Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Seeing the forest, missing the field : Forests and agriculture in global climate change policy
Soto Golcher, Cinthia ; Arts, Bas ; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 77 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 627 - 640.
Agenda setting - Agriculture - Climate change - Food - Framing - REDD+

As the climate change problem becomes more eminent, there is more pressure to increase efforts in all sectors and countries. The land-use sector is seen as an option to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and key in achieving a balance in GHG emissions and removals by sinks by 2050, as envisioned in the Paris Agreement. This article presents two comparative case studies within the climate change arena and aims to understand how and why: 1) tropical deforestation and forest degradation have secured a prominent place on the international climate change agenda, while 2) agriculture has not secured a prominent place. We use the agenda-setting multi-stream approach (MSA), while adding a framing layer. Based on primary data (including an international workshop with forest and agriculture experts, interviews, and participation in key international meetings), and secondary data, this article concludes that REDD + is an example of how a condition was framed as a problem, a viable proposal was developed, and political will and receptivity was shown, all of which placed REDD + high on the agenda, and generated its legal and methodological framework over the course of ten years. In these efforts, the role of policy entrepreneurs was key. Agriculture, on the other hand, is a more complex sector with multiple interests and millions of stakeholders. The consideration of agriculture, in particular its mitigation component, is therefore a highly contentious issue. The fear of new binding commitments and the potential threat to food security and production, and the lack of a convincing proposal that addresses the multiple values of agriculture has impeded substantive progress. Also, the absence of a committed policy entrepreneur limits the place of agriculture in the climate change agenda under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

How environmental NGOs have influenced decision making in a ‘semi-authoritarian’ state : The case of forest policy in Ethiopia
Ayana, Alemayehu N. ; Arts, Bas ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2018
World Development 109 (2018). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 313 - 322.
ENGOs - Ethiopia - Participatory forest management - Policy arrangement approach - Policy-making - Semi-authoritarian state
Much has been written about the increasing contributions of non-governmental actors, such as environmental NGOs (ENGOs), to sustainable development, particularly in forest and environmental governance. However, little empirical evidence exists concerning the role and impact of these new actors in policy decisions where pluralist politics are lacking. By presenting the case of forest policy-making in Ethiopia, this paper illustrates the strategies of ENGOs, and how and to what extent they have impacted policy decisions, in a ‘semi-authoritarian’ context, where public policies are typically the exclusive mandate of governmental actors. We applied the policy arrangement approach (PAA), enriched with an ENGO classification, to analyze and explain the dynamics and nuances of policy processes. Our study finds that ENGOs do have an influence on policy-making under ‘semi-authoritarianism’ even without being formally invited to do so. However, influencing policy under such circumstances requires a circumspect approach and follows more complex pathways than the conventional policy-making steps in a democratic context. When the formal avenue for their participation in the policy-making process is restricted, these actors employ indirect strategies of catalyzing policy processes, such as demonstrating innovative policy approaches by implementing pilot projects, documenting and communicating field evidence and best practices, forming strong networks with like-minded actors, forging alliances with key decision makers, and investing sufficient human and financial resources to push the adoption of a new policy. The findings and the conclusions drawn in this paper are consistent with the conceptual framework employed. The PAA has proved to be a suitable analytical tool to understand and explain policy processes in various polities, from pluralist democracies to (semi-)authoritarianism.
Brabant Nieuws, i.v.m. de plannen om entree te gaan heffen voor de Biesbosch
Arts, Bas - \ 2018
Climate-smart land use requires local solutions, transdisciplinary research, policy coherence and transparency
Carter, Sarah ; Arts, Bas ; E. Giller, Ken ; Soto Golcher, Cinthia ; Kok, Kasper ; Koning, Jessica De; Noordwijk, Meine Van; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Rufino, Mariana C. ; Salvini, Giulia ; Verchot, Louis ; Wollenberg, Eva ; Herold, Martin - \ 2018
Carbon Management (2018). - ISSN 1758-3004 - 11 p.
