Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Electrical energy from CO2 emissions by direct gas feeding in capacitive cells
Legrand, L. ; Schaetzle, O. ; Tedesco, M. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. - \ 2019
Electrochimica Acta 319 (2019). - ISSN 0013-4686 - p. 264 - 276.
Capacitive cell - Capacitive deionization - CO - Membrane potential - Mixing energy

This work demonstrates the possibility to harvest electrical power from CO2 emissions by feeding CO2 and air gas directly into a capacitive cell. Hamelers et al. previously showed, that the available mixing energy of CO2 emitted into the air can be converted into electricity, but at high energy costs for gas-sparging in the process. In the present work, electrical power is generated by feeding the gas directly into the capacitive cell. We investigated three different cell designs (namely, “conventional”, “flow-by(wire)”, and “flow-by(flat)”), by changing both electrode and cell geometry. The flow-by(flat), inspired from fuel cell design, showed the best performance thanks to a high membrane potential (≈190 mV), which is the highest value so far reported from CO2 and air. A maximum membrane permselectivity between CO2 and air of 90% was obtained, i.e., almost double of values reported in previous studies. On the contrary, the “conventional” cell design gave poor performance due to non-optimal gas flow in the cell. We highlight the importance of water management and internal electrical resistance, to indicate directions for future developments of the technology.

The Lemon Car Game Across Cultures: Evidence of Relational Rationality
Hofstede, G.J. ; Jonker, Catholijn ; Verwaart, T. ; Yorke-Smith, Neil - \ 2019
Group Decision and Negotiation 1 (2019). - ISSN 0926-2644 - 29 p.
Negotiation - Culture - Experimental studies - Power distance - Long-term orientation - Lemon car
In cross-cultural business negotiation, culture is known to influence negotiation processes. As a lens to study this effect we deployed the Lemon Car Game, an online negotiation game developed for this purpose (Hofstede et al. in: Proceedings of 39th international simulation and gaming association conference (ISAGA). Technologia, Kaunas, pp 39–46, 2009a; Hofstede et al. in: David, Sichman (eds) Multi-agent-based simulation IX, international workshop, MABS 2008, revised selected papers, LNAI 5269. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–16, 2009b). In this article we report the results from the game, obtained from over 800 players from more than 70 countries. We employ several complementary analyses in a mixed-methods approach.Our findings show that to make sense of the players’ actions during negotiation, economic rationality falls short. A pan-cultural individual-level analysis of actions and stated intentions also fails to yield a coherent picture. Within countries, however, actions and intentions do cohere, as shown by an ecological country-level factor analysis, from which three factors emerge for the sellers at country level: trustworthiness, opportunism, and fairness. We conclude from these findings that, in this game, players are driven by what we call relational rationality: they are rational from the perspective of the social world in which they live, with interpersonal relationships weighing heavily. Relational rationality changes players’ perspective of economic rationality, and thus their observed behaviour in negotiation. Based on this evidence, we extrapolate that relational rationality significantly influences negotiation processes in all cultures.
Data from: Quantitative visual soil observation for visual soil evaluation on dairy farms
Leeuwen, M.W.J. van; Schols, Anne ; Quik, C. - \ 2019
dairy farm - soil quality assessment - visual soil evaluation
Quantitative visual observations were collected for two studies on dairy farms in the Netherlands. Data were collected following the same methodology (Van Leeuwen et al., 2018) based on Visual Soil Assessment of Shepherd (2009).
Invang van mosselzaad in MZI’s : Resultaten 2018
Capelle, Jacob ; Stralen, Marnix van - \ 2019
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C057/19) - 27
Voorliggend technisch rapport behandelt de resultaten van de oogst van mosselzaad van de zogenaamde Mosselzaadinvangsinstalaties (MZI’s) in de Oosterschelde, Voordelta en Waddenzee in 2018 met als doel: Inzicht te geven in de oogstresultaten in relatie tot de afspraken in het mosselconvenant. Inzicht te geven in de geschiktheid van locaties voor MZI’s en de daarbij gebruikte invangsystemen. Dit rapport is opgesteld in opdracht van de PO Mosselcultuur. In 2018 is in de Nederlandse wateren totaal 20,7 miljoen kg (207 duizend mosselton) mosselzaad geoogst van de MZI’s. Het merendeel hiervan, 18,5 miljoen kg (waarvan 17,5 Mkg door transitiebedrijven en 1,0 Mkg door experimenteerbedrijven) is ingevangen in de Waddenzee. In de Oosterschelde is 1,8 miljoen kg en in de Voordelta 0,4 miljoen kg mosselzaad geoogst. Binnen het mosselconvenant is afgesproken de bodemzaadvisserij stapsgewijs af te bouwen in een tempo waarin alternatieve bronnen van mosselzaad productie/vangst kunnen worden ontwikkeld waarmee een rendabele kweek mogelijk blijft. Inmiddels zijn twee stappen gezet en de derde stap is gepland voor 2019. Voor de eerste twee stappen dient respectievelijk 11 Mkg en 14 Mkg mosselzaad beschikbaar te zijn uit MZI’s Met de productie van 18 Mkg mosselzaad in alleen al de Waddenzee kan hierin ruimschoots worden voorzien. Er is totaal 29% meer mosselzaad ingevangen dan in 2017 en 5% meer dan in 2015 (het jaar met de hoogste productie voorafgaand aan 2018). Er is zowel in de Zeeuwse Delta als in de Waddenzee meer substraat in het water gehangen dan in voorgaande jaren. In combinatie met over het algemeen goede oogstresultaten heeft dit geleidt tot een goede oogst in 2018. Uitzonderingen zijn (relatief aan voorgaande jaren) het Malzwin, de Zuidwal, Neeltje Jans en de Voordelta. De oorzaak hiervoor is te vinden in de tegenvallende oogst aan de nettensystemen op deze locaties. Daar staat tegenover dat de oogst per meter touw hoger was dan in voorgaande jaren.
Lelystad Open Teelten: strokenteelt nu al veelbelovend
Apeldoorn, Dirk van; Rijk, Joost - \ 2019
Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, R. ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, D. ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, M.V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-lópez, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, J.A. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
biodiversity - agroecosystem - landscape composition - landscape configuration - functional traits - arthropods - natural pest control - pollination - yields
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non‐crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7‐ and 1.4‐fold respectively. Arable‐dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield‐enhancing ecosystem services.
Data from: Functional diversity and composition of Caatinga woody flora are negatively impacted by chronic anthropogenic disturbance
Ribeiro, Elâine M.S. ; Lohbeck, M.W.M. ; Santos, Braulio ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Leal, Inara R. - \ 2019
human disturbance - community assembly - functional plant traits - seasonally dry tropical forest - wood plant assemblages - biodiversity loss - semiarid ecosystem
Data base describing the functional traits measured and species/abundance data for wood species from Brazilian Caatinga. Ribeiro et al. 2019 - Functional diversity and composition of Caatinga woody flora are negatively impacted by chronic anthropogenic disturbance. Journal of Ecology
Correction: Responses of canopy growth and yield of potato cultivars to weather dynamics in a complex topography: Belg farming seasons in the gamo highlands, Ethiopia
Minda, Thomas T. ; Molen, Michiel K. Van Der; Arellano, Jordi Vilà Guerau De; Chulda, Kanko C. ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2019
Agronomy 9 (2019)5. - ISSN 2073-4395

In Minda et al. [1], an error was introduced. We propose the following amendment: Figure 9, in Section 3.2.4 (Days to Maturity and Yield), should be replaced by the following updated figure. (Figure Presented) The authors apologize for any inconvenience caused to the readers by these changes. The manuscript will be updated and the original will remain online on the article webpage, with a reference to this correction.

