Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Bedrijfs- en burgerinitiatieven in stedelijke natuur : Hun succesfactoren en knelpunten en hoe de lokale overheid ze kan helpen slagen
Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Langers, F. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 118) - 100
This report covers two years of research into the factors that determine the success or failure of green initiatives by businesses and citizens and their contribution to biodiversity. The researchers investigated fourteen initiatives by means of interviews and a document analysis, and selected five of these initiatives for more exhaustive case studies. First, they interviewed the initiators. For the case studies those interviews were supplemented with a further ten interviews with local government officers, elected municipal councillors and members of the municipal executive. Websites and policy documents were also analysed and almost all the initiatives were visited. The study made use of the policy arrangement approach by Arts and Van Tatenhove and took note of the theory of change under this approach. The research questions that were answered concerned how the initiatives came about, the initiators’ ambitions, the success and failure factors, local government involvement, and options for improving the response by local government to these initiatives, and to green initiatives in general, from the perspective of the local government respondents. The research showed, among other things, that the initiatives led to a greater variety of green spaces. A number of these initiatives enhance biodiversity in terms of species and habitats, including rare species. Besides answers to the research questions, the report contains recommendations on the Green Deal on New Urban Nature and to local government, as well as suggestions for further research.
Fifty Percent Human – how art brings us in touch with our microbial cohabitants
Bäumel, Sonja ; Tytgat, Hanne L.P. ; Nemec, Birgit ; Schmidt, Ruth ; Chia, Loo W. ; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2018
Microbial Biotechnology 11 (2018)4. - ISSN 1751-7907 - p. 571 - 574.

The Human Microbiome, as well as the exploration of the microorganisms inhabiting the human body, are not only integral to the field of microbiology but represent an intrinsic part of all human beings. Consequently, along with scientists, artists have been inspired by the microbiome: transforming it in to tangible artefacts in order to critically question, reflect on and break down the barrier between humans and their microcohabitants. By artistic means, artists help us to understand how microbial research topics are inevitably affected by societal influences, including (health) politics, economics and the arts. Fifty Percent Human is a multidisciplinary artistic research project that aims to reshape our understanding of the human body and its environment as well as to explore possibilities for conscious coexistence in order to bridge the gap between science and society.

Inside the animal internet
Arts, Koen - \ 2018

Forest devolution in Vietnam: From rhetoric to performance
Dang, Thi Kim Phung ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 77 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 760 - 774.
This paper discusses the performance of forest devolution, the major reform in forestry in developing countries over the last two decades. Although this change in forest governance has been studied by many scholars, the impacts of forest devolution and the various ways to measure them are still under discussion. This paper contributes to this discussion by evaluating the performance of a specific forest devolution policy, namely, forest land allocation (FLA) in Vietnam. The study is based on the policy arrangement approach to operationalize the
concept of ‘governance performance,’ and particularly focuses on the local people’s involvement in the policy. Overall, our findings from three regions of Vietnam reveal a medium governance performance for FLA. The main
explanation for this performance is the tradeoffs between the two key policy goals: forest rehabilitation and to increase local income. These tradeoffs are shaped by various factors, namely, the strategic use of forest rights by
target groups, social learning by state and nonstate actors, and unanticipated effects on the ground.
Challenges of Forest Governance: the Case of Forest Rehabilitation in Vietnam
Dang, Thi Kim Phung ; Zouwen, M. van der; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2018
Public Organization Review: a Global Journal (2018). - ISSN 1566-7170 - 28 p.
Building upon the perspectives of the policy arrangement approach, this
article explores the extent to which forest governance has changed under the two national programs on forest rehabilitation in Vietnam. This article then assesses how these changes have impacted people’s participation in forest rehabilitation and the country’s forest cover for the past 25 years. Findings reveal that, despite a significant discursive shift from central state forest management to shared responsibilities among stakeholders in forestry, accompanying rules and regulations as well as actors’ constellations and resource allocations have not sufficiently changed to fully implement the new rehabilitation arrangements. This partial institutionalization of the new forest governance discourse has determined the low local support for forest rehabilitation, which has shaped its rather poor legitimacy and effectiveness.
