Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Flower movement balances pollinator needs and pollen protection
Haverkamp, Alexander ; Li, Xiang ; Hansson, Bill S. ; Baldwin, Ian T. ; Knaden, Markus ; Yon, Felipe - \ 2019
Ecology 100 (2019)1. - ISSN 0012-9658
flower handling - flower orientation - Manduca - Nicotiana - pollen viability - pollination

Flower signaling and orientation are key characteristics that determine a flower's pollinator guild. However, many flowers actively move during their daily cycle, changing both their detectability and accessibility to pollinators. The flowers of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata orientate their corolla upward at sunset and downward after sunrise. Here, we investigated the effect of different flower orientations on a major pollinator of N. attenuata, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. We found that although flower orientation influenced the flight altitude of the moth in respect to the flower, it did not alter the moth's final flower choice. These behavioral observations were consistent with the finding that orientation did not systematically change the spatial distribution of floral volatiles, which are major attractants for the moths. Moreover, hawkmoths invested the same amount of time into probing flowers at different orientations, even though they were only able to feed and gather pollen from horizontally and upward-oriented flowers, but not from downward-facing flowers. The orientation of the flower was hence crucial for a successful interaction between N. attenuata and its hawkmoth pollinator. Additionally, we also investigated potential adverse effects of exposing flowers at different orientations to natural daylight levels, finding that anther temperature of upward-oriented flowers was more than 7°C higher than for downward-oriented flowers. This increase in temperature likely caused the significantly reduced germination success that was observed for pollen grains from upward-oriented flowers in comparison to those of downward and horizontally oriented flowers. These results highlight the importance of flower reorientation to balance pollen protection and a successful interaction of the plant with its insect pollinators by maintaining the association between flower volatiles and flower accessibility to the pollinator.

Analysing trade-offs between SDGs related to water quality using salinity as a marker
Flörke, Martina ; Bärlund, Ilona ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Bouwman, Alexander F. ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 96 - 104.

Salinisation can have different adverse impacts on water resources that are used for drinking, irrigation, or industrial purposes. In addition, salinisation in its turn is also strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities such as irrigation. This paper maps trade-offs between water quality (SDG 6.3) and other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) using salinisation as an example. Many interlinkages exist between SDG 6.3 and other SDGs as identified in the literature review part. These are however not yet fully addressed in studies applying a comprehensive systems approach or modelling frameworks. In order to find solution options for achieving a sustainable future the interlinkages between SDGs related to salinisation and its impacts need to be considered as they play a key role in mitigating impacts, prioritising measures for action and hence turning trade-offs into synergies.

Modeling phosphorus in rivers at the global scale : recent successes, remaining challenges, and near-term opportunities
Harrison, John A. ; Beusen, Arthur H.W. ; Fink, Gabriel ; Tang, Ting ; Strokal, Maryna ; Bouwman, Alexander F. ; Metson, Geneviève S. ; Vilmin, Lauriane - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 68 - 77.

Understanding and mitigating the effects of phosphorus (P) overenrichment of waters globally, including the evaluation of the global Sustainability Development Goals, requires the use of global models. Such models quantitatively link land use, global population growth and climate to aquatic nutrient loading and biogeochemical cycling. Here we describe, compare, and contrast the existing global models capable of predicting P transport by rivers at a global scale. We highlight important insights gained from the development and application of these models, and identify important near-term opportunities for model improvements as well as additional insight to be gained through new model analysis.

