Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Records 1 - 20 / 28

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export

    Export search results

  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: q=Archibald
Check title to add to marked list
Genome-wide SNP data unveils the globalization of domesticated pigs
Yang, Bin ; Cui, Leilei ; Pérez-Enciso, M. ; Traspov, Aleksei ; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A. ; Zinovieva, Natalia ; Schook, Lawrence B. ; Archibald, Alan ; Gatphayak, Kesinee ; Knorr, Christophe ; Triantafyllidis, Alex ; Alexandri, Panoraia ; Semiadi, Gono ; Hanotte, Olivier ; Dias, Deodália ; Dovč, Peter ; Uimari, Pekka ; Iacolina, Laura ; Scandura, Massimo ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Huang, L. ; Megens, Hendrik Jan - \ 2017
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 49 (2017). - ISSN 0999-193X - 15 p.

Background: Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural revolution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global patterns in pig domestication and diversity related to demography, migration, and selection. Results: A deep phylogeographic division reflects the dichotomy between early domestication centers. In the core Eastern and Western domestication regions, Chinese pigs show differentiation between breeds due to geographic isolation, whereas this is less pronounced in European pigs. The inferred European origin of pigs in the Americas, Africa, and Australia reflects European expansion during the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. Human-mediated introgression, which is due, in particular, to importing Chinese pigs into the UK during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, played an important role in the formation of modern pig breeds. Inbreeding levels vary markedly between populations, from almost no runs of homozygosity (ROH) in a number of Asian wild boar populations, to up to 20% of the genome covered by ROH in a number of Southern European breeds. Commercial populations show moderate ROH statistics. For domesticated pigs and wild boars in Asia and Europe, we identified highly differentiated loci that include candidate genes related to muscle and body development, central nervous system, reproduction, and energy balance, which are putatively under artificial selection. Conclusions: Key events related to domestication, dispersal, and mixing of pigs from different regions are reflected in the 60K SNP data, including the globalization that has recently become full circle since Chinese pig breeders in the past decades started selecting Western breeds to improve local Chinese pigs. Furthermore, signatures of ongoing and past selection, acting at different times and on different genetic backgrounds, enhance our insight in the mechanism of domestication and selection. The global diversity statistics presented here highlight concerns for maintaining agrodiversity, but also provide a necessary framework for directing genetic conservation.

Communications as an important Component of the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) Consortium
Groenen, M. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Tuggle, Christopher K. - \ 2016
GO-FAANG meeting : a Gathering On Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes
Tuggle, Christopher K. ; Giuffra, Elisabetta ; White, Stephen N. ; Clarke, Laura ; Zhou, Huaijun ; Ross, Pablo J. ; Acloque, Hervé ; Reecy, James M. ; Archibald, Alan ; Bellone, Rebecca R. ; Boichard, Michèle ; Chamberlain, Amanda ; Cheng, Hans ; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A. ; Delany, Mary E. ; Finno, Carrie J. ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Hayes, Ben ; Lunney, Joan K. ; Petersen, Jessica L. ; Plastow, Graham S. ; Schmidt, Carl J. ; Song, Jiuzhou ; Watson, Mick - \ 2016
Animal Genetics 47 (2016)5. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 528 - 533.
data coordination centre (DCC) - data sharing - Genomics - metanalysis

The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) Consortium recently held a Gathering On FAANG (GO-FAANG) Workshop in Washington, DC on October 7–8, 2015. This consortium is a grass-roots organization formed to advance the annotation of newly assembled genomes of domesticated and non-model organisms (www.faang.org). The workshop gathered together from around the world a group of 100+ genome scientists, administrators, representatives of funding agencies and commodity groups to discuss the latest advancements of the consortium, new perspectives, next steps and implementation plans. The workshop was streamed live and recorded, and all talks, along with speaker slide presentations, are available at www.faang.org. In this report, we describe the major activities and outcomes of this meeting. We also provide updates on ongoing efforts to implement discussions and decisions taken at GO-FAANG to guide future FAANG activities. In summary, reference datasets are being established under pilot projects; plans for tissue sets, morphological classification and methods of sample collection for different tissues were organized; and core assays and data and meta-data analysis standards were established.

Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population
Iacolina, L. ; Scandura, M. ; Goedbloed, D.J. ; Alexandri, P. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Larson, G. ; Archibald, A. ; Apollonio, M. ; Schook, L.B. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Megens, H.J. - \ 2016
Heredity 116 (2016)1. - ISSN 0018-067X - p. 60 - 67.

The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly managed since prehistoric times. We examined genomic diversity at 49 803 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 99 Sardinian WBs and compared them with 196 wild specimens from mainland Europe and 105 domestic pigs (DP; 11 breeds). High levels of genetic variation were observed in Sardinia (80.9% of the total number of polymorphisms), which can be only in part associated to recent genetic introgression. Both Principal Component Analysis and Bayesian clustering approach revealed that the Sardinian WB population is highly differentiated from the other European populations (F ST =0.126-0.138), and from DP (F ST =0.169). Such evidences were mostly unaffected by an uneven sample size, although clustering results in reference populations changed when the number of individuals was standardized. Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) pattern and distribution in Sardinian WB are consistent with a past expansion following a bottleneck (small ROHs) and recent population substructuring (highly homozygous individuals). The observed effect of a non-random selection of Sardinian individuals on diversity, F ST and ROH estimates, stressed the importance of sampling design in the study of structured or introgressed populations. Our results support the heterogeneity and distinctiveness of the Sardinian population and prompt further investigations on its origins and conservation status.