Successfully meeting the mitigation and adaptation targets of the Paris Climate Agreement (PA) will depend on strengthening the ties between forests and agriculture. Climate-smart land use can be achieved by integrating climate-smart agriculture (CSA) and REDD+. The focus on agriculture for food security within a changing climate, and on forests for climate change mitigation and adaptation, can be achieved simultaneously with a transformational change in the land-use sector. Striving for both independently will lead to competition for land, inefficiencies in monitoring and conflicting agendas. Practical solutions exist for specific contexts that can lead to increased agricultural output and forest protection. Landscape-level emissions accounting can be used to identify these practices. Transdisciplinary research agendas can identify and prioritize solutions and targets for integrated mitigation and adaptation interventions. Policy coherence must be achieved at a number of levels, from international to local, to avoid conflicting incentives. Transparency must lastly be integrated, through collaborative design of projects, and open data and methods. Climate-smart land use requires all these elements, and will increase the likelihood of successful REDD+ and CSA interventions. This will support the PA as well as other initiatives as part of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Learning to govern Ghana’s forests responsibly : Responsive curriculum design and enactment
Ameyaw, Joana Akua Serwaa - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts; Arjen Wals, co-promotor(en): Esther Turnhout. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438780 - 164
Second International Forest Policy Meeting
Arts, Bas - \ 2018
A hundred participants from 20 countries, mostly in Europe, participated in the Second International Forest Policy Meeting held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, from 11 to 13 April 2018.
Spiders in the web: understanding the evaluation of REDD+ in SouthWest Ghana
Arts, B.J.M. ; Behagel, J.H. - \ 2018
The implementation of the global programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation (REDD+) is slow and riddled by challenges. It lacks a robust financial mechanism and is widely criticised for producing too little positive impact for climate, nature, and people. In many countries with tropical forests however, a variety of REDD+ projects continue to develop on the ground. This paper fills in some of the gaps in our understanding of the dynamic relation between global policymaking and implementation of REDD+ on the ground. Using the introduction of REDD+ in Southwest Ghana as an example, we apply a practice-based approach to analyse the different roles that local actors and global-local intermediaries played in the introduction of REDD+ in Southwest Ghana. Our results show a more balanced picture than polarised
debates at the global levels suggest. Existing local practices helped REDD+ ‘land’ locally but also transformed REDD+ to resemble such local practices. In turn, this has led to the development of REDD+ initiatives that absorbed elements from established community-based conservation, forest restoration, and sustainable agro-forestry practices.
Institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania: progress and implications
Ochieng, R.M. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Brockhaus, M. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. - \ 2018
Ecology and Society 23 (2018)2. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 13 p.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up a new global discussion on forest monitoring and carbon accounting in developing countries. We analyze and compare the extent to which the concept of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) for REDD+ has become institutionalized in terms of new policy discourses, actors, resources, and rules in Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania. To do so, we draw on discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach. A qualitative scale that distinguishes between “shallow” institutionalization on the one end, and “deep” institutionalization on the other, is developed to structure the analysis and comparison. Results show that in all countries MRV has become institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope, and strategies for forest monitoring, and development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislations to anchor forest monitoring in law and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies are being developed. Nevertheless, the extent to which MRV has been institutionalized varies across countries, with Indonesia experiencing “deep” institutionalization, Peru “shallow-intermediate” institutionalization, and Tanzania “intermediate-deep” institutionalization. We explore possible reasons for and consequences of differences in extent of institutionalization of MRV across countries.
Drivers of European landscape change: stakeholders’ perspectives through Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping
Sluis, T. van der; Arts, B.J.M. ; Kok, K. ; Bogers, M.M.B. ; Gravsholt Busck, Anne ; Sepp, Kalev ; Loupa-Ramos, I. ; Pavlis, V. ; Geamana, Nicoleta ; Crouzat, Emilie - \ 2018
Landscape Research (2018). - ISSN 0142-6397
Understanding complex processes of landscape change is crucial to guide the development of future landscapes and land resources. Through Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping, we studied the processes of landscape change of six different environmental zones in Europe. Results show that landscapes are complex systems, with many interactions. Except for one, all regions show a strong decline in landscape quality. Dominant drivers are EU policy and the global economy, sometimes in conjunction with environmental drivers or the governance system. The process of change differs for all cases, through urbanisation or land abandonment in some cases, and agricultural intensification in others. The (un)intended effects of policies are difficult to predict. Although some EU Policies directly improve landscape quality, their indirect effects as well as other EU policies outweigh this positive influence and jointly result in a decrease of landscape quality. To counter these negative side effects, targeted landscape policies are urgently needed.