Bodembiologie in het natuurbeheer : Nieuwe inzichten en perspectieven
Gerrits, Gijs ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2019
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap (2019)156. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 3 - 7.
Natuurbeheerders denken bij bodem al snel aan abiotische factoren zoals de concentratie stikstof en fosfaat, het organisch stofgehalte, de pH en de structuur. Dit leer je in de meeste groene opleidingen. Langzaam aan groeit echter het besef bij natuurbeheerders dat ook de bodembiologie een belangrijke rol speelt in de structurering van de vegetatie. Dit artikel geeft een inkijkje in belangrijke nieuwe kennis, hypotheses en mogelijke nieuwe perspectieven voor het natuurbeheer.
Future directions for the concept of salutogenesis: a position article
Bauer, G.F. ; Roy, M. ; Bakibinga, P. ; Contu, P. ; Downe, S. ; Eriksson, M. ; Espnes, G.A. ; Jensen, B.B. ; Juvinya Canal, D. ; Lindström, B. ; Mana, A. ; Mittelmark, M.B. ; Morgan, A.R. ; Pelikan, J.M. ; Saboga-Nunes, L. ; Sagy, S. ; Shorey, S. ; Vaandrager, L. ; Vinje, H.F. - \ 2019
Health Promotion International (2019). - ISSN 0957-4824
Aaron Antonovsky advanced the concept of salutogenesis almost four decades ago (Antonovsky, Health, Stress and Coping. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1979; Unravelling the Mystery of Health. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1987). Salutogenesis posits that life experiences shape the sense of coherence (SOC) that helps to mobilize resources to cope with stressors and manage tension successfully (determining one’s movement on the health Ease/Dis-ease continuum). Antonovsky considered the three-dimensional SOC (i.e. comprehensibility, manageability, meaningfulness) as the key answer to his question about the origin of health. The field of health promotion has adopted the concept of salutogenesis as reflected in the international Handbook of Salutogenesis (Mittelmark et al., The Handbook of Salutogenesis. Springer, New York, 2016). However, health promotion mostly builds on the more vague, general salutogenic orientation that implies the need to foster resources and capacities to promote health and wellbeing. To strengthen the knowledge base of salutogenesis, the Global Working Group on Salutogenesis (GWG-Sal) of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education produced the Handbook of Salutogenesis. During the creation of the handbook and the regular meetings of the GWG-Sal, the working group identified four key conceptual issues to be advanced: (i) the overall salutogenic model of health; (ii) the SOC concept; (iii) the design of salutogenic interventions and change processes in complex systems; (iv) the application of salutogenesis beyond health sector. For each of these areas, we first highlight Antonovsky’s original contribution and then present suggestions for future development. These ideas will help guide GWG-Sal’s work to strengthen salutogenesis as a theory base for health promotion.
Planty Organic: voortgang 2018
Burgt, G.J. van der; Rietema, C. ; Bus, M. ; Timmermans, B.G.H. - \ 2019
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 45 p.
Planty Organic is a project and an experimental field in which an arable farming system is developed based on 100% nitrogen input by fixation and non-ploughing. It is started in 2012. An evaluation report has been published (Van der Burgt et al., 2017b) on the period 2012-2016. The system can be used to earn new knowledge that can be applied in the organic or conventional agriculture, on the themes of nitrogen-, phosphorus- or soil-dynamics.This report focuses on the 2018 practice and results, referring to the evaluation report. The 2018 experiences confirm the system performance as described in the evaluation. All goals are achieved: it is a productive system with a high nitrogen efficiency and a very low environmental and climate impact.The production in 2017 was roughly the level as it is expected in the evaluation. This is confirmed in a system simulation with the Ndicea model. It is not plausible that the 2017 production level will be continuously realized. Research questions remain on the internal nutrient dynamics (nitrogen and phosphorus), soil life, rooting systems and CO2 footprint.
Paardengenomica: wiki Groen Kennisnet
Ducro, B.J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
Genomica (of genomics) verwijst naar de techniek waarmee we de opbouw en de werking van het DNA kunnen bestuderen. Op het DNA ligt de genetische aanleg voor de bouw en functionering van het lichaam. Dus als we het DNA beter kunnen lezen en begrijpen dan kunnen we een betere inschatting van de genetische aanleg maken. Genomica doet nu in snel tempo zijn intrede in de paardenfokkerij. Het wordt al veelvuldig gebruikt in de fokkerij van landbouwhuisdieren zoals koeien, varkens en kippen, en heeft tot grote veranderingen in de fokprogramma’s geleid. Genomica biedt grote voordelen waardoor we efficiënter kunnen fokken en dus ook sneller vooruit kunnen gaan.
Wie is er bang... Wil Nederland wel samenleven met de wolf?
Jacobs, Maarten ; Elands, Birgit ; Bovenkerk, Bernice - \ 2019

Ecologen wachten met smart op beschuit met muisjes van de Veluwe. Misschien zíjn er zelfs al welpjes geboren. Het maakt de vraag prangend: hoe welkom is de wolf eigenlijk? Experts zijn er pessimistisch over. ‘In Finland houden ze al protestmarsen.’

Kracht van tegel-voor-plantruilacties is dat er weinig voor nodig is om al een effect te hebben
Krekels, Daan ; Metselaar, K. ; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2019
Vakblad Groen 2019 (2019)05. - ISSN 1660-3534 - p. 18 - 21.
Agricultural Development in Iraq: Opportunities and Challenges
Jongerden, Joost - \ 2019
High level meeting and conference on agricultural development and water management in Iraq, The conference included from Iraqi side the first lady Dr Sarbagh Salih, minister of Agriculture Dr. Saleh al-Hassani and Minister of Environment Dr. Jamal al Adely, and from the side of the Netherlands the deputy ambassador in Iraq, Mr Eric Strating. At the meeting rector Prof. dr. Arthur Mol and Dr Sarbagh Salih signed a letter of intent for cooperation in the field of agriculture.
Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus suis S10, a Virulent Strain Used in Experimental Pig Infections
Gaiser, R.A. ; Zomer, A.L. ; Wells, J.M. ; Baarlen, P. van - \ 2019
Microbiology Resource Announcements 8 (2019)23. - ISSN 2576-098X - 3 p.
Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus suis strain S10, isolated from the tonsils of a healthy pig. S. suis S10 belongs to the highly virulent serotype 2, which includes isolates that cause infectious diseases, including meningitis, in pigs and human. The genome contains a complete prophage that encodes a candidate virulence gene.
What is the best housing temperature to translate mouse experiments to humans?
Keijer, Jaap ; Li, Min ; Speakman, John R. - \ 2019
Molecular Metabolism 25 (2019). - ISSN 2212-8778 - p. 168 - 176.
Basal metabolic rate - Comparative physiology - Housing temperature - Human - Mouse - Thermoneutrality

Objectives: Ambient temperature impinges on energy metabolism in a body size dependent manner. This has implications for the housing temperature at which mice are best compared to humans. In 2013, we suggested that, for comparative studies, solitary mice are best housed at 23–25 °C, because this is 3–5 °C below the mouse thermoneutral zone and humans routinely live 3–5 °C below thermoneutrality, and because this generates a ratio of DEE to BMR of 1.6–1.9, mimicking the ratio found in free-living humans. Methods: Recently, Fischer et al. (2017) challenged this estimate. By studying mice at 21 °C and at 30 °C (but notably not at 23–25 °C) they concluded that 30 °C is the optimal housing temperature. Here, we measured energy metabolism of C57BL/6 mice over a range of temperatures, between 21.4 °C and 30.2 °C. Results: We observed a ratio of DEE to BMR of 1.7 at 27.6 °C and of 1.8 at 25.5 °C, suggesting that this is the best temperature range for housing C57BL/6 mice to mimic human thermal relations. We used a 24 min average to calculate the ratio, similar to that used in human studies, while the ratio calculated by Fisher et al. dependent on short, transient metabolic declines. Conclusion: We concur with Fisher et al. and others that 21 °C is too cool, but we continue to suggest that 30 °C is too warm. We support this with other data. Finally, to mimic living environments of all humans, and not just those in controlled Western environments, mouse experimentation at various temperatures is likely required.

Institutionalized Communication in Markets and Firms
Dolfsma, Wilfred - \ 2019
Journal of Economic Issues 53 (2019)2. - ISSN 0021-3624 - p. 341 - 348.
communication - firms as institutionalized communication - institutions - markets as institutionalized communication

Abstract: How markets and firms function is critically related to what knowledge and information is exchanged between whom, how quickly. Exchange of (symbolic) information needs to be properly institutionalized in order to be understood by others, on the one hand, but, on the other hand, cannot avoid being ambiguous to some degree as well (Dolfsma et al. 2011). Ambiguity allows for the dissent that allows for innovation in the broadest sense of the term. Institutionalization of communication is community-specific. The tension between institutionalization of and ambiguity in communication explains why innovations cannot depart too much from what is known and accepted in a community to be (ultimately) accepted as a legitimate novelty. The view of markets and firms as settings for institutionalized communication and knowledge exchange offers a perspective that institutional economists are well positioned for to offer insights on.