Climate change opens new frontiers for marine species in the Arctic: Current trends and future invasion risks
Chan, Farrah T. ; Stanislawczyk, Keara ; Sneekes, A.C. ; Dvoretsky, Alexander ; Gollasch, Stephan ; Minchin, Dan ; David, Matej ; Jelmert, Anders ; Albretsen, Jon ; Bailey, Sarah A. - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 25 - 38.
alien species - aquaculture - climate warming - fisheries - invasion pathways - invasive species - knowledge gap - nonindigenous species - shipping - vessels
Climate change and increased anthropogenic activities are expected to elevate the potential of introducing nonindigenous species (NIS) into the Arctic. Yet, the knowledge base needed to identify gaps and priorities for NIS research and management is limited. Here, we reviewed primary introduction events to each ecoregion of the marine Arctic realm to identify temporal and spatial patterns, likely source regions of NIS, and the putative introduction pathways. We included 54 introduction events representing 34 unique NIS. The rate of NIS discovery ranged from zero to four species per year between 1960 and 2015. The Iceland Shelf had the greatest number of introduction events (n = 14), followed by the Barents Sea (n = 11), and the Norwegian Sea (n = 11). Sixteen of the 54 introduction records had no known origins. The majority of those with known source regions were attributed to the Northeast Atlantic and the Northwest
Pacific, 19 and 14 records, respectively. Some introduction events were attributed
to multiple possible pathways. For these introductions, vessels transferred the greatest number of aquatic NIS (39%) to the Arctic, followed by natural spread (30%) and aquaculture activities (25%). Similar trends were found for introductions attributed to a single pathway. The phyla Arthropoda and Ochrophyta had the highest number of recorded introduction events, with 19 and 12 records, respectively. Recommendations including vector management, horizon scanning, early detection, rapid response, and a pan‐Arctic biodiversity inventory are considered in this paper. Our study provides a comprehensive record of primary introductions of NIS for marine environments in the
circumpolar Arctic and identifies knowledge gaps and opportunities for NIS research and management. Ecosystems worldwide will face dramatic changes in the coming decades due to global change. Our findings contribute to the knowledge base needed to address two aspects of global change—invasive species and climate change.
The probing mechanism of the braconid parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata
Gussekloo, Sander W.S. ; Cerkvenik, Uros ; Straat, Bram van de; Kovalev, Alexander ; Gorb, Stanislav N. ; Matsumura, Yoko ; Leeuwen, Johan L. van - \ 2018
Advancing urban green infrastructure in Europe : Outcomes and reflections from the GREEN SURGE project
Pauleit, Stephan ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Elands, Birgit ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kronenberg, Jakub ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Rall, Emily ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der - \ 2018
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (2018). - ISSN 1618-8667 - 13 p.
Green governance and planning - Green infrastructure - GREEN SURGE - Sustainable urbanisation - Urban learning labs

Urban green infrastructure (UGI) is a promising concept when developing multifunctional green space systems to address major challenges of urbanization such as increasing social cohesion, promoting the transition to a green economy, adaptation to climate change and conservation of biodiversity. In response to the European Commission's Communication on Green Infrastructure from 2013, the GREEN SURGE project aimed to further advance the development of UGI in European cities by (i) strengthening the conceptual foundations of UGI, (ii) developing improved methods and tools for assessment of its state, benefits and governance and, (iii) applying these to build a stronger evidence base. This paper aims to provide an overall synthesis of the project's main achievements. GREEN SURGE adopted an inter- and transdisciplinary approach. Urban Learning Labs and focal Learning Alliances in five cities were instrumental for intensive collaboration between disciplines and across science and practice. Pan-European surveys, e.g. of planning and governance practice or human-nature interactions established the state-of-the-art across the continent and identified good practices. The project consolidated green infrastructure planning and governance conceptually, and it mapped opportunities for better linking government-led planning with bottom-up initiatives for creating and managing UGI. It also introduced a framework for knowledge integration to support UGI valuation. Importantly, development and application of the concept of biocultural diversity gave new insights into human–nature relationships in multicultural urban societies. The results strongly call for more context-sensitive development of UGI that addresses the different needs and diverse cultural practices of people engaging with nature. In a nutshell, GREEN SURGE showed that UGI indeed can make a major contribution to sustainable and resilient urbanisation. Transdisciplinary research in urban labs, if well-conceived, has shown to hold great potential to advance UGI concepts, methods, knowledge and practice.