Classical Pathway of Complement Activation: Longitudinal Associations of C1q and C1-INH With Cardiovascular Outcomes: The CODAM Study (Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht).
Hertle, E. ; Arts, I.C.W. ; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J. van - \ 2018
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 38 (2018). - ISSN 1079-5642 - p. 1242 - 1244.
Objective—The classical complement pathway has been assigned both protective and pathological effects in cardiovascular disease (CVD), but human data are lacking. We determined the associations of the pattern recognition factor C1q and the regulator C1-INH with incident CVD, carotid intima–media thickness, endothelial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation.
Approach and Results—Baseline concentrations of C1q and C1-INH were measured in the CODAM study (Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht; n=574; 61% men; age, 60±7 years). The 7-year incidence of CVD in participants free of CVD at baseline was evaluated using logistic regression analyses (n=342; 73 cases). The lowest incidence of CVD was observed in the middle tertile of C1q (Tlow compared with Tmiddle: odds ratio, 2.38 [95% confidence interval, 1.14–4.95]; Thigh compared with Tmiddle: odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.94–4.07]). C1-INH was not associated with CVD. During the 7-year follow-up period, C1q and C1-INH were not, or inconsistently, associated with carotid intima–media thickness or with biomarker scores reflecting endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation.
Conclusions—Our results suggest a nonlinear association between C1q and incident CVD. This supports the concept that early steps in classical pathway activation may have both protective and pathological effects on human CVD.
Antigen-dependent effects of divergent selective breeding based on natural antibodies on specific humoral immune responses in chickens
Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Lammers, A. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2018
Vaccine 36 (2018)11. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 1444 - 1452.
Breeding - Chicken - General disease resistance - Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) - Natural antibody - Specific antibody
NAb are defined as antigen binding antibodies present without a known previous exposure to this antigen. NAb are suggested to enhance specific antibody (SpAb) responses, but consequences of different NAb levels on immunization are largely unknown. Layer chickens were divergently selected and bred for keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding NAb titers, resulting in a High line and a Low line. In this study, we investigated: (1) the relation of NAb levels with SpAb titers; and (2) the effect of immunization on NAb titers. The 50 highest females of the High line and the 50 lowest females of the Low line of generation 2 were intramuscularly immunized at 33 weeks of age with 1 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing one of four treatments: (1) negative control (no antigen), (2) 500 μg KLH, (3) 100 μg avian tuberculin purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium avium (PPD), or (4) 250 μg human serum albumin (HuSA). IgM and IgG titers of NAb and SpAb in plasma were determined prior to immunization and weekly for 5 weeks post immunization by indirect ELISA. In addition, antibody affinity was investigated. No differences in SpAb and NAb response against KLH and PPD were observed as a consequence of different NAb titers, but increased and prolonged SpAb and NAb titer responses against HuSA were observed for the High line compared to the Low line. Different natural antibody titers did not impair SpAb dynamics and SpAb affinity. NAb titers were not, or for only short-term, affected by immunization. We show here that NAb may enhance SpAb responses, but that this effect is antigen-dependent. We hypothesize that NAb play a role in general disease resistance through enhancement of the humoral adaptive immune response.