Soil Salinity Limits Plant Shade Avoidance
Hayes, Scott ; Pantazopoulou, Chrysoula K. ; Gelderen, Kasper van; Reinen, Emilie ; Tween, Adrian Louis ; Sharma, Ashutosh ; Vries, Michel de; Prat, Salomé ; Schuurink, Robert C. ; Testerink, Christa ; Pierik, Ronald - \ 2019
Current Biology 29 (2019)10. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 1669 - 1676.e4.
abscisic acid - brassinosteroids - phytochrome - phytohormones - PIF - plant photobiology - salt response - salt stress

Global food production is set to keep increasing despite a predicted decrease in total arable land [1]. To achieve higher production, denser planting will be required on increasingly degraded soils. When grown in dense stands, crops elongate and raise their leaves in an effort to reach sunlight, a process termed shade avoidance [2]. Shade is perceived by a reduction in the ratio of red (R) to far-red (FR) light and results in the stabilization of a class of transcription factors known as PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) [3, 4]. PIFs activate the expression of auxin biosynthesis genes [4, 5] and enhance auxin sensitivity [6], which promotes cell-wall loosening and drives elongation growth. Despite our molecular understanding of shade-induced growth, little is known about how this developmental program is integrated with other environmental factors. Here, we demonstrate that low levels of NaCl in soil strongly impair the ability of plants to respond to shade. This block is dependent upon abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and the canonical ABA signaling pathway. Low R:FR light enhances brassinosteroid (BR) signaling through BRASSINOSTEROID SIGNALING KINASE 5 (BSK5) and leads to the activation of BRI1 EMS SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1). ABA inhibits BSK5 upregulation and interferes with GSK3-like kinase inactivation by the BR pathway, thus leading to a suppression of BES1:PIF function. By demonstrating a link between light, ABA-, and BR-signaling pathways, this study provides an important step forward in our understanding of how multiple environmental cues are integrated into plant development. Intensively farmed crops often experience multiple stresses simultaneously. Here, Hayes et al. show that low-level soil salinity suppresses shade avoidance in plants. Through investigation of the mechanisms underlying this trait, they uncover a regulatory pathway that converges at the level of brassinosteroid signaling.

Phosphorus recovery from co-digested pig slurry : development of the RePeat process
Regelink, Inge ; Ehlert, Phillip ; Smit, Geo ; Everlo, Sjoerd ; Prinsen, Arjan ; Schoumans, Oscar - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2949) - 65
In the Netherlands, the agricultural sector produces more manure than can be applied on agricultural land within the P application standards. The excess amount of manure should be exportedto other regions with a demand for P fertilisers. An alternative for current manure export is manure processing in which manure is processed into valuable fertiliser products. This reports describes a process in which the solid fraction of co-digested manure is processed into a concentrated P fertiliser and a nutrient-poor organic soil improver. The recovered P fertiliser can be used as a secondary raw material for fertiliser production or for export whereas the soil improver can be used on arable soils in the nearby region of the manure treatment plant. The separation process, called RePeat, consists of a acidification and dilution step to extract P from the solid fraction followed by a base addition step to recovery P. The proof of principle was given in a previous report (Schoumans et al., 2017). This reports describes additional laboratory and pilot tests (Chapter 2-4). Attention was given to the reuse of water within the process, the dewatering of calcium phosphate versus struvite and the selection of separation equipment for a demonstration plant. Chapter 5 gives the process mass balances calculated using a mass balance model. Chapter 6 assesses the quality of the organic soil improver in terms of its carbon- and nitrogen mineralisation rate. An example of a business case for the process is included in Chapter 7. The results were used to design a demonstration plant for the RePeat process to be built at Groot Zevert Vergisting B.V. in Beltrum.
'Theoretisch bieden daken genoeg plek': Waar laat Nederland al die zonnepanelen?
Zee, Friso van der - \ 2019
Effects of sub-optimal mobility on production performance of pasture-based dairy cows
O'Connor, A. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2019
In: Advances in Animal Biosciences. - - p. 73 - 73.
Sub-optimal mobility has been identified as the third most important health-related economic loss, after
fertility and mastitis (Bruijnis et al., 2010, Alawneh et al., 2011, Huxley, 2013). It is well known that severe forms of suboptimal
mobility cause losses in terms of milk yield (Enting et al., 1997); however, less is known about the effects of mild
forms of sub-optimal mobility on milk yield and other production performance parameters. Therefore, the objective of this
study was to investigate the effect of sub-optimal mobility on production performance in pasture-based dairy cows.
Selecting the dose metric in reverse dosimetry based QIVIVE : Reply to: ‘Comment on ‘Use of an in vitro–in silico testing strategy to predict inter-species and inter-ethnic human differences in liver toxicity of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids lasiocarpine and riddelliine’ by Ning et al.
Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Ning, Jia ; Chen, Lu ; Wesseling, Sebastiaan ; Strikwold, Marije ; Louisse, Jochem - \ 2019
Archives of Toxicology 93 (2019)5. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 1467 - 1469.
Vissen bij wisselend tij : een notitie over de (cumulatieve) sociaaleconomische effecten van ontwikkelingen die invloed hebben op de Nederlandse kottervisserij
Mol, A. ; Zaalmink, B.W. ; Steins, N.A. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-063) - 17
Naar aanleiding van het rapport ‘Wind op zee’ (Mol et al. 2019) is de vraag gesteld of en hoe de huidige ontwikkelingen, waar de visserijsector mee te maken heeft (Brexit, aanlandplicht en het intrekken van de pulsontheffingen), invloed hebben op de economische waarde voor de visserij in de windparkgebieden en hoe deze ontwikkelingen elkaar beïnvloeden. In deze notitie worden deze interacties kwalitatief omschreven. Daarnaast worden aanbevelingen gedaan om tot een kwantitatieve berekening van de economische gevolgen te komen door middel van het bepalen van scenario’s en het bouwen van een model.
A diagnostic equation for the maximum urban heat island effect of a typical Chinese city: A case study for Xi'an
Zhang, Xi ; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan ; Zhou, Dian ; Duan, Chengjiang ; Holtslag, Albert A.M. - \ 2019
Building and Environment 158 (2019). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 39 - 50.
China - Diagnostic equation - Neighborhood-scale - Urban heat island - Urban morphology - Xi'an

To reduce the vulnerability of urban areas facing high temperatures, it is useful to develop methods to obtain the urban heat island (UHI)intensity. However, it is hard to equip all cities with extensive measurement networks and alternative UHI diagnostic methods are needed. Accordingly, in this paper we evaluate and revise the diagnostic equation designed by Theeuwes et al. (2017)and analyze its application for Xi'an (China), based on long-term summer meteorology data. The evaluation of the default diagnostic equation shows that limited accuracy for Xi'an is caused by the sum of morphological parameters being used outside the original range of calibration. Subsequently, we propose an extended equation, which adds the building fraction to express the morphology of additional spatial categories. This new equation is calibrated against a 3-year dataset and independently validated with data from another year. In addition, a class prediction with three spatial categories is proposed, and verified by independent data of 20 stations in Xi'an in 2018, which enables this formula to be applied in more cities. Altogether, the extended diagnostic equation is an effective method to evaluate the daily maximum UHI intensity (UHI max )on neighborhood-scale, which can be generalized for a whole city area and presents internal intensity differences with multi-points.

Steeds agressievere Phytophthora vraagt nog preciezer werken
Schepers, Huub ; Kessel, Geert Jan - \ 2019

De opkomst van nieuwe agressievere stammen van Phytophthora infestans vraagt volgens WUR-onderzoekers Huub Schepers en Geert Kessel extra alertheid. "De nieuwe klonen EU-36 (Geel 36) en EU-37 (dondergroen 370 verdringen de ook al lastig te bestrijden EU-13 (blauw 13). De middelkeuze, dosering en timing van de bespuitingen komen dus nog preciezer in aanwezigheid van deze twee nieuwe klonen dan tijdens de situatie van zo'n twee jaar geleden, benadrukken de phytophthoraspecialisten.