On the necessity of connectivity: linking kecharacteristics of environmental problems with governance modes
Ingold, Karin ; Driessen, P.P.J. ; Runhaar, Hens ; Widmer, Alexander - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management (2018). - ISSN 0964-0568 - 25 p.
Environmental problems are often multi-faceted and complex by nature, consisting of diverse, intertwined dimensions. In this article, we argue that environmental problem characteristics have consequences for the selection of appropriate governance modes, and finally on policy effectiveness. We rely on an in-depth literature review to proceed in two steps. First, we outline three key environmental problem characteristics: uncertainties, cause–effect mismatches and norm plurality. We then outline six different governance modes capable of producing policies and solutions to tackle challenges arising from the three problem characteristics. Next, through empirical illustrations, we demonstrate the relevance of linking governance modes to these characteristics via the introduction and articulation of the concept of ‘connectivity’, i.e., linking actors, issues, sectors and scale levels towards realizing effective policy solutions for complex environmental problems.
The minute-scale dynamics of online emotions reveal the effects of affect labeling
Fan, Rui ; Varol, Onur ; Varamesh, Ali ; Barron, Alexander ; Leemput, I.A. van de; Scheffer, M. ; Bollen, J.L.T. - \ 2018
Nature Human Behaviour (2018). - ISSN 2397-3374
Putting one’s feelings into words (also called affect labeling) can attenuate positive and negative emotions. Here, we track the evolution of specific emotions for 74,487 Twitter users by analysing the emotional content of their tweets before and after they explicitly report experiencing a positive or negative emotion. Our results describe the evolution of emotions and their expression at the temporal resolution of one minute. The expression of positive emotions is preceded by a short, steep increase in positive valence and followed by short decay to normal levels. Negative emotions, however, build up more slowly and are followed by a sharp reversal to previous levels, consistent with previous studies demonstrating the attenuating effects of affect labeling. We estimate that positive and negative emotions last approximately 1.25 and 1.5 h, respectively, from onset to evanescence. A separate analysis for male and female individuals suggests the potential for gender-specific differences in emotional dynamics.
Advancing science on the multiple connections between biodiversity, ecosystems and people
Oudenhoven, Alexander P.E. van; Martín-López, Berta ; Schröter, Matthias ; Groot, Rudolf de - \ 2018
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 14 (2018)1. - ISSN 2151-3732 - p. 127 - 131.
SerpinA3N is a novel hypothalamic gene upregulated by a high-fat diet and leptin in mice
Sergi, Domenico ; Campbell, Fiona M. ; Grant, Christine ; Morris, Amanda C. ; Bachmair, Eva Maria ; Koch, Christiane ; McLean, Fiona H. ; Muller, Aifric ; Hoggard, Nigel ; Roos, Baukje de; Porteiro, Begona ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; McGillicuddy, Fiona C. ; Kahn, Darcy ; Nicol, Phyllis ; Benzler, Jonas ; Mayer, Claus Dieter ; Drew, Janice E. ; Roche, Helen M. ; Muller, Michael ; Nogueiras, Ruben ; Dieguez, Carlos ; Tups, Alexander ; Williams, Lynda M. - \ 2018
Genes & Nutrition 13 (2018). - ISSN 1555-8932
High-fat diet - Hypothalamus - Leptin - SerpinA3N

Background: Energy homeostasis is regulated by the hypothalamus but fails when animals are fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and leptin insensitivity and obesity develops. To elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects, a microarray-based transcriptomics approach was used to identify novel genes regulated by HFD and leptin in the mouse hypothalamus. Results: Mouse global array data identified serpinA3N as a novel gene highly upregulated by both a HFD and leptin challenge. In situ hybridisation showed serpinA3N expression upregulation by HFD and leptin in all major hypothalamic nuclei in agreement with transcriptomic gene expression data. Immunohistochemistry and studies in the hypothalamic clonal neuronal cell line, mHypoE-N42 (N42), confirmed that alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (α1AC), the protein encoded by serpinA3, is localised to neurons and revealed that it is secreted into the media. SerpinA3N expression in N42 neurons is upregulated by palmitic acid and by leptin, together with IL-6 and TNFα, and all three genes are downregulated by the anti-inflammatory monounsaturated fat, oleic acid. Additionally, palmitate upregulation of serpinA3 in N42 neurons is blocked by the NFκB inhibitor, BAY11, and the upregulation of serpinA3N expression in the hypothalamus by HFD is blunted in IL-1 receptor 1 knockout (IL-1R1 -/- ) mice. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that serpinA3 expression is implicated in nutritionally mediated hypothalamic inflammation.