Arts-based methods for transformative engagement : A toolkit
Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Bäckman, Malin ; Grenni, Sara ; Moriggi, Angela ; Pisters, Siri ; Vrieze, Anke de - \ 2018
Wageningen : SUSPLACE - ISBN 9789463432641 - 91
Farmers’ Motivations to Plant and Manage On-Farm Trees in Ghana
Oduro, K.A. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Kyereh, B. ; Mohren, G.M.J. - \ 2018
Small-scale Forestry (2018). - ISSN 1873-7617
Deforestation and forest degradation, especially in the agricultural landscapes, are serious threats to biodiversity conservation and sustainability of the timber industry. Planting trees on farms has been identified as having great potential to increase forest resources from agricultural landscapes. This paper examined farmers’ motivations and behaviour to engage in on-farm tree planting and management in Ghana by combining internal and external factors in a socio-psychological model. Data were collected from 156 smallholder farmers from five communities in two forest districts using a semi-structured questionnaire. Additional farm inventory data were collected from 33 farmers under two on-farm tree planting schemes. On-farm tree planting was perceived as providing income, access to personal timber for furniture, and access to loan facilities. Incentives such as provision of grants, farming inputs, capacity training, and access to markets for agricultural produce are factors that motivate on-farm tree planting in Ghana. The average standing volume of on-farm trees in the study area is 51.9 m3/ha which is almost twice the national average for the off-reserve areas in the semi-deciduous forests to which much of the study sites belong. Many farmers considered high financial costs and limited knowledge of appropriate techniques in managing planted on-farm trees as barriers to the development of tree stock on farms.
Cerebral tryptophan metabolism and outcome of tuberculous meningitis : An observational cohort study
Laarhoven, Arjan van; Dian, Sofiati ; Aguirre-Gamboa, Raúl ; Avila-Pacheco, Julian ; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis ; Ruesen, Carolien ; Annisa, Jessi ; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Chaidir, Lidya ; Li, Yang ; Achmad, Tri Hanggono ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Notebaart, Richard A. ; Ruslami, Rovina ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Verbeek, Marcel M. ; Alisjahbana, Bachti ; Kumar, Vinod ; Clish, Clary B. ; Ganiem, A.R. ; Crevel, Reinout van - \ 2018
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 18 (2018)5. - ISSN 1473-3099 - p. 526 - 535.
Background: Immunopathology contributes to the high mortality of tuberculous meningitis, but the biological pathways involved are mostly unknown. We aimed to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum metabolomes of patients with tuberculous meningitis with that of controls without tuberculous meningitis, and assess the link between metabolite concentrations and mortality. Methods: In this observational cohort study at the Hasan Sadikin Hospital (Bandung, Indonesia) we measured 425 metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in CSF and serum from 33 HIV-negative Indonesian patients with confirmed or probable tuberculous meningitis and 22 control participants with complete clinical data between March 12, 2009, and Oct 27, 2013. Associations of metabolite concentrations with survival were validated in a second cohort of 101 patients from the same centre. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism typing was used to identify tryptophan quantitative trait loci, which were used for survival analysis in a third cohort of 285 patients. Findings: Concentrations of 250 (70%) of 351 metabolites detected in CSF were higher in patients with tuberculous meningitis than in controls, especially in those who died during follow-up. Only five (1%) of the 390 metobolites detected in serum differed between patients with tuberculous meningitis and controls. CSF tryptophan concentrations showed a pattern different from most other CSF metabolites; concentrations were lower in patients who survived compared with patients who died (9-times) and to controls (31-times). The association of low CSF tryptophan with patient survival was confirmed in the validation cohort (hazard ratio 0·73; 95% CI 0·64-0·83; p<0·0001; per each halving). 11 genetic loci predictive for CSF tryptophan concentrations in tuberculous meningitis were identified (p<0·00001). These quantitative trait loci predicted survival in a third cohort of 285 HIV-negative patients in a prognostic index including age and sex, also after correction for possible confounders (p=0·0083). Interpretation: Cerebral tryptophan metabolism, which is known to affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and CNS inflammation, is important for the outcome of tuberculous meningitis. CSF tryptophan concentrations in tuberculous meningitis are under strong genetic influence, probably contributing to the variable outcomes of tuberculous meningitis. Interventions targeting tryptophan metabolism could improve outcomes of tuberculous meningitis. Funding: Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences; Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research; Radboud University; National Academy of Sciences; Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, Indonesia; European Research Council; and PEER-Health.
The Governance of Indigenous Natural Products in Namibia: A Policy Network Analysis
Ndeinoma, A. ; Wiersum, K.F. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2018
Environmental Management 62 (2018)1. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 29 - 44.