Hoe goed zuiveren planten de lucht nu echt?
Visser, P.H.B. de - \ 2019
Onder Glas 16 (2019)1. - p. 35 - 35.
Al langere tijd wordt beweerd dat planten de lucht zuiveren van vluchtige organische stoffen.
High sediment export from a trans-Himalayan semi-desert driven by late Holocene climate change and human impact
Reimann, T. ; Menges, Johanna ; Hovius, Niels ; Andermann, Christoff ; Dietze, Michael ; Swoboda, Charlie ; Cook, Kirsten ; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea ; Bonnet, Stephane ; Sachse, Dirk - \ 2019
- 1 p.
Sediment export rates are sensitive to changes in climate, vegetation and human impact, but the direct response of a given landscape to such changes is difficult to unravel. Here, we report a strong landscape response to a disturbance
of a stable, soil covered landscape in a trans-Himalayan valley, which was pushed over an eco-geomorphic tipping point resulting in fast and widespread erosion. We then identify potential drivers for this transition. The upper Kali Gandaki (KG) river valley in Nepal drains the southern edge of the Tibetan plateau in the rain shadow of the High Himalayas, where a scarcely vegetated semi-desert is dissected by deep gullies. These badlands formed in a graben structure storing large amounts of unconsolidated sediments which provide a source of erosion product to the high stream-power river. Due to the high erodibility of this material, the region is particularly sensitive to changes in climate and land use. At the outlet of the upper valley, we estimate that river
suspended sediment concentrations are up to two orders of magnitude higher for a given river discharge than downstream in the monsoon dominated High Himalayan river segment. Even though precipitation rates are low in the upper valley (160 mm/yr to 250 mm/yr) and discharges rarely exceed 100 m3/s, we show that modern erosion efficiency is around five times higher than in the steep and wet, landslide dominated southern part of the catchment. In stark contrast to this modern setting, widespread occurrence of paleosol horizons reflects the persistence of geomorphologically stable conditions during the Holocene until 2.4 ka based on OSL and 14C ages. What pushed this landscape from a soil covered stable state into the erosional state observed today?We investigated human land use and climate change as possible drivers of this transition. Human impact on the landscape has been suggested from 5.4 ka onwards (Miehe et al., 2009) and an increased occurence of archeological sites and evidence of
grazing animals has been reported from 3 ka (Simons et al.,1994). We estimated paleo-hydrological conditions using the hydrogen isotopic composition of plant lipids (Dwax) extracted from the paleosol horizons in the upper KG valley (3500 - 4100 m asl., n=24). Dwax values range from 214 h to 236 h which is offset by 40 h 6 h from the Dwax values of modern shrub leaves sampled at the paleosol sites and modern topsoils sampled along the wetter fringes of the valley. This strongly suggests that soil formation took place under substantially wetter conditions, i.e. an enhanced monsoonal precipitation in the past. The subsequent Late Holocene drying trend combined with human land use likely reduced vegetation cover which then initiated the transition to badland development observed today. Current erosion rates suggest a catchment-average surface lowering rate of one meter per 1000 years, resulting in a strong and irreversible degradation of the landscape and its soils.
Grey mould of strawberry, a devastating disease caused by the ubiquitous necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea
Petrasch, Stefan ; Knapp, Steven J. ; Kan, Jan A.L. van; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara - \ 2019
Molecular Plant Pathology 20 (2019)6. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 877 - 892.
disease management - fruit ripening - fruit-pathogen interaction - plant breeding - plant defence - primary infection - secondary infection

The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea causes grey mould, a commercially damaging disease of strawberry. This pathogen affects fruit in the field, storage, transport and market. The presence of grey mould is the most common reason for fruit rejection by growers, shippers and consumers, leading to significant economic losses. Here, we review the biology and epidemiology of the pathogen, mechanisms of infection and the genetics of host plant resistance. The development of grey mould is affected by environmental and genetic factors; however, little is known about how B. cinerea and strawberry interact at the molecular level. Despite intensive efforts, breeding strawberry for resistance to grey mould has not been successful, and the mechanisms underlying tolerance to B. cinerea are poorly understood and under-investigated. Current control strategies against grey mould include pre- and postharvest fungicides, yet they are generally ineffective and expensive. In this review, we examine available research on horticultural management, chemical and biological control of the pathogen in the field and postharvest storage, and discuss their relevance for integrative disease management. Additionally, we identify and propose approaches for increasing resistance to B. cinerea in strawberry by tapping into natural genetic variation and manipulating host factors via genetic engineering and genome editing.

MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) modified α-alumina membranes for efficient adsorption of dyes from organic solvents
Amirilargani, Mohammad ; Merlet, Renaud B. ; Hedayati, Pegah ; Nijmeijer, Arian ; Winnubst, Louis ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. De; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. - \ 2019
Chemical Communications 55 (2019)28. - ISSN 1359-7345 - p. 4119 - 4122.

To the best of our knowledge, for the first time MIL-53(Al) and NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) modified α-alumina membranes are investigated for the adsorption of organic dyes from organic solvents. These new, modified membranes show excellent adsorption of high concentrations of Rose Bengal dye in methanol and isopropanol solutions.

The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agroecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, David ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, Mario V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair-Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
Ecology Letters (2019). - ISSN 1461-023X
Agroecology - arthropod community - biological control - edge density - pest control - pollination - response trait - semi-natural habitat - trait syndrome - yield

Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non-crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7- and 1.4-fold respectively. Arable-dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield-enhancing ecosystem services.

Monitoring effecten zandsuppletie Leuvenumse beek 2018
Verdonschot, Ralf ; Verdonschot, Piet - \ 2019
Wageningen : Zoetwaterecosystemen, Wageningen Environmental Research (Notitie Zoetwatersystemen, Wageningen Environmental Research ) - ISBN 9789463439282 - 59
In de Leuvenumse beek wordt vanaf 2014 het suppleren van zand als beekherstelmaatregel toegepast door Waterschap Vallei en Veluwe en Natuurmonumenten. Omdat over deze relatief nieuwe maatregel nog niet veel kennis voorhanden is, worden sindsdien de hydromorfologische en biologische ontwikkelingen gevolgd. In 2018zijn metingen verricht aan het profiel van de beekop drie suppletielocaties en is de macrofaunasamenstelling van vijf suppletielocaties onderzocht. Beide zijn herhalingen van al eerder uitgevoerde metingen in 2014-2017, om zo de veranderingen in beeld te krijgen die in gang zijn gezet door het uitvoeren van de maatregelen. Daarnaast is ook de macrofauna van het beekmoeras bovenstrooms van het projectgebied onderzocht, dat in de loop van de jaren vernat is als gevolg van de suppleties.In 2018 speelde het weer een belangrijke rol: hoge afvoerpieken in de winter, zware storm met als gevolg een grote aanvoer van nieuw dood hout en extreme droogte in de zomer en herfsthadden allemaal effect op het beeksysteem. Metingen aan de dwarsprofieltransecten lieten zien dat drie jaar na de laatste suppletie nog steeds zandtransport plaatsvindt. Dit zijn afvoergerelateerde sedimentpulsen(ophoging in het voorjaar, erosie in het najaar), die leiden tot een langzame verplaatsing van zand naar benedenstrooms waar op veel plekken nog steeds ophoging plaatsvindt. Een tweede aanjager van het transport zijn lokale veranderingen van de stromingspatronen in de beek door plotselinge veranderingen in de beek, bijvoorbeeld het invallenvan nieuw dood hout. De macrofaunasamenstelling in de suppletietrajecten week in 2018 af van de eerdere jarenen kenmerkte zich door een grotere variatie in taxonsamenstelling tussen de monsters. Het totaal aantal taxa was daarnaast veel hoger, maar dit werd deels veroorzaakt door het verschijnen van stilstaand-water-soorten die waarschijnlijk profiteerden van de lage afvoer. De meeste kenmerkende beektaxa handhaafden zich, al lieten een klein aantal taxa wel een teruggang zien in de frequentie van voorkomen. Daar stond tegenover dat er ook een aantal kenmerkende soorten nieuw zijn waargenomen in de trajecten in het projectgebiedof zich hadden uitgebreid. Op de suppletielocaties was nog steeds de het eerst gestabiliseerdezone vlakbij de oorspronkelijke suppletieplek het rijkst aan kenmerkende taxa, terwijl de dynamische zone ten opzichte van eerdere bemonsteringen ook een duidelijke stijging in het aantal kenmerkende taxa liet zien met het verouderen van het systeem.Ondanks de veranderde omstandigheden in het beekmoeras ten opzichte van de oorspronkelijke beekloop, met minder stroming en meer waterplanten en organisch materiaal, werdde ecologische kwaliteit als goed beoordeeld op basis van de KRW maatlat voor R5 en zelfszeer goed op basis van de nieuwe moerasbeekmaatlat. Het beekmoeras draagt bij aan de totale biodiversiteit van het stroomgebied omdat er een aantal taxa zijn gevonden die niet op de andere locaties zijn aangetroffen.Het onderzoek laat zien dat het projectgebied drie jaar na de suppleties nog volop in ontwikkeling is; hoe ‘extremere’ jaren zoals 2018 doorwerken op de langere termijn in zowel hydromorfologisch als ecologisch opzicht moet de komende jaren blijken.
Author Correction: The potential of future foods for sustainable and healthy diets
Parodi, A. ; Leip, A. ; Boer, I.J.M. De; Slegers, P.M. ; Ziegler, F. ; Temme, E.H.M. ; Herrero, M. ; Tuomisto, H. ; Valin, H. ; Middelaar, C.E. Van; Loon, J.J.A. Van; Zanten, H.H.E. Van - \ 2019
Nature Sustainability 2 (2019)4. - ISSN 2398-9629 - p. 342 - 347.