Anhydrobiosis : Inside yeast cells
Rapoport, Alexander ; Golovina, Elena A. ; Gervais, Patrick ; Dupont, Sebastien ; Beney, Laurent - \ 2018
Biotechnology Advances (2018). - ISSN 0734-9750 - 17 p.
Anhydrobiosis - Dehydration–rehydration - Desiccation - Intracellular changes - Intracellular protective reactions - Yeast

Under natural conditions yeast cells as well as other microorganisms are regularly subjected to the influence of severe drought, which leads to their serious dehydration. The dry seasons are then changed by rains and there is a restoration of normal water potential inside the cells. To survive such seasonal changes a lot of vegetative microbial cells, which belong to various genera and species, may be able to enter into a state of anhydrobiosis, in which their metabolism is temporarily and reversibly suspended or delayed. This evolutionarily developed adaptation to extreme conditions of the environment is widely used for practical goals – for conservation of microorganisms in collections, for maintenance and long storage of different important strain-producers and for other various biotechnological purposes. This current review presents the most important data obtained mainly in the studies of the structural and functional changes in yeast cells during dehydration. It describes the changes of the main organelles of eukaryotic cells and their role in cell survival in a dry state. The review provides information regarding the role of water in the structure and functions of biological macromolecules and membranes. Some important intracellular protective reactions of eukaryotic organisms, which were revealed in these studies and may have more general importance, are also discussed. The results of the studies of yeast anhydrobiosis summarized in the review show the possibilities of improving the conservation and long-term storage of various microorganisms and of increasing the quality of industrially produced dry microbial preparations.

Short term policies to keep the door open for Paris climate goals
Kriegler, Elmar ; Bertram, Christoph ; Kuramochi, Takeshi ; Jakob, Michael ; Pehl, Michaja ; Stevanović, Miodrag ; Höhne, Niklas ; Luderer, Gunnar ; Minx, Jan C. ; Fekete, Hanna ; Hilaire, Jérôme ; Luna, Lisa ; Popp, Alexander ; Steckel, Jan Christoph ; Sterl, Sebastian ; Yalew, Amsalu Woldie ; Dietrich, Jan Philipp ; Edenhofer, Ottmar - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)7. - ISSN 1748-9318
1.5C - 2C temperature limits - Carbon pricing - Integrated assessment - Mitigation pathway - Paris Agreement - Political implementability - Regulatory policies

Climate policy needs to account for political and social acceptance. Current national climate policy plans proposed under the Paris Agreement lead to higher emissions until 2030 than cost-effective pathways towards the Agreements' long-term temperature goals would imply. Therefore, the current plans would require highly disruptive changes, prohibitive transition speeds, and large long-term deployment of risky mitigation measures for achieving the agreement's temperature goals after 2030. Since the prospects of introducing the cost-effective policy instrument, a global comprehensive carbon price in the near-term, are negligible, we study how a strengthening of existing plans by a global roll-out of regional policies can ease the implementation challenge of reaching the Paris temperature goals. The regional policies comprise a bundle of regulatory policies in energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, and land use and moderate, regionally differentiated carbon pricing. We find that a global roll-out of these policies could reduce global CO2 emissions by an additional 10 GtCO2eq in 2030 compared to current plans. It would lead to emissions pathways close to the levels of cost-effective likely below 2C scenarios until 2030, thereby reducing implementation challenges post 2030. Even though a gradual phase-in of a portfolio of regulatory policies might be less disruptive than immediate cost-effective carbon pricing, it would perform worse in other dimensions. In particular, it leads to higher economic impacts that could become major obstacles in the long-term. Hence, such policy packages should not be viewed as alternatives to carbon pricing, but rather as complements that provide entry points to achieve the Paris climate goals.

A protocol for an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized land-use and climate scenarios
Kim, Hyejin ; Rosa, Isabel M.D. ; Alkemade, Rob ; Leadley, Paul ; Hurtt, George ; Popp, Alexander ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Anthoni, Peter ; Arneth, Almut ; Baisero, Daniele ; Caton, Emma ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Chini, Louise ; Palma, Adriana De; Fulvio, Fulvio Di; Marco, Moreno Di; Espinoza, Felipe ; Ferrier, Simon ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Gonzalez, Ricardo E. ; Gueguen, Maya ; Guerra, Carlos ; Harfoot, Mike ; Harwood, Thomas D. ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Havlík, Petr ; Hellweg, Stefanie ; Hill, Samantha L.L. ; Hirata, Akiko ; Hoskins, Andrew J. ; Janse, Jan H. ; Jetz, Walter ; Johnson, Justin A. ; Krause, Andreas ; Leclère, David ; Martins, Ines S. ; Matsui, Tetsuya ; Merow, Cory ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Ohashi, Haruka ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Purvis, Andy ; Quesada, Benjamin ; Rondinini, Carlo ; Schipper, Aafke M. ; Sharp, Richard ; Takahashi, Kiyoshi ; Thuiller, Wilfried ; Titeux, Nicolas - \ 2018
Geoscientific Model Development 11 (2018)11. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 4537 - 4562.