Seeing the forest, missing the field : Forests and agriculture in global climate change policy
Soto Golcher, Cinthia ; Arts, Bas ; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 77 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 627 - 640.
Agenda setting - Agriculture - Climate change - Food - Framing - REDD+

As the climate change problem becomes more eminent, there is more pressure to increase efforts in all sectors and countries. The land-use sector is seen as an option to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and key in achieving a balance in GHG emissions and removals by sinks by 2050, as envisioned in the Paris Agreement. This article presents two comparative case studies within the climate change arena and aims to understand how and why: 1) tropical deforestation and forest degradation have secured a prominent place on the international climate change agenda, while 2) agriculture has not secured a prominent place. We use the agenda-setting multi-stream approach (MSA), while adding a framing layer. Based on primary data (including an international workshop with forest and agriculture experts, interviews, and participation in key international meetings), and secondary data, this article concludes that REDD + is an example of how a condition was framed as a problem, a viable proposal was developed, and political will and receptivity was shown, all of which placed REDD + high on the agenda, and generated its legal and methodological framework over the course of ten years. In these efforts, the role of policy entrepreneurs was key. Agriculture, on the other hand, is a more complex sector with multiple interests and millions of stakeholders. The consideration of agriculture, in particular its mitigation component, is therefore a highly contentious issue. The fear of new binding commitments and the potential threat to food security and production, and the lack of a convincing proposal that addresses the multiple values of agriculture has impeded substantive progress. Also, the absence of a committed policy entrepreneur limits the place of agriculture in the climate change agenda under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

How environmental NGOs have influenced decision making in a ‘semi-authoritarian’ state : The case of forest policy in Ethiopia
Ayana, Alemayehu N. ; Arts, Bas ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2018
World Development 109 (2018). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 313 - 322.
ENGOs - Ethiopia - Participatory forest management - Policy arrangement approach - Policy-making - Semi-authoritarian state
Much has been written about the increasing contributions of non-governmental actors, such as environmental NGOs (ENGOs), to sustainable development, particularly in forest and environmental governance. However, little empirical evidence exists concerning the role and impact of these new actors in policy decisions where pluralist politics are lacking. By presenting the case of forest policy-making in Ethiopia, this paper illustrates the strategies of ENGOs, and how and to what extent they have impacted policy decisions, in a ‘semi-authoritarian’ context, where public policies are typically the exclusive mandate of governmental actors. We applied the policy arrangement approach (PAA), enriched with an ENGO classification, to analyze and explain the dynamics and nuances of policy processes. Our study finds that ENGOs do have an influence on policy-making under ‘semi-authoritarianism’ even without being formally invited to do so. However, influencing policy under such circumstances requires a circumspect approach and follows more complex pathways than the conventional policy-making steps in a democratic context. When the formal avenue for their participation in the policy-making process is restricted, these actors employ indirect strategies of catalyzing policy processes, such as demonstrating innovative policy approaches by implementing pilot projects, documenting and communicating field evidence and best practices, forming strong networks with like-minded actors, forging alliances with key decision makers, and investing sufficient human and financial resources to push the adoption of a new policy. The findings and the conclusions drawn in this paper are consistent with the conceptual framework employed. The PAA has proved to be a suitable analytical tool to understand and explain policy processes in various polities, from pluralist democracies to (semi-)authoritarianism.
Brabant Nieuws, i.v.m. de plannen om entree te gaan heffen voor de Biesbosch
Arts, Bas - \ 2018
Climate-smart land use requires local solutions, transdisciplinary research, policy coherence and transparency
Carter, Sarah ; Arts, Bas ; E. Giller, Ken ; Soto Golcher, Cinthia ; Kok, Kasper ; Koning, Jessica De; Noordwijk, Meine Van; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Rufino, Mariana C. ; Salvini, Giulia ; Verchot, Louis ; Wollenberg, Eva ; Herold, Martin - \ 2018
Carbon Management (2018). - ISSN 1758-3004 - p. 291 - 301.