In the version of this Article originally published, in Supplementary Table 7, the energy and land-use values for mealworms in Thevenot et al. were mistakenly swapped. The correct values are 65.39 MJ for energy use and 4.31 m 2 for land use. In the same table, the energy and land use values for black soldier fly in Salome et al. were incorrectly given as 0.14 MJ and 41.67 m 2 ; they should have read 7.248 MJ and 0.024 m 2 (respectively). Correcting these values has led to corresponding changes in Fig. 3, Supplementary Figs 2 and 4 and Supplementary Table 8. Additionally, in the panel of Fig. 3 that contains information about vitamin A, the land-use values of 593 for pork and 1914 for beef were incorrect, and should have been 666 and 3238, respectively.

Social network analysis for facilitating the innovative water technologies towards more efficient water use in industrial zone
Tran, Trang - \ 2019
Vietnam Journal of Construction 58 (2019)4-2019. - ISSN 0866-8762 - p. 103 - 108.
Social network analysis - industrial zone - water use efficiency - network
Industrial zones (IZs) in Vietnam require a huge quantity of water for production activities to develop society an economy. However, the quality and quantity of IZ-related water resources are depleted and threatened. In order to prevent water scarcity, mismanagement and wasting of water supplies, it is necessary to develop new technologies to increase water use efficiency in the IZs. However, new technologies would be not fit with the existing socio-institutional framework so that the societal aspects could be transformed to facilitate the innovative technologies. This paper aims to analyse the existing actor network for facilitating the innovative water technologies towards more efficient water use in Hiep Phuoc IZ. Using the results from the collected data, Social Network Analysis (SNA) is applied to understand the social structure and dimension of the four networks (policy, economic, societal and research networks) that govern IZ's water flows (Borgatti et al., 2002; Domenech, 2009; Reed et al., 2009; Ashton, 2008; Steveson and Greenberg, 2000). The findings contribute insight to how the actors correlate among the four networks and their roles in facilitating the technological innovation in Hiep Phuoc Industrial Zone in the South of Vietnam.
Starch gelatinization temperature in sugar and polyol solutions explained by hydrogen bond density
Sman, R.G.M. van der; Mauer, Lisa J. - \ 2019
Food Hydrocolloids 94 (2019). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 371 - 380.
Glass transition - Plasticizers - Starch gelatinization - Viscosity

In this paper we show that the shift of the gelatinization temperature of starch in sugar and polyol solutions is explained by nOH,eff , the volumetric density of hydrogen bonds in the solutions. nOH,eff is computed using the dry glass transition temperatures of the low molecular weight carbohydrates. This correlation of starch gelatinization temperature to nOH,eff is shown for 19 different sugar and polyol compounds in solutions at different concentrations, as measured in an earlier study by Allan et al. (2018). The earlier study found that the measured viscosity of the solutions best correlated to starch gelatinization temperature, but it was assumed that there is a more fundamental property of the sweetener that alters both the viscosity and the starch gelatnization behaviour. Here, it is shown that nOH,eff is this fundamental property responsible for controlling both the viscosity and starch gelatinization temperature differences in the used sugar and polyol solutions. Because nOH,eff is also related to Tg, the glass transition temperature of the carbohydrate solutions, the viscosity of a wide variety of carbohydrate solutions can be mapped to a single master curve if plotted against Tg/T, the ratio of glass transition and the actual temperature. Older hypotheses concerning the shift of the starch gelatinization temperature in carbohydrate solutions have explained it in terms of water activity. However, we show that nOH,eff relates to water activity only for carbohydrates with similar molecular weights. We conclude that sugar and polyol solutions can be viewed effectively as a single solvent, which is characterized by nOH,eff . This measure for volumetric density of hydrogen bonds in these solutions can be used to predict the starch gelatinization temperature in different formulations.

A participatory and practical irrigation scheduling in semiarid areas: the case of Gumselassa irrigation scheme in Northern Ethiopia
Yohannes, Degol Fissahaye ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Eyasu, Y. ; Solomon, H. ; Dam, J.C. van; Froebrich, J. ; Ritzema, H.P. ; Meressa, A. - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 218 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 102 - 114.
CropWat - Hargreaves - Maize - Simple irrigation schedule - Tigray - Water productivity - Yield and yield component

Poor irrigation scheduling practices have been quoted as the major challenges for sustainability of small-scale irrigation schemes in Ethiopia due to complexity of scheduling techniques, cost and inaccessibility of soil-water monitoring tools, lack of various local climatic data and soil-water parameters. For local experts to easily schedule irrigation and to promote adoption by farmers, a cheap and simple computation procedure of irrigation scheduling is needed that considers local resources and opinions. So far, there is no such study in the context of Ethiopia. A simple irrigation scheduling method (Practical) was developed based on the FAO procedure (Brouwer et al., 1989), employing Hargreaves ET 0 equation and the opinions of local farmers and extension agents. Then, the method was validated on-farm through participatory and close observation of farmers by comparing with CropWat simulated (Sophisticated) and local (Traditional) scheduling practices for 2015and 2015/16 irrigation seasons considering maize as indicator crop. Data on irrigation depths, yield and yield components and soil salinity were collected and analysed. Furthermore, a farmers’ day was arranged to collect opinions on the crop stand and scheduling techniques. In both irrigation seasons, the practical irrigation schedule method resulted in higher grain yield while saving substantial amount of water and in significantly higher water productivity (WP) compared to the other methods. Maximum (0.68 kg m −3 in 2015) and minimum (0.47 kg m −3 in 2015/16) WP were found in the practical and sophisticated approaches, respectively. The average root zone salinities among the alterative irrigation scheduling methods were not significantly different, in both irrigation seasons. Farmers’ and experts’ opinions were in favour of the practical scheduling method. The practical irrigation scheduling method is thus recommended for maize, around Gumselassa area. Further, the presented procedure can be adopted for preparation of irrigation calendars of other cops and in other regions.