To support the assessments of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the IPBES Expert Group on Scenarios and Models is carrying out an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized scenarios (BES-SIM). The goals of BES-SIM are (1) to project the global impacts of land-use and climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services (i.e., nature's contributions to people) over the coming decades, compared to the 20th century, using a set of common metrics at multiple scales, and (2) to identify model uncertainties and research gaps through the comparisons of projected biodiversity and ecosystem services across models. BES-SIM uses three scenarios combining specific Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)-SSP1xRCP2.6, SSP3xRCP6.0, SSP5xRCP8.6-to explore a wide range of land-use change and climate change futures. This paper describes the rationale for scenario selection, the process of harmonizing input data for land use, based on the second phase of the Land Use Harmonization Project (LUH2), and climate, the biodiversity and ecosystem services models used, the core simulations carried out, the harmonization of the model output metrics, and the treatment of uncertainty. The results of this collaborative modeling project will support the ongoing global assessment of IPBES, strengthen ties between IPBES and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios and modeling processes, advise the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) on its development of a post-2020 strategic plans and conservation goals, and inform the development of a new generation of nature-centred scenarios.

Do apes smell like humans? The role of skin bacteria and volatiles of primates in mosquito host selection
Verhulst, Niels O. ; Umanets, Alexander ; Weldegergis, Berhane T. ; Maas, Jeroen P.A. ; Visser, Tessa M. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Smidt, Hauke ; Takken, Willem - \ 2018
Journal of Experimental Biology 221 (2018). - ISSN 0022-0949
Apes - Host preference - Mosquitoes - Primates - Vector diseases - Zoophilic

Anthropophilic mosquitoes are effective vectors of human disease because of their biting preferences. To find their host, these mosquitoes are guided by human odours, primarily produced by human skin bacteria. By analysing the skin bacterial and skin volatile profiles of humans, bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, lemurs and cows, we investigated whether primates that are more closely related to humans have a skin bacterial community and odour profile that is similar to that of humans. We then investigated whether this affected discrimination between humans and closely related primates by anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes that search for hosts. Humans had a lower skin bacterial diversity than the other animals and their skin bacterial composition was more similar to that in other primates than it was to the skin bacteria of cows. Like the skin bacterial profiles, the volatile profiles of the animal groups were clearly different from each other. The volatile profiles of cows and lemurs were more closely related to the human profiles than expected. Human volatiles were indeed preferred above cow volatiles by anthropophilic mosquitoes and no preference was observed when tested against non-human primate odour, except for bonobo volatiles, which were preferred over human volatiles. Unravelling the differences between mosquito hosts and their effect on host selection is important for a better understanding of cross-species transmission of vector-borne diseases.

Kauniolide synthase is a P450 with unusual hydroxylation and cyclization-elimination activity
Liu, Qing ; Beyraghdar Kashkooli, Arman ; Manzano, David ; Pateraki, Irini ; Richard, Lea ; Kolkman, Pim ; Lucas, Maria Fátima ; Guallar, Victor ; Vos, Ric C.H. de; Franssen, Maurice C.R. ; Krol, Alexander van der; Bouwmeester, Harro - \ 2018
Nature Communications 9 (2018)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

Guaianolides are an important class of sesquiterpene lactones with unique biological and pharmaceutical properties. They have been postulated to be derived from germacranolides, but for years no progress has been made in the elucidation of their biosynthesis that requires an unknown cyclization mechanism. Here we demonstrate the isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P450 from feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), kauniolide synthase. Kauniolide synthase catalyses the formation of the guaianolide kauniolide from the germacranolide substrate costunolide. Unlike most cytochrome P450s, kauniolide synthase combines stereoselective hydroxylation of costunolide at the C3 position, with water elimination, cyclization and regioselective deprotonation. This unique mechanism of action is supported by in silico modelling and docking experiments. The full kauniolide biosynthesis pathway is reconstructed in the heterologous hosts Nicotiana benthamiana and yeast, paving the way for biotechnological production of guaianolide-type sesquiterpene lactones.