Data from: Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population
Iacolina, L. ; Scandura, M. ; Goedbloed, D.J. ; Alexandri, Panoraia ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Larson, G. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Apollonio, M. ; Schook, L.B. ; Groenen, M. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. - \ 2015
genetic diversity - Hybridization - Population Genetics - SNPs
Structure input file. The four populations correspond to the "Group" column in the file Individuals_info.txt
Coordinated international action to accelerate genome-to-phenome with FAANG, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes project : open letter
Archibald, A.L. ; Bottema, C.D. ; Brauning, R. ; Burgess, S.C. ; Burt, D.W. ; Casas, E. ; Cheng, H.H. ; Clarke, L. ; Couldrey, C. ; Dalrymple, B.P. ; Elsik, C.G. ; Foissac, S. ; Giuffra, E. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Hayes, B.J. ; Huang, L.S. ; Khatib, H. ; Kijas, J.W. ; Kim, H. ; Lunney, J.K. ; McCarthy, F.M. ; McEwan, J. ; Moore, S. ; Nanduri, B. ; Notredame, C. ; Palti, Y. ; Plastow, G.S. ; Reecy, J.M. ; Rohrer, G. ; Sarropoulou, E. ; Schmidt, C.J. ; Silverstein, J. ; Tellam, R.L. ; Tixier-Boichard, M. ; Tosser-klopp, G. ; Tuggle, C.K. ; Vilkki, J. ; White, S.N. ; Zhao, S. ; Zhou, H. - \ 2015
Genome Biology 16 (2015). - ISSN 1474-7596 - 6 p.
We describe the organization of a nascent international effort, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) project, whose aim is to produce comprehensive maps of functional elements in the genomes of domesticated animal species.
The International Swine Methylome Consortium (ISMC): Supporting Epigenomics and Biomedical research
Schachtschneider, K.M. ; Rund, L.A. ; Madsen, O. ; Johnson, R. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Groenen, M. ; Schook, L.B. - \ 2014
In: book of abstracts the 34th International Society for Animal Genetics Conference. - - p. 189 - 189.
Signatures of Diversifying Selection in European Pig Breeds
Wilkinson, S. ; Lu, Z.H. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Haley, C. ; Jackson, I.J. ; Groenen, M. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Ogden, R. ; Wiener, P. - \ 2013
pig - porcine - selection - domestication - introgression - breed development
Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation) approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition.
Signatures of Diversifying Selection in European Pig Breeds
Wilkinson, S. ; Lu, Z.H. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Haley, C. ; Jackson, I.J. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Ogden, R. ; Wiener, P. - \ 2013
Plos Genetics 9 (2013)4. - ISSN 1553-7404
quantitative trait loci - fatty-acid-composition - coat color - artificial selection - kit-ligand - skin pigmentation - complex traits - teat number - wild boar - ear size
Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation) approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition.
Integrating water and carbon fluxes at the ecosystem scale across African ecosystems
Merbold, L. ; Brümmer, C. ; Archibald, S. ; Ardö, J. ; Arneth, A. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2013
Biophysical controls on evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in natural, semi-natural and managed African ecosystems
Brümmer, C. ; Merbold, L. ; Archibald, S. ; Ardö, J. ; Arneth, A. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2013
The effects of climatic factors and vegetation type on evapotranspiration (E) and water use efficiency (WUE) were analyzed using tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) data of eleven African sites (22 site years) located across a continental-scale transect. The seasonal pattern of E was closely linked to growing-season length and rainfall distribution. Although annual precipitation (P) was highly variable among sites (290 to 1650 mm), minimum annual E was not less than 250 mm and reached a maximum of 900 mm where annual P exceeded 1200 mm. Site-specific interannual variability in E could be explained by either changes in total P or variations in solar irradiance. At some sites, a highly positive linear correlation was found between monthly sums of E and net radiation (Rn), whereas a hysteretic relationship at other sites indicated that E lagged behind the typical seasonal progression of Rn. Results of a cross-correlation analysis between daily (24-h) E and Rn revealed that site-specific lag times were between 0 days and up to a few weeks depending on the lag of vapor pressure deficit (D) behind Rn and vegetation type. Physiological parameters (e.g. mean dry-foliage Priestley-Taylor alpha) implied that stomatal limitation to transpiration prevailed. During the rainy season, a strong linear correlation between monthly mean values of gross primary production (GPP) and E resulted in water use efficiency being constant with lower values at grass-dominated sites (~2 to ~3.5 g C kg-1 H2O) than at natural woodland sites and plantations (~4.5 to ~6 g C kg-1 H2O).
Evaluation of MODIS gross primary productivity for Africa using eddy covariance data
Sjostrom, M. ; Zhao, M. ; Archibald, S. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2013
Remote Sensing of Environment 131 (2013). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 275 - 286.
net primary production - deciduous broadleaf forest - primary production gpp - light use efficiency - ecosystem exchange - soil-water - spatial variability - terrestrial gross - savanna ecosystem - carbon-dioxide