Successfully meeting the mitigation and adaptation targets of the Paris Climate Agreement (PA) will depend on strengthening the ties between forests and agriculture. Climate-smart land use can be achieved by integrating climate-smart agriculture (CSA) and REDD+. The focus on agriculture for food security within a changing climate, and on forests for climate change mitigation and adaptation, can be achieved simultaneously with a transformational change in the land-use sector. Striving for both independently will lead to competition for land, inefficiencies in monitoring and conflicting agendas. Practical solutions exist for specific contexts that can lead to increased agricultural output and forest protection. Landscape-level emissions accounting can be used to identify these practices. Transdisciplinary research agendas can identify and prioritize solutions and targets for integrated mitigation and adaptation interventions. Policy coherence must be achieved at a number of levels, from international to local, to avoid conflicting incentives. Transparency must lastly be integrated, through collaborative design of projects, and open data and methods. Climate-smart land use requires all these elements, and will increase the likelihood of successful REDD+ and CSA interventions. This will support the PA as well as other initiatives as part of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Learning to govern Ghana’s forests responsibly : Responsive curriculum design and enactment
Ameyaw, Joana Akua Serwaa - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts; Arjen Wals, co-promotor(en): Esther Turnhout. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438780 - 164
Second International Forest Policy Meeting
Arts, Bas - \ 2018
A hundred participants from 20 countries, mostly in Europe, participated in the Second International Forest Policy Meeting held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, from 11 to 13 April 2018.
Spiders in the web: understanding the evaluation of REDD+ in SouthWest Ghana
Arts, B.J.M. ; Behagel, J.H. - \ 2018
The implementation of the global programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation (REDD+) is slow and riddled by challenges. It lacks a robust financial mechanism and is widely criticised for producing too little positive impact for climate, nature, and people. In many countries with tropical forests however, a variety of REDD+ projects continue to develop on the ground. This paper fills in some of the gaps in our understanding of the dynamic relation between global policymaking and implementation of REDD+ on the ground. Using the introduction of REDD+ in Southwest Ghana as an example, we apply a practice-based approach to analyse the different roles that local actors and global-local intermediaries played in the introduction of REDD+ in Southwest Ghana. Our results show a more balanced picture than polarised
debates at the global levels suggest. Existing local practices helped REDD+ ‘land’ locally but also transformed REDD+ to resemble such local practices. In turn, this has led to the development of REDD+ initiatives that absorbed elements from established community-based conservation, forest restoration, and sustainable agro-forestry practices.
Institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania: progress and implications
Ochieng, R.M. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Brockhaus, M. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. - \ 2018
Ecology and Society 23 (2018)2. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 13 p.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up a new global discussion on forest monitoring and carbon accounting in developing countries. We analyze and compare the extent to which the concept of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) for REDD+ has become institutionalized in terms of new policy discourses, actors, resources, and rules in Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania. To do so, we draw on discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach. A qualitative scale that distinguishes between “shallow” institutionalization on the one end, and “deep” institutionalization on the other, is developed to structure the analysis and comparison. Results show that in all countries MRV has become institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope, and strategies for forest monitoring, and development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislations to anchor forest monitoring in law and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies are being developed. Nevertheless, the extent to which MRV has been institutionalized varies across countries, with Indonesia experiencing “deep” institutionalization, Peru “shallow-intermediate” institutionalization, and Tanzania “intermediate-deep” institutionalization. We explore possible reasons for and consequences of differences in extent of institutionalization of MRV across countries.