Romboutsia hominis sp. nov., the first human gut-derived representative of the genus Romboutsia, isolated from ileostoma effluent
Gerritsen, Jacoline ; Umanets, Alexander ; Staneva, Ivelina ; Hornung, Bastian ; Ritari, Jarmo ; Paulin, Lars ; Rijkers, Ger T. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2018
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 68 (2018)11. - ISSN 1466-5026 - p. 3479 - 3486.
Clostridium - human intestine - ileostoma effluent - Peptostreptococcaceae - Romboutsia

A Gram-stain-positive, motile, rod-shaped, obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated FRIFIT, was isolated from human ileostoma effluent and characterized. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain FRIFIT was most closely related to the species Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT (97.7 %), Romboutsia lituseburensis DSM 797T (97.6 %) and Romboutsia sedimentorum LAM201T (96.6 %). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain FRIFIT and R. ilealis CRIBT was 13.9±3.3 % based on DNA-DNA hybridization. Whole genome sequence-based average nucleotide identity between strain FRIFIT and closely related Romboutsia strains ranged from 78.4-79.1 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain FRIFIT was 27.8 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain FRIFIT were saturated and unsaturated straight-chain C12-C19 fatty acids as well as cyclopropane fatty acids, with C16 : 0 being the predominant fatty acid. The polar lipid profile comprised five phospholipids and six glycolipids. These results, together with differences in phenotypic features, support the proposal that strain FRIFIT represents a novel species within the genus Romboutsia, for which the name Romboutsiahominis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FRIFIT (=DSM 28814T=KCTC 15553T).

Groundwater salinity mapping of the Belgian coastal zone to improve local freshwater storage availability
Vandevelde, Dieter ; Baaren, Esther Van; Delsman, Joost ; Karaoulis, Marios ; Oude Essink, Gualbert ; Louw, Perry de; Vermaas, Tommer ; Pauw, Pieter ; Kleine, Marco De; Thofte, Sara ; Teilmann, Rasmus ; Walraevens, Kristine ; Camp, Marc Van; Dominique, Huits ; Dabekaussen, Willem ; Gunnink, Jan ; Vandenbohede, Alexander - \ 2018
In: 25th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting (SWIM 2018). - EDP Sciences (E3S Web of Conferences ) - 6 p.

In the European TOPSOIL project, countries around the North Sea are searching for solutions for climate related threats. They explore the possibilities of using the topsoil layer to solve current and future water challenges. The main objective is to improve the climate resilience of the water management of the topsoil and shallow aquifers in the North Sea region. TOPSOIL is supported by the Interreg VB North Sea Region program in line with priority 3 of the program: 'Sustainable North Sea Region, protecting against climate change and preserving the environment'. The Belgian part of this project, called FRESHEM for GO-FRESH Vlaanderen ('FREsh Salt groundwater distribution by Helicopter ElectroMagnetic survey for Geohydrological Opportunities FRESH water supply'), focuses on mapping the salinity distribution of groundwater using airborne electromagnetics and aims to look into a number of measures that could increase the availability of freshwater for agriculture in the polder area. Two pilot projects will evaluate the possibilities for freshwater storage and aims to specify what measures can be taken to achieve this. Together with the other water users and water managers, The Flanders Environment Agency wants to prepare a plan for the realization of one or more pilot projects that can improve the availability of freshwater.

1.5°C Hotspots : Climate hazards, vulnerabilities, and impacts
Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich ; Deryng, Delphine ; Haen, Sarah D'; Hare, William ; Lissner, Tabea ; Ly, Mouhamed ; Nauels, Alexander ; Noblet, Melinda ; Pfleiderer, Peter ; Pringle, Patrick ; Rokitzki, Martin ; Saeed, Fahad ; Schaeffer, Michiel ; Serdeczny, Olivia ; Thomas, Adelle - \ 2018
Annual Review of Environment and Resources 43 (2018). - ISSN 1543-5938 - p. 135 - 163.
1.5°C - extreme weather events - hotspots - sea level rise - small islands - vulnerability

Differentiating the impacts of climate change between 1.5°C and 2°C requires a regional and sector-specific perspective. Whereas for some regions and sectors the difference in climate variables might be indistinguishable from natural variability, other areas especially in the tropics and subtropics will experience significant shifts. In addition to region-specific changes in climatic conditions, vulnerability and exposure also differ substantially across the world. Even small differences in climate hazards can translate into sizeable impact differences for particularly vulnerable regions or sectors. Here, we review scientific evidence of regional differences in climate hazards at 1.5°C and 2°C and provide an assessment of selected hotspots of climate change, including small islands as well as rural, urban, and coastal areas in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, that are particularly affected by the additional 0.5°C global mean temperature increase. We interlink these with a review of the vulnerability and exposure literature related to these hotspots to provide an integrated perspective on the differences in climate impacts between 1.5°C and 2°C.