At the end of the 20th century, optimism existed that non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can form an integral part in conservation and development strategies. However, there is limited knowledge on how the different
stakeholders could relate to the state or to each other in promoting commercialization of NTFPs. Applying the policy network as an analytical framework, we investigated the structural patterns of actor relations in the governance structure of indigenous natural products (INPs) in Namibia,
to understand the implications of such relations on INP policy process. The findings indicate that the INP policy network in Namibia is multi-dimensional, consisting of the Indigenous Plant Task Team (IPTT)—the key governance
structure for resource mobilization and information sharing;and functional relations which serve specific roles in theINP value chain. The existing relations have facilitated policy development particularly for heavily regulated species,
such as devil’s claw; but for other species, onlyincremental changes are observed in terms of small-scale processing facilities for value addition and exclusive purchase agreements for sustainable sourcing of INPs. Participation
of primary producers, private actors and quality standardization bodies is limited in INPs governance structures, which narrow the scope of information sharing.
Consequently, despite that the IPTT has fostered publicly funded explorative pilot projects, ranging from production to marketing of INPs, there are no clear guidelines how these projects results can be transferred to private entities
for possible commercialization. Further collaboration and information sharing is needed to guide public sector relations with the private entities and cooperatives.
Genomic Region Containing Toll-Like Receptor Genes Has a Major Impact on Total IgM Antibodies Including KLH-Binding IgM Natural Antibodies in Chickens
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Vereijken, A.L.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Immunology 8 (2018). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 14 p.
Natural antibodies (NAb) are antigen binding antibodies present in individuals without a previous exposure to this antigen. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding NAb levels were previously associated with survival in chickens. This suggests that selective breeding for KLH-binding NAb may increase survival by means of improved general disease resistance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify genes underlying genetic variation in NAb levels. The studied population consisted of 1,628 adolescent layer chickens with observations for titers of KLH-binding NAb of the isotypes IgM, IgA, IgG, the total KLH-binding (IgT) NAb titers, total antibody concentrations of the isotypes IgM, IgA, IgG, and the total antibodies concentration in plasma. GWAS were performed using 57,636 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). One chromosomal region on chromosome 4 was associated with KLH-binding IgT NAb, and total IgM concentration, and especially with KLH-binding IgM NAb. The region of interest was fine mapped by imputing the region of the study population to whole genome sequence, and subsequently performing an association study using the imputed sequence variants. 16 candidate genes were identified, of which FAM114A1, Toll-like receptor 1 family member B (TLR1B), TLR1A, Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) showed the strongest associations. SNP located in coding regions of the candidate genes were checked for predicted changes in protein functioning. One SNP (at 69,965,939 base pairs) received the maximum impact score from two independent prediction tools, which makes this SNP the most likely causal variant. This SNP is located in TLR1A, which suggests a fundamental role of TLR1A on regulation of IgM levels (i.e., KLH-binding IgM NAb, and total IgM concentration), or B cells biology, or both. This study contributes to increased understanding of (genetic) regulation of KLH-binding NAb levels, and total antibody concentrations.
Is the tier-1 effect assessment for herbicides protective for aquatic algae and vascular plant communities?
Wijngaarden, René P.A. van; Arts, Gertie H.P. - \ 2018
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37 (2018)1. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 175 - 183.
Algae - Aquatic macrophytes - Micro-/mesocosms - Plants - Single-species toxicity tests
In the aquatic tier-1 effect assessment for plant protection products with an herbicidal mode of action in Europe, it is usually algae and/or vascular plants that determine the environmental risks. This tier includes tests with at least 2 algae and 1 macrophyte (Lemna). Although such tests are considered to be of a chronic nature (based on the duration of the test in relation to the life cycle of the organism), the measurement endpoints derived from the laboratory tests with plants (including algae) and used in the first-tier effect assessment for herbicides are acute effect concentrations affecting 50% of the test organisms (EC50 values) and not no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) or effect concentrations affecting 10% of the test organisms (EC10) values. Other European legislative frameworks (e.g., the Water Framework Directive) use EC10 values. The present study contributes to a validation of the tiered herbicide risk assessment approach by comparing the standard first-tier effect assessment with results of microcosm and mesocosm studies. We evaluated EC50 and EC10 values for standard test algae and macrophytes based on either the growth rate endpoint (ErC50) or the lowest available endpoint for growth rate or biomass/yield (Er/EyC50). These values were compared with the regulatory acceptable concentrations for the threshold option as derived from microcosm and mesocosm studies. For these studies, protection is maintained if growth rate is taken as the regulatory endpoint instead of the lowest value of either growth rate or biomass/yield in conjunction with the standard assessment factor of 10. Based on a limited data set of 14 herbicides, we did not identify a need to change the current practice. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:175–183.