Drivers of European landscape change: stakeholders’ perspectives through Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping
Sluis, T. van der; Arts, B.J.M. ; Kok, K. ; Bogers, M.M.B. ; Gravsholt Busck, Anne ; Sepp, Kalev ; Loupa-Ramos, I. ; Pavlis, V. ; Geamana, Nicoleta ; Crouzat, Emilie - \ 2018
Landscape Research (2018). - ISSN 0142-6397
Understanding complex processes of landscape change is crucial to guide the development of future landscapes and land resources. Through Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping, we studied the processes of landscape change of six different environmental zones in Europe. Results show that landscapes are complex systems, with many interactions. Except for one, all regions show a strong decline in landscape quality. Dominant drivers are EU policy and the global economy, sometimes in conjunction with environmental drivers or the governance system. The process of change differs for all cases, through urbanisation or land abandonment in some cases, and agricultural intensification in others. The (un)intended effects of policies are difficult to predict. Although some EU Policies directly improve landscape quality, their indirect effects as well as other EU policies outweigh this positive influence and jointly result in a decrease of landscape quality. To counter these negative side effects, targeted landscape policies are urgently needed.
Classical Pathway of Complement Activation: Longitudinal Associations of C1q and C1-INH With Cardiovascular Outcomes: The CODAM Study (Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht).
Hertle, E. ; Arts, I.C.W. ; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J. van - \ 2018
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 38 (2018). - ISSN 1079-5642 - p. 1242 - 1244.
Objective—The classical complement pathway has been assigned both protective and pathological effects in cardiovascular disease (CVD), but human data are lacking. We determined the associations of the pattern recognition factor C1q and the regulator C1-INH with incident CVD, carotid intima–media thickness, endothelial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation.
Approach and Results—Baseline concentrations of C1q and C1-INH were measured in the CODAM study (Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht; n=574; 61% men; age, 60±7 years). The 7-year incidence of CVD in participants free of CVD at baseline was evaluated using logistic regression analyses (n=342; 73 cases). The lowest incidence of CVD was observed in the middle tertile of C1q (Tlow compared with Tmiddle: odds ratio, 2.38 [95% confidence interval, 1.14–4.95]; Thigh compared with Tmiddle: odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.94–4.07]). C1-INH was not associated with CVD. During the 7-year follow-up period, C1q and C1-INH were not, or inconsistently, associated with carotid intima–media thickness or with biomarker scores reflecting endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation.
Conclusions—Our results suggest a nonlinear association between C1q and incident CVD. This supports the concept that early steps in classical pathway activation may have both protective and pathological effects on human CVD.
Antigen-dependent effects of divergent selective breeding based on natural antibodies on specific humoral immune responses in chickens
Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Lammers, A. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2018
Vaccine 36 (2018)11. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 1444 - 1452.
Breeding - Chicken - General disease resistance - Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) - Natural antibody - Specific antibody
NAb are defined as antigen binding antibodies present without a known previous exposure to this antigen. NAb are suggested to enhance specific antibody (SpAb) responses, but consequences of different NAb levels on immunization are largely unknown. Layer chickens were divergently selected and bred for keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding NAb titers, resulting in a High line and a Low line. In this study, we investigated: (1) the relation of NAb levels with SpAb titers; and (2) the effect of immunization on NAb titers. The 50 highest females of the High line and the 50 lowest females of the Low line of generation 2 were intramuscularly immunized at 33 weeks of age with 1 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing one of four treatments: (1) negative control (no antigen), (2) 500 μg KLH, (3) 100 μg avian tuberculin purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium avium (PPD), or (4) 250 μg human serum albumin (HuSA). IgM and IgG titers of NAb and SpAb in plasma were determined prior to immunization and weekly for 5 weeks post immunization by indirect ELISA. In addition, antibody affinity was investigated. No differences in SpAb and NAb response against KLH and PPD were observed as a consequence of different NAb titers, but increased and prolonged SpAb and NAb titer responses against HuSA were observed for the High line compared to the Low line. Different natural antibody titers did not impair SpAb dynamics and SpAb affinity. NAb titers were not, or for only short-term, affected by immunization. We show here that NAb may enhance SpAb responses, but that this effect is antigen-dependent. We hypothesize that NAb play a role in general disease resistance through enhancement of the humoral adaptive immune response.