MOD17A2 provides operational gross primary production (GPP) data globally at 1 km spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution. MOD17A2 estimates GPP according to the light use efficiency (LUE) concept assuming a fixed maximum rate of carbon assimilation per unit photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the vegetation (emax). Minimum temperature and vapor pressure deficit derived from meteorological data down-regulate emax and constrain carbon assimilation. This data is useful for regional to global studies of the terrestrial carbon budget, climate change and natural resources. In this study we evaluated the MOD17A2 product and its driver data by using in situ measurements of meteorology and eddy covariance GPP for 12 African sites. MOD17A2 agreed well with eddy covariance GPP for wet sites. Overall, seasonality was well captured but MOD17A2 GPP was underestimated for the dry sites located in the Sahel region. Replacing the meteorological driver data derived from coarse resolution reanalysis data with tower measurements reduced MOD17A2 GPP uncertainties, however, the underestimations at the dry sites persisted. Inferred emax calculated from tower data was higher than the emax prescribed in MOD17A2. This, in addition to uncertainties in fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) explains some of the underestimations. The results suggest that improved quality of driver data, but primarily a readjustment of the parameters in the biome parameter look-up table (BPLUT) may be needed to better estimate GPP for African ecosystems in MOD17A2.
Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market
Wilkinson, H.S. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Haley, C.S. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Groenen, M. - \ 2012
BMC Genomics 13 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 12 p.
multilocus genotypes - assignment tests - food forensics - cattle breeds - dna - populations - identification - adulteration - traceability - individuals
Background - The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. Results - The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was¿>¿99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR)¿>¿0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. Conclusion - The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.
1000 Bull Genomes Consortium Project
Hayes, B.J. ; Fries, R. ; Lund, M.S. ; Boichard, D.A. ; Stothard, P. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Tassell, C. ; Anderson, C.L. ; Hulsegge, B. ; Guldbrandtsen, B. ; Rocha, D. ; Hinirichs, D. ; Bagnato, A. ; Georges, M. ; Spelman, R.J. ; Reecy, J.M. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Goddard, M.E. ; Gredler, B. - \ 2012
In: Plant and Animal Genome XX Conference, San Diego, CA, USA, 14-18 January 2012. -
Genomic selection, where selection decisions are based on estimates of breeding value from genome wide-marker effects, has enormous potential to improve genetic gain in dairy and beef cattle. Although successful in dairy cattle, some major challenges remain 1) only a proportion of the genetic variance is captured, particularly for some traits 2) marker effects are rarely consistent across breeds, 3) accuracy of genomic predictions decays rapidly over time. Using full genome sequences rather than DNA markers in genomic selection could address these challenges. However, sequencing all individuals in the very large resource populations required to estimate the typically small effects of mutations on target traits would be prohibitively expensive. An alternative is to sequence key ancestors contributing most of the genetic material of the current population, and to use this reference for imputation of sequence from SNP chip data. The reference set must still be large, in order to capture for example, rare variants which are likely to explain some of the variation in our target traits. Recognising the need for a comprehensive “reference set” of key ancestors by many groups undertaking cattle research and cattle breeding programs, we have initiated the 1000 bull genomes project. The project will assemble whole genome sequences of cattle from institutions around the world, to provide an extended data base for imputation of genetic variants. This will enable the bovine genomics community to impute full genome sequence from SNP genotypes, and then use this data for genomic selection, and rapid discovery of causal mutations. Some preliminary results from the variant detection pipeline will be reported.
Genome-wide assessment of diversity in the pig and other suids
Groenen, M.A.M. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Larson, B.A. ; Muir, W.M. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Ma, J. ; Schook, L.B. - \ 2010
The Porcine HapMap Project: Genome-Wide Assessment Of Nucleotide Diversity, Haplotype Diversity And Footprints Of Selection In The Pig
Groenen, M.A.M. ; Amaral, A.J. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Larson, B.A. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Muir, W.M. ; Malhi, Y. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Ferretti, L. ; Perez-Encizo, M. ; Schook, L.B. - \ 2010
In: Book of Abstracts of the Plant and Animal Genome XVIII Conference, San Diego, California, USA, 9-13 Januari 2010. - - p. w609 - w609.