The missing pillar : Eudemonic values in the justification of nature conservation
Born, Riyan J.G. van den; Arts, B. ; Admiraal, J.G.A. ; Beringer, A. ; Knights, P. ; Molinario, E. ; Horvat, K.P. ; Porras-Gomez, C. ; Smrekar, A. ; Soethe, N. ; Vivero-Pol, J.L. ; Ganzevoort, W. ; Bonaiuto, M. ; Knippenberg, L. ; Groot, W.T. De - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 61 (2018)5-6. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 841 - 856.
biodiversity - committed action - eudaimonia - life history interview - nature
The public justification for nature conservation currently rests on two pillars: hedonic (instrumental) values, and moral values. Yet, these representations appear to do little motivational work in practice; biodiversity continues to decline, and biodiversity policies face a wide implementation gap. In seven EU countries, we studied why people act for nature beyond professional obligations. We explore the motivations of 105 committed actors for nature in detail using life-history interviews, and trace these back to their childhood. Results show that the key concept for understanding committed action for nature is meaningfulness. People act for nature because nature is meaningful to them, connected to a life that makes sense and a difference in the world. These eudemonic values (expressing the meaningful life) constitute a crucial third pillar in the justification of nature conservation. Important policy implications are explored, e.g. with respect to public discourse and the encounter with nature in childhood.
Regimes of justification : competing arguments and the construction of legitimacy in Dutch nature conservation practices
Arts, Irma ; Buijs, A.E. ; Verschoor, G.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 61 (2018)5-6. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1070 - 1084.
Legitimacy of environmental management and policies is an important topic in environmental research. Based on the notion of ‘regimes of justification’, we aim to analyse the dynamics in argumentations used to legitimize and de-legitimize Dutch nature conservation practices. Contrary to prior studies, we demonstrate how actors in two locations where environmental disputes arose showed little willingness to switch between arguments in order to reach a compromise. Instead, some actors constructed incompatibilities between arguments in order to delegitimize competing actors. Especially in the visioning phase, institutional actors emphasized technical efficiency, planning and global environmentalism, and arguments related to emotional accounts, inspiration and locality were de-legitimized. In the discussion, we argue that it is not the formal or informal inclusion of the actors in the process, but the construction of the legitimacy of their arguments that determines the inclusiveness and outcome of the process.
The 'green' and 'self' in green self-governance - a study of 264 green space initiatives by citizens
Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 20 (2018)1. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 96 - 113.
Scholars observe an increased involvement of citizens in green space governance. This paper focuses on green self-governance, in which citizens play a major role in realizing, protecting and/or managing green space. While existing research on green selfgovernance focuses mostly on specific cases, we aim to contribute towards a large overview via an inventory of 264 green self-governance practices across The Netherlands. With this, we discuss the relevance of green self-governance for nature conservation and its relationship with authorities. In our analysis, we show that green self-governance practices are very diverse: they pursue a wide variety of physical and social objectives; employ a multitude of physical and political activities; involve different actors besides citizens; mobilize different internal and external funding sources; and are active within and outside of protected areas. While green selfgovernance can contribute towards protection and management of green space and towards social values, we highlight that this contribution is mostly of a local relevance. Most practices are small scale and objectives do not always match those of authorities. Although we speak of self-governance, authorities play an important role in many practices, for example, as financial donor, landowner or regulatory authority. In this, self-governance is often not completely ‘self’.
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