelfrijdend karretje dat eieren raapt
Vroegindeweij, Bastiaan - \ 2018
eierraaprobot - eiren

Al tien jaar werkt Bastiaan Vroegindeweij (31) uit Ochten aan de ontwikkeling van een eierraaprobot. Hij is wetenschapper, innovator én ondernemer. „Snelheid is geboden, want de concurrentie is in aantocht.”

Naast zijn laptop ligt een oude Nokia. En dat in de hightechomgeving van de universiteit in Wageningen. „Deze gaat niet kapot, vandaar.”

Het begon met een wedstrijd tijdens zijn studie agrotechnologie. „We moesten met een zelf ontwikkelde machine ‘onkruid’ bestrijden tussen maisplanten. Het onkruid was voor ons neergelegd in de vorm van gele golfballen. Daarvoor bouwde ons team een raapwagen.”

Toen kwam bij de zoon van een pluimveehouder de gedachte op om hiermee ook eieren te laten rapen. „De scharrelstallen hebben de kippen een stuk meer welzijn gebracht, maar de boer zelf is vergeten. Die kon voorheen de eieren op stahoogte pakken, maar moet nu vaak door de stallen dwalen en bukken om emmers vol her en der verspreid liggende eieren te rapen; zeker als de kippen nog niet aan hun nest gewend zijn. Wanneer ze blijven liggen, leggen andere kippen er weer hun eieren bij. Als het strooiselpakket aangroeit, neemt het probleem eveneens toe.”

Vroegindeweij wist dat de boer of zijn personeel geen keus heeft. Soms moeten er op onaangename tijden wel drie tot vier rondjes door de stallen worden gemaakt. Tijdrovend, duur en slecht voor de rug.

Het liet hem niet meer los. Tijdens zijn afstudeeropdracht ontwikkelde hij een routeplanner voor een raaprobot, de PoultryBot. Hij kreeg de kans om er zijn promotieonderzoek aan te wijden en zette een machine in elkaar die met behulp van een draaiende spiraal ook de eieren opraapt. „In 2015 was er een leuk concept, maar waren er nog te veel onvolkomenheden. Zo moesten de accu’s om de twee uur worden opgeladen.”

Hij besloot door te gaan en leeft sindsdien grotendeels van zijn spaargeld en de inkomsten van zijn vrouw. „Ik ben met Livestock Robotics onverwacht ondernemer geworden. Het heeft mijn blik enorm verbreed, maar het kost ook veel tijd.”

De jonge ingenieur is nu bezig met een tweede prototype, waarbij het rapen even op de tweede plaats is gekomen. „Het moet eerst zonder enige problemen stabiel in de stal kunnen rondrijden, van maandagochtend vroeg tot vrijdagavond laat.”

Ondertussen zoekt hij naarstig naar investeerders. „Eigenlijk moet de robot binnen twee jaar op de markt komen. Voor de ontwikkeling is in eerste aanleg ongeveer 7 ton nodig. Daarnaast ben ik bezig om boeren bereid te vinden de eerste machines af te nemen.” De raapmachines zouden ongeveer 30.000 euro per stuk moeten kosten. „Ze besparen alleen aan werk al voor 10 mille per jaar.”

De robot kan op termijn meer doen dan alleen boer of personeelslid ontlasten. „Als je heel goed verder ontwikkelt, heb je een apparaat dat de kippen in de gaten houdt en gegevens over hun gedrag verzamelt. Daarbij dient dan goed rekening te worden gehouden met de omgeving waarin de robot zijn werk doet.

Of je dan de boer nog nodig hebt? Misschien gaan we toe naar bedrijven die autonoom draaien. Willen we dat? Het is nog ver weg. Voorlopig hebben we niet anders dan een klein, zelfrijdende karretje dat eieren raapt. Het is bepaald niet eenvoudig om machines te maken die rekening houden met de ingewikkelde werkelijkheid. Kijk naar Google, hoe lang zijn ze daar al niet bezig met een zelfrijdende auto?”

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