A Migratory Divide Among Red-Necked Phalaropes in the Western Palearctic Reveals Contrasting Migration and Wintering Movement Strategies
Bemmelen, Rob S.A. van; Kolbeinsson, Yann ; Ramos, Raül ; Gilg, Olivier ; Alves, José A. ; Smith, Malcolm ; Schekkerman, Hans ; Lehikoinen, Aleksi ; Petersen, Ib Krag ; Þórisson, Böðvar ; Sokolov, Aleksandr A. ; Välimäki, Kaisa ; Meer, Tim Van Der; Okill, J.D. ; Bolton, Mark ; Moe, Børge ; Hanssen, Sveinn Are ; Bollache, Loïc ; Petersen, Aevar ; Thorstensen, Sverrir ; González-Solís, Jacob ; Klaassen, Raymond H.G. ; Tulp, Ingrid - \ 2019
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7 (2019). - ISSN 2296-701X - 17 p.
flexibility - itinerancy - migration strategy - Phalaropus lobatus - red-necked phalarope
Non-breeding movement strategies of migratory birds may be expected to be flexibly adjusted to the distribution and quality of habitat, but few studies compare movement strategies among populations using distinct migration routes and wintering areas. In our study, individual movement strategies of red-necked phalaropes (Phalaropus lobatus), a long-distance migratory wader which uses saline waters in the non-breeding period, were studied using light-level geolocators. Results revealed a migratory divide between two populations with distinct migration routes and wintering areas: one breeding in the north-eastern North Atlantic and migrating ca. 10,000 km oversea to the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, and the other breeding in Fennoscandia and Russia migrating
ca. 6,000 km—largely over land—to the Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean). In line with our expectations, the transoceanic migration between the North Atlantic and the Pacific was associated with proportionately longer wings, a more even spread of stopovers in autumn and a higher migration speed in spring compared to the migration between Fennoscandian-Russian breeding grounds and the Arabian Sea. In the wintering period, van Bemmelen et al. Contrasting Movement Strategies in Phalaropes birds wintering in the Pacific were stationary in roughly a single area, whereas individuals wintering in the Arabian Sea moved extensively between different areas, reflecting differences in spatio-temporal variation in primary productivity between the two wintering areas. Our study is unique in showing how habitat distribution shapes movement strategies over the entire non-breeding period within a species.
Moderate intensity Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) as alternative mild preservation technology for fruit juice
Timmermans, R.A.H. ; Mastwijk, H.C. ; Berendsen, L.B.J.M. ; Nederhoff, A.L. ; Matser, A.M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. Van; Nierop Groot, M.N. - \ 2019
International Journal of Food Microbiology 298 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 63 - 73.
Electric field strength - Microbiology - Ohmic heating - Preservation - Pulse width - Thermal reference

Moderate intensity Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) was studied for microbial inactivation as an alternative to high intensity PEF or to classical thermal pasteurization. The process is characterized by the application of electric pulses, allowing an increase of the product temperature by the ohmic heat generated by the pulses. A systematic evaluation of the effect of parameters electric field strength (E) and pulse width (τ) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus plantarum, Salmonella Senftenberg and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in orange juice was carried out in a continuous flow system. A wide range of conditions was evaluated, and both E and τ were shown to be important in the efficacy to inactivate micro-organisms. Remarkably, PEF conditions at E = 2.7 kV/cm and τ = 15–1000 μs showed to be more effective in microbial inactivation than at E = 10 kV/cm and τ = 2 μs. Inactivation kinetics of the tested PEF conditions were compared to an equivalent thermal process to disentangle non-thermal effects (electroporation) from thermal effects responsible for the microbial inactivation. At standard high intensity PEF treatment a non-thermal inactivation at E = 20 kV/cm and τ = 2 μs pulses was observed and attributed to electroporation. Non-thermal effects could also be resolved with moderate intensity PEF at E = 2.7 kV/cm and pulse width between τ = 15–1000 μs. Microbial inactivation at these moderate intensity PEF conditions was studied in more detail at different pH and medium conductivity for E. coli and L. monocytogenes in watermelon juice and coconut water. Under moderate intensity PEF conditions the effectiveness of treatment was independent of pH for all evaluated matrices in the pH range of 3.8–6.0, whereas under high intensity PEF conditions the pH of the product is a critical factor for microbial inactivation. This suggests that the inactivation proceeds through a different mechanism at moderate intensity PEF, and speculations for this mechanism are presented. In conclusion, moderate intensity PEF conditions at E = 2.7 kV/cm and pulse width of 15–1000 μs has potential for industrial processing for the preservation of fruit juices and pH neutral liquid food products.

Source partitioning of H 2 O and CO 2 fluxes based on high-frequency eddy covariance data : A comparison between study sites
Klosterhalfen, Anne ; Graf, Alexander ; Brüggemann, Nicolas ; Drüe, Clemens ; Esser, Odilia ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Heinemann, Günther ; Jacobs, Cor M.J. ; Mauder, Matthias ; Moene, Arnold F. ; Ney, Patrizia ; Pütz, Thomas ; Rebmann, Corinna ; Rodríguez, Mario Ramos ; Scanlon, Todd M. ; Schmidt, Marius ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Thomas, Christoph K. ; Valler, Veronika ; Zeeman, Matthias J. ; Vereecken, Harry - \ 2019
Biogeosciences 16 (2019)6. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1111 - 1132.

For an assessment of the roles of soil and vegetation in the climate system, a further understanding of the flux components of H 2 O and CO 2 (e.g., transpiration, soil respiration) and their interaction with physical conditions and physiological functioning of plants and ecosystems is necessary. To obtain magnitudes of these flux components, we applied source partitioning approaches after Scanlon and Kustas (2010; SK10) and after Thomas et al. (2008; TH08) to high-frequency eddy covariance measurements of 12 study sites covering different ecosystems (croplands, grasslands, and forests) in different climatic regions. Both partitioning methods are based on higher-order statistics of the H 2 O and CO 2 fluctuations, but proceed differently to estimate transpiration, evaporation, net primary production, and soil respiration. We compared and evaluated the partitioning results obtained with SK10 and TH08, including slight modifications of both approaches. Further, we analyzed the interrelations among the performance of the partitioning methods, turbulence characteristics, and site characteristics (such as plant cover type, canopy height, canopy density, and measurement height). We were able to identify characteristics of a data set that are prerequisites for adequate performance of the partitioning methods. SK10 had the tendency to overestimate and TH08 to underestimate soil flux components. For both methods, the partitioning of CO 2 fluxes was less robust than for H 2 O fluxes. Results derived with SK10 showed relatively large dependencies on estimated water use efficiency (WUE) at the leaf level, which is a required input. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation used for the estimation of foliage temperature (used in WUE) could slightly increase the quality of the partitioning results. A modification of the TH08 approach, by applying a cluster analysis for the conditional sampling of respiration-evaporation events, performed satisfactorily, but did not result in significant advantages compared to the original method versions developed by Thomas et al. (2008). The performance of each partitioning approach was dependent on meteorological conditions, plant development, canopy height, canopy density, and measurement height. Foremost, the performance of SK10 correlated page1112 negatively with the ratio between measurement height and canopy height. The performance of TH08 was more dependent on canopy height and leaf area index. In general, all site characteristics that increase dissimilarities between scalars appeared to enhance partitioning performance for SK10 and TH08.

De bevolking in Afrika verdubbelt, hoe gaan we de monden voeden?
Ittersum, Martin van - \ 2019
Vegetation classification as a mirror of evolution? Thoughts on the syntaxonomy and management of bramble scrubs of the Prunetalia (Rhamno-Prunetea)
Haveman, Rense ; Ronde, Iris de - \ 2019
Biologia 74 (2019)4. - ISSN 0006-3088 - p. 395 - 404.
Apomicts - Inherited ecology - Pruno-Rubion radulae - Pruno-Rubion sprengelii - Rubus - Vegetation geography - Vegetation history

In Germany and the Netherlands, many bramble scrub associations are distinguished on the basis of the occurrence of Rubus species. The associations belonging to the Prunetalia spinosae Tüxen 1952 are usually assigned to the Pruno-Rubion radulae Weber Osnabr Naturwiss Mitt 3:143–150, 1974, but published tables show inconsistencies in the occurrence of alliance character species. In this paper, we compare synoptic tables from different sources from the Netherlands and Germany. From this comparison, it is concluded that the associations can be divided over two alliances, the Pruno-Rubion radulae in central Europe, and the Pruno-Rubion sprengelii Weber Osnabr Naturwiss Mitt 3:143–150, 1974 in northwest Europe (excluding the UK). The differential species of both these alliances coincide to a considerable degree with the indicator species of the phytogeographical Rubus territories as defined by Haveman et al. (J Biogeogr 43:1360-1371, 2016). As can be deduced from recent molecular studies (Sochor et al. Mol Phylogenet Evol 89:13-27, 2015), these territories have an evolutionary background. This is an effect of the unsaturated distribution areas of a large portion of the very young Rubus agamospecies. The same holds true for the two alliances: although they have a different ecology, we argue that their current distribution areas are not a reflection of this ecology, but both their ecology and distribution area are caused by different evolutionary developments.