The Porcine HapMap Consortium The pig has a complex and long history of domestication and breed formation and has been domesticated independently multiple times and has likely experienced introgression of local Wild boar after the spread of agriculture. Using the Illumina GA sequencing platform thousand s of SNPs were identified in the porcine genome and used these to develop the Illumin porcine 60K iSelect Beadchip. This chip has enabled whole-genome characterization of linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure in commercial and local breeds and comparison with the Wild boar. The chip has also allowed an investigation into whole-genome patterns of variation, including signatures of selection associated with domestication and breed formation as well as elucidating demographic events such as population bottlenecks, and providing insights into the complex origin of domesticated populations by examining patterns of haplotype sharing. Signatures of selection were also identified using Illumina short read sequences generated from pooled reduced representation libraries of different breeds and covering approximately 2% of the genome. Signals of positive selection were identified and a GO term/KEGG pathway enrichment analysis provided evidence for specific gene families under selection in domesticated pigs and Wild boar. Currently approximately 2,000 pigs were been genotyped with the porcine 60K beadchip, including approximatley 50 pig breeds, and about 20 different Wild boar populations distributed throughout Eurasia. In addition, museum and archeological samples were included to provide a wider insight into domestication and geographic history. Inclusion of a range of other Suidae as outgroup species, supported an estimation of ancestral alleles and the origin and relative age of the porcine SNPs.
Pig genome sequence - analysis and publication strategy
Archibald, A.L. ; Bolund, L. ; Churcher, C. ; Fredholm, M. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Harlizius, B. - \ 2010
BMC Genomics 11 (2010). - ISSN 1471-2164 - p. 438 - 438.
Background - The pig genome is being sequenced and characterised under the auspices of the Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium. The sequencing strategy followed a hybrid approach combining hierarchical shotgun sequencing of BAC clones and whole genome shotgun sequencing. Results - Assemblies of the BAC clone derived genome sequence have been annotated using the Pre-Ensembl and Ensembl automated pipelines and made accessible through the Pre-Ensembl/Ensembl browsers. The current annotated genome assembly (Sscrofa9) was released with Ensembl 56 in September 2009. A revised assembly (Sscrofa10) is under construction and will incorporate whole genome shotgun sequence (WGS) data providing > 30× genome coverage. The WGS sequence, most of which comprise short Illumina/Solexa reads, were generated from DNA from the same single Duroc sow as the source of the BAC library from which clones were preferentially selected for sequencing. In accordance with the Bermuda and Fort Lauderdale agreements and the more recent Toronto Statement the data have been released into public sequence repositories (Genbank/EMBL, NCBI/Ensembl trace repositories) in a timely manner and in advance of publication. Conclusions - In this marker paper, the Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium (SGSC) sets outs its plans for analysis of the pig genome sequence, for the application and publication of the results
Precipitation as driver of carbon fluxes in 11 African ecosystems
Merbold, L. ; Ardo, J. ; Arneth, A. ; Scholes, R.J. ; Nouvellon, Y. ; Grandcourt, A. de; Archibald, S. ; Bonnefonds, J.M. ; Boulain, N. ; Bruemmer, C. ; Brueggemann, N. ; Cappelaere, B. ; Ceschia, E. ; El-Khidir, H.A.M. ; El-Tahir, B.A. ; Falk, U. ; Lloyd, J. ; Kergoat, L. ; Dantec, V. Le; Mougin, E. ; Muchinda, M. ; Mukelabai, M.M. ; Ramier, D. ; Roupsard, O. ; Timouk, F. ; Veenendaal, E.M. ; Kutsch, W.L. - \ 2009
Biogeosciences 6 (2009)6. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1027 - 1041.
water-vapor transfer - eddy-covariance - southern africa - spatial variability - savanna ecosystem - soil respiration - co2 exchange - beech forest - woody cover - open-path
This study reports carbon and water fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere in eleven different ecosystems types in Sub-Saharan Africa, as measured using eddy covariance (EC) technology in the first two years of the CarboAfrica network operation. The ecosystems for which data were available ranged in mean annual rainfall from 320 mm (Sudan) to 1150 mm (Republic of Congo) and include a spectrum of vegetation types (or land cover) (open savannas, woodlands, croplands and grasslands). Given the shortness of the record, the EC data were analysed across the network rather than longitudinally at sites, in order to understand the driving factors for ecosystem respiration and carbon assimilation, and to reveal the different water use strategies in these highly seasonal environments
Mapping SNPs to un-sequenced regions of the pig genome using comparative genomics
Amaral, A.J. ; Archibald, A.L. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Law, A. - \ 2008
Community cohesion in Liberia: a post-conflict rapid social assessment
Richards, P. ; Archibald, S. ; Bruce, B. ; Modad, W. ; Mulbah, E. - \ 2005
Washington, DC : The World Bank (Social Development Papers 21) - 76 p.
Check title to add to marked list
<< previous | next >>

Show 20 50 100 records per page

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.