Occupancy strongly influences faecal microbial composition of wild lemurs
Umanets, Alexander ; Winter, Iris de; IJdema, Freek ; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier ; Hooft, Pim van; Heitkönig, Ignas M.A. ; Prins, Herbert H.T. ; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2018
FEMS Microbiology Ecology 94 (2018)3. - ISSN 0168-6496
Environment - Eulemur - Gastro-intestinal tract - Madagascar - Microbiota - Multivariate statistics

The microbiota of the mammalian gut is a complex ecosystem, the composition of which is greatly influenced by host genetics and environmental factors. In this study, we aim to investigate the influence of occupancy (a geographical area of habitation), species, age and sex on intestinal microbiota composition of the three lemur species: Eulemur fulvus, E. rubriventer and E. rufifrons. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 138 wild lemurs across Madagascar, and microbial composition was determined using next-generation sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Consistent with reports from other primate species, the predominant phyla were Firmicutes (43 ± 6.4% [s.d.]) and Bacteroidetes (30.3 ± 5.3%). The microbial composition was strongly associated with occupancy in the E. fulvus population, with up to 19.9% of the total variation in microbial composition being explained by this factor. In turn, geographical differences observed in faecal microbiota of sympatric lemur species were less pronounced, as was the impact of the factors sex and age. Our findings showed that among the studied factors occupancy had the strongest influence on intestinal microbiota of congeneric lemur species. This suggests adaptation of microbiota to differences in forest composition, climate variations and correspondingly available diet in different geographical locations of Madagascar.

Bottom trawl fishing footprints on the world’s continental shelves
Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Althaus, Franziska ; Baird, Susan Jane ; Black, Jenny ; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Campbell, Alexander B. ; Catarino, Rui ; Collie, Jeremy ; Cowan, James H. ; Durholtz, Deon ; Engstrom, Nadia ; Fairweather, Tracey P. ; Fock, Heino O. ; Ford, Richard ; Gálvez, Patricio A. ; Gerritsen, Hans ; Góngora, María Eva ; González, Jessica A. ; Hiddink, Jan G. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Intelmann, Steven S. ; Jenkins, Chris ; Jonsson, Patrik ; Kainge, Paulus ; Kangas, Mervi ; Kathena, Johannes N. ; Kavadas, Stefanos ; Leslie, Rob W. ; Lewis, Steve G. ; Lundy, Mathieu ; Makin, David ; Martin, Julie ; Mazor, Tessa ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Papadopoulou, Nadia ; Posen, Paulette E. ; Rochester, Wayne ; Russo, Tommaso ; Sala, Antonello ; Semmens, Jayson M. ; Silva, Cristina - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)43. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E10275 - E10282.
Bottom trawlers land around 19 million tons of fish and invertebrates annually, almost one-quarter of wild marine landings. The extent of bottom trawling footprint (seabed area trawled at least once in a specified region and time period) is often contested but poorly described. We quantify footprints using high-resolution satellite vessel monitoring system (VMS) and logbook data on 24 continental shelves and slopes to 1,000-m depth over at least 2 years. Trawling footprint varied markedly among regions: from <10% of seabed area in Australian and New Zealand waters, the Aleutian Islands, East Bering Sea, South Overall, 14% of the 7.8 million-km2 study area was trawled, and 86% was not trawled. Trawling activity was aggregated; the most intensively trawled areas accounting for 90% of activity comprised 77% of footprint on average. Regional swept area ratio (SAR; ratio of total swept area trawled annually to total area of region, a metric of trawling intensity) and footprint area were related, providing an approach to estimate regional trawling footprints when highresolution spatial data are unavailable. If SAR was ≤0.1, as in 8 of 24 regions, therewas >95% probability that >90%of seabed was not trawled. If SAR was 7.9, equal to the highest SAR recorded, there was >95% probability that >70% of seabed was trawled. Footprints were smaller and SAR was ≤0.25 in regions where fishing rates consistently met international sustainability benchmarks for fish stocks, implying collateral environmental benefits from sustainable fishing.
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