Corrigendum to “Opinion paper about organic trace pollutants in wastewater: Toxicity assessment in a European perspective"
Pedrazzani, Roberta ; Bertanza, Giorgio ; Brnardić, Ivan ; Cetecioglu, Zeynep ; Dries, Jan ; Dvarionienė, Jolanta ; García-Fernández, Antonio J. ; Langenhoff, Alette ; Libralato, Giovanni ; Lofrano, Giusy ; Škrbić, Biljana ; Martínez-López, Emma ; Meriç, Süreyya ; Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana ; Papa, Matteo ; Schröder, Peter ; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. ; Vogelsang, Christian - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 669 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1062 - 1062.

The authors regret that, despite thoroughly reviewing the manuscript, the content of a paragraph has been duplicated and has to be ignored <For the aerobic acute tests; laboratory-scale fill-and-draw reactors with hydraulic retention time of one day were established and sustained at sludge ages of 10 and 2 days at steady state under aerobic conditions and a series of fully aerated batch reactors for kinetic investigations of peptone-meat extract mixture biodegradation and acute/chronic inhibition of the selected antibiotics (Pala-Ozkok, 2012). Fill and-draw reactors were fed with peptone-meat extract mixture at concentrations characterizing domestic wastewaters. To determine the acute and chronic inhibition effects of the selected antibiotics, batch experiments were conducted with 50 mg/L antibiotic additions. Respirometric tests were performed to determine the effect of antibiotics on unacclimated (acute effect) and acclimated (chronic) biomass, which yielded oxygen uptake rate (OUR) profiles. Obtained OUR profiles were used for simulation to determine the kinetic properties of each activated sludge biomass. The inhibitory impact of selected antibiotics was observed as a decrease in the amount of oxygen consumed in the OUR tests, which led to the conclusion that antibiotics have the property to block the microbial substrate consumption (Ozkok et al., 2011). The kinetic evaluation revealed that antibiotic substances mainly increase endogenous decay levels, the half-saturation constant of the substrate and inhibit hydrolysis of different COD fractions (Pala-Ozkok, 2012).>.

Comparative genomics of plant pathogenic Botrytis species with distinct host specificity
Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A. ; Veloso, Javier ; Staats, Martijn ; Kan, Jan A.L. van - \ 2019
BMC Genomics 20 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2164
Effector - Grey mould - Necrotroph - Secondary metabolite - Secretome

Background: Fungi of the genus Botrytis (presently containing ~ 35 species) are able to infect more than 1400 different plant species and cause losses in a wide range of crops of economic importance. The best studied species is B. cinerea, which has a broad host range and is one of the best studied necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi. Most other Botrytis spp. have a narrow host range and have been studied in less detail. To characterize genomic variation among different representatives of Botrytis spp., we sequenced and annotated the draft genomes of nine Botrytis species: B. calthae, B. convoluta, B. elliptica, B. galanthina, B. hyacinthi, B. narcissicola, B. paeoniae, B. porri and B. tulipae. Results: Bioinformatics and comparative genomics tools were applied to determine a core of 7668 shared protein families in all Botrytis species, which grouped them in two distinct phylogenetic clades. The secretome of all nine Botrytis spp. was similar in number (ranging from 716 to 784 predicted proteins). A detailed analysis of the molecular functions of the secretome revealed that shared activities were highly similar. Orthologs to effectors functionally studied in B. cinerea were also present in the other Botrytis species. A complex pattern of presence/absence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic key enzymes was observed. Conclusions: Comparative genomics of Botrytis show that overall, species share the main signatures and protein families in the secreted proteins, and of known effectors. Our study provides leads to study host range determinants in the genus Botrytis and provides a stepping stone to elucidate the roles of effector candidates in the infection process of these species.

Potential of novel desert microalgae and cyanobacteria for commercial applications and CO2 sequestration
Schipper, Kira ; Muraikhi, Mariam Al; Alghasal, Ghamza Saed H.S. ; Saadaoui, Imen ; Bounnit, Touria ; Rasheed, Rihab ; Dalgamouni, Tasneem ; Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S.J. Al; Wijffels, René H. ; Barbosa, Maria J. - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Phycology (2019). - ISSN 0921-8971 - 13 p.
Carbon capture - CO - Cyanobacteria - Microalgae - Thermotolerance
CO2 fixation by phototrophic microalgae and cyanobacteria is seen as a possible global carbon emissions reducer; however, novel microalgae and cyanobacterial strains with tolerance to elevated temperatures and CO2 concentrations are essential for further development of algae-based carbon capture. Four novel strains isolated from the Arabian Gulf were investigated for their thermotolerance and CO2-tolerance, as well as their carbon capture capability. Two strains, Leptolyngbya sp. and Picochlorum sp., grew well at 40 °C, with productivities of 106.6 ± 10.0 and 87.5 ± 2.1 mg biomass L−1 d−1, respectively. Tetraselmis sp. isolate showed the highest biomass productivity and carbon capture rate of 157.7 ± 10.3 mg biomass L−1 d−1 and 270.8 ± 23.9 mg CO2 L−1 d−1, respectively, both at 30 °C. Under 20% CO2, the biomass productivity increased over 2-fold for both Tetraselmis and Picochlorum isolates, to 333.8 ± 41.1 and 244.7 ± 29.5 mg biomass L−1 d−1. These two isolates also presented significant amounts of lipids, up to 25.6 ± 0.9% and 28.0 ± 2.0% (w/w), as well as presence of EPA and DHA. Picochlorum sp. was found to have a suitable FAME profile for biodiesel production. Both Tetraselmis and Picochlorum isolates showed promising characteristics, making them valuable strains for further investigation towards commercial applications and CO2 capture.
Temporal stability of Orbicella annularis symbioses: a case study in The Bahamas
Kennedy, E.V. ; Tonk, Linda ; Foster, N.L. ; Mumby, P.J. ; Stevens, J.R. - \ 2019
Bulletin of Marine Science 95 (2019)2. - ISSN 0007-4977 - p. 289 - 304.
Orbicella annularis (Ellis and Solander, 1786), a key reef building species, is unusual among Caribbean corals in the flexibility it displays in its symbioses with dinoflagellates in the family Symbiodiniaceae. This variability has been documented at a range of spatial scales; from within and between colonies to scales spanning the entire species range. However, temporal variability in Symbiodiniaceae communities found within O. annularis colonies is not well understood. Evidence suggests that symbiont communities in this coral species fluctuate temporally in response to environmental stressors (sporadic changes in abundance and in community composition). In this study, we investigated temporal stability of symbiont communities in O. annularis at four sites in The Bahamas over a period spanning 6 yrs. While the dominant symbiont species, Breviolum minutum (LaJeunesse et al.) J.E.Parkinson & LaJeunesse (formerly ITS2-type B1), remained stable across four patch-reef study sites, finer resolution molecular techniques revealed inter-annual variability in the presence/ absence of cryptic species Durusdinium trenchii (LaJeunesse) LaJeunesse (formerly ITS2-type D1a). Durusdinium trenchii is known to play a role in resistance to environmental stress and may have a protective effect under warm conditions. These results suggest that, while it might take an extreme environmental perturbation to trigger a long-term shift in the dominant symbiont, at background levels, less prevalent symbiont taxa are likely to be continually shuffling their relative abundances as they change in response to seasonal or environmental changes.
Pest categorisation of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex
Bragard, C. ; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina ; Serio, Francesco Di; Gonthier, Paolo ; Miret, Josep Anton Jaques ; Fejer Justesen, Annemarie ; MacLeod, A. ; Magnusson, C. ; Milonas, P.G. ; Navas-Cortes, Juan A. ; Werf, W. van der; Wolf, J.M. van der - \ 2019
EFSA Journal 17 (2019)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
bacterial wilt - European Union - intraspecific diversity - pest risk - plant health - plant pest - quarantine
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC), a distinguishable cosmopolitan group of bacterial plant pathogens (including R. solanacearum, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and two
subspecies of Ralstonia syzygii) of the family Burkholderiaceae. The RSSC causes bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops, such as potato, tomato and pepper, but can also cause wilts in other important food crops such as fruit banana, plantain banana and cassava. The pest survives in the soil, and a number of
weed species can also be infected by the pest, often asymptomatically. The RSSC is regulated in Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IAII) (indicated by its former name R. solanacearum, as delimited by Yabuuchi et al.) as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. In addition, Council Directive 1998/57/EC (amended by Commission Directive 2006/63/CE) concerns the measures to be taken within EU Member States (MS) against the RSSC to (a) detect it and determine its distribution, (b) prevent its occurrence and spread, and (c) control it with the aim of eradication. The pest is present in several EU MS, but in all cases with a restricted distribution and under official control. New
phylotypes of the RSSC could enter the EU primarily via host plants for planting (including seed tubers).
The pest could establish in the EU, as climatic conditions are favourable, hosts are common and the pathogen has high adaptability. Spread is mainly via plants for planting. Substantial crop losses in the EU would occur in the presence of RSSC epidemics. The RSSC is regarded as one of the world’s most important phytopathogenic bacteria due to its broad geographical distribution, large host range, aggressiveness, genetic diversity and long persistence in soil and water. The list of hosts and commodities for which the pest is regulated is incomplete due to the high diversity of hosts and the lack of knowledge of the complete host range. Moreover, the comparative epidemiology of the different pathogen species has not yet been studied. The criteria assessed by the Panel for consideration of the RSSC as potential quarantine pest are met, while, for regulated non-quarantine pests, the criterion on the widespread presence in the EU is not met.
Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests
Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Bongers, Frans ; Aide, T.M. ; Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; Calvo-Rodriguez, Sofia ; Chave, Jerome ; César, Ricardo G. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Condit, Richard ; Dallinga, Jorn S. ; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. De; Jong, Ben de; Oliveira, Alexandre De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Dutrieux, Loïc P. ; Espírito-Santo, Mario M. ; Fandino, María C. ; Fernandes, G.W. ; Finegan, Bryan ; García, Hernando ; Gonzalez, Noel ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Hubbell, Stephen ; Jakovac, Catarina C. ; Hernández, Alma Johanna ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Larpin, Denis ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Licona, Juan-Carlos ; Lebrija-trejos, Edwin ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita C.G. ; Mora, Francisco ; Müller, Sandra C. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Oliveira Neto, Silvio Nolasco De; Norden, Natalia ; Nunes, Yule R.F. ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Caros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Aguilar-Cano, José ; Rodriguez-Buritica, Susana ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Romero, Marco Antonio ; Ruíz, Jorge ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Silver, Whendee L. ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Thomas, William Wayt ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Sá Sampaio, Everardo Valadares De; Breugel, Michiel van; Wal, Hans van der; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio ; Veloso, Maria D.M. ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima C.G. ; Villa, Pedro ; Williamson, G.B. ; Zanini, Kátia J. ; Zimmerman, Jess ; Poorter, Lourens - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)3. - ISSN 2375-2548 - 10 p.
Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during secondary succession across gradients in environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbance in an unprecedented multisite analysis for the Neotropics. Secondary forests recover remarkably fast in species richness but slowly in species composition. Secondary forests take a median time of five decades to recover the species richness of old-growth forest (80% recovery after 20 years) based on rarefaction analysis. Full recovery of species composition takes centuries (only 34% recovery after 20 years). A dual strategy that maintains both old-growth forests and species-rich secondary forests is therefore crucial for biodiversity conservation in human-modified tropical landscapes.
Estimating architecture-based metabolic scaling exponents of tropical trees using terrestrial LiDAR and 3D modelling
Lau, Alvaro ; Martius, Christopher ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Jackson, Tobias ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Herold, Martin ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick - \ 2019
Forest Ecology and Management 439 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 132 - 145.
The geometric structure of tree branches has been hypothesized to relate to the mechanical safety and efficiency of resource transport within a tree. As such, the topology of tree architecture links physical properties within a tree and influences the interaction of the tree with its environment. Prior work suggests the existence of general principles which govern tree architectural patterns across of species and bio-geographical regions. In particular, West, Brown and Enquist (WBE, 1997) and Savage et al. (2010) derive scaling exponents (branch radius scaling ratio α and branch length scaling ratio β) from symmetrical branch parameters and from these, an architecture-based metabolic scaling rate (θ) for the whole tree. With this key scaling exponent, the metabolism (e.g., number of leaves, respiration, etc.) of a whole tree, or potentially a group of trees, can be estimated allometrically. Until now, branch parameter values have been measured manually; either from standing live trees or from harvested trees. Such measurements are time consuming, labour intensive and susceptible to subjective errors. Remote sensing, and specifically terrestrial LiDAR (TLS), is a promising alternative, being objective, scalable, and able to collect large quantities of data without destructive sampling. In this paper, we calculated branch length, branch radius, and architecture-based metabolic rate scaling exponents by first using TLS to scan standing trees and then fitting quantitative structure models (TreeQSM) models to 3D point clouds from nine trees in a tropical forest in Guyana. To validate these TLS-derived scaling exponents, we compared them with exponents calculated from direct field measurements of all branches >10 cm at four scales: branch-level, cumulative branch order, tree-level and plot-level. We found a bias on the estimations of α and β exponents due to a bias on the reconstruction of the branching architecture. Although TreeQSM scaling exponents predicted similar θ as the manually measured exponents, this was due to the combination of α and β scaling exponents which were both biased. Also, the manually measured α and β scaling exponents diverged from the WBE's theoretical exponents suggesting that trees in tropical environments might not follow the predictions for the symmetrical branching geometry proposed by WBE. Our study provides an alternative method to estimate scaling exponents at both the branch- and tree-level in tropical forest trees without the need for destructive sampling. Although this approach is based on a limited sample of nine trees in Guyana, it can be implemented for large-scale plant scaling assessments. These new data might improve our current understanding of metabolic scaling without harvesting trees
Hogere opbrengst wordt al gehaald met CO2 dosering
Marcelis, Leo - \ 2019

Onderzoekers in de Verenigde Staten zijn erin geslaagd om tabaksplanten zo te veranderen dat de groei met 40% toeneemt. Wat kan dit betekenen voor de Nederlandse sierteelt? Voor gewassen onder glas zal het niet zo veel effect hebben verwacht Leo Marcelis, hoogleraar Tuinbouw en Productfysiologie. Door de dosering van CO2 wordt een vergelijkbaar effect bereikt. Anderzijds is er in de toekomst wellicht geen CO2 dosering meer nodig

Cancer Prevention Europe
Wild, Christopher P. ; Espina, Carolina ; Bauld, Linda ; Bonanni, Bernardo ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brown, Karen ; Dillner, Joakim ; Forman, David ; Kampman, Ellen ; Nilbert, Mef ; Steindorf, Karen ; Storm, Hans ; Vineis, Paolo ; Baumann, Michael ; Schüz, Joachim - \ 2019
Molecular Oncology 13 (2019)3. - ISSN 1574-7891 - p. 528 - 534.
cancer - Cancer Prevention Europe - Europe

The case for cancer prevention in Europe is the same as for all other parts of the world. The number of cancers is increasing, driven by demographic change and evolution in the exposure to risk factors, while the cost of treating patients is likewise spiralling. Estimations suggest that around 40% of cancers in Europe could be prevented if current understanding of risk and protective factors was translated into effective primary prevention, with further reductions in cancer incidence and mortality by screening, other approaches to early detection, and potentially medical prevention. However, the infrastructure for cancer prevention tends to be fragmented between and within different countries in Europe. This lack of a coordinated approach recently led to the foundation of Cancer Prevention Europe (Forman et al., 2018), a collaborative network with the main aims of strengthening cancer prevention in Europe by increasing awareness of the needs, the associated required resources and reducing inequalities in access to cancer prevention across Europe. This article showcases the need for strengthening cancer prevention and introduces the objectives of Cancer Prevention Europe and its foreseen future role in reducing the European cancer burden.

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