Arts-based methods for transformative engagement : A toolkit
Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Bäckman, Malin ; Grenni, Sara ; Moriggi, Angela ; Pisters, Siri ; Vrieze, Anke de - \ 2018
Wageningen : SUSPLACE - ISBN 9789463432641 - 91
Farmers’ Motivations to Plant and Manage On-Farm Trees in Ghana
Oduro, K.A. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Kyereh, B. ; Mohren, G.M.J. - \ 2018
Small-scale Forestry 17 (2018)3. - ISSN 1873-7617 - p. 393 - 410.
Deforestation and forest degradation, especially in the agricultural landscapes, are serious threats to biodiversity conservation and sustainability of the timber industry. Planting trees on farms has been identified as having great potential to increase forest resources from agricultural landscapes. This paper examined farmers’ motivations and behaviour to engage in on-farm tree planting and management in Ghana by combining internal and external factors in a socio-psychological model. Data were collected from 156 smallholder farmers from five communities in two forest districts using a semi-structured questionnaire. Additional farm inventory data were collected from 33 farmers under two on-farm tree planting schemes. On-farm tree planting was perceived as providing income, access to personal timber for furniture, and access to loan facilities. Incentives such as provision of grants, farming inputs, capacity training, and access to markets for agricultural produce are factors that motivate on-farm tree planting in Ghana. The average standing volume of on-farm trees in the study area is 51.9 m3/ha which is almost twice the national average for the off-reserve areas in the semi-deciduous forests to which much of the study sites belong. Many farmers considered high financial costs and limited knowledge of appropriate techniques in managing planted on-farm trees as barriers to the development of tree stock on farms.
Cerebral tryptophan metabolism and outcome of tuberculous meningitis : An observational cohort study
Laarhoven, Arjan van; Dian, Sofiati ; Aguirre-Gamboa, Raúl ; Avila-Pacheco, Julian ; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis ; Ruesen, Carolien ; Annisa, Jessi ; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Chaidir, Lidya ; Li, Yang ; Achmad, Tri Hanggono ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Notebaart, Richard A. ; Ruslami, Rovina ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Verbeek, Marcel M. ; Alisjahbana, Bachti ; Kumar, Vinod ; Clish, Clary B. ; Ganiem, A.R. ; Crevel, Reinout van - \ 2018
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 18 (2018)5. - ISSN 1473-3099 - p. 526 - 535.
Background: Immunopathology contributes to the high mortality of tuberculous meningitis, but the biological pathways involved are mostly unknown. We aimed to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum metabolomes of patients with tuberculous meningitis with that of controls without tuberculous meningitis, and assess the link between metabolite concentrations and mortality. Methods: In this observational cohort study at the Hasan Sadikin Hospital (Bandung, Indonesia) we measured 425 metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in CSF and serum from 33 HIV-negative Indonesian patients with confirmed or probable tuberculous meningitis and 22 control participants with complete clinical data between March 12, 2009, and Oct 27, 2013. Associations of metabolite concentrations with survival were validated in a second cohort of 101 patients from the same centre. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism typing was used to identify tryptophan quantitative trait loci, which were used for survival analysis in a third cohort of 285 patients. Findings: Concentrations of 250 (70%) of 351 metabolites detected in CSF were higher in patients with tuberculous meningitis than in controls, especially in those who died during follow-up. Only five (1%) of the 390 metobolites detected in serum differed between patients with tuberculous meningitis and controls. CSF tryptophan concentrations showed a pattern different from most other CSF metabolites; concentrations were lower in patients who survived compared with patients who died (9-times) and to controls (31-times). The association of low CSF tryptophan with patient survival was confirmed in the validation cohort (hazard ratio 0·73; 95% CI 0·64-0·83; p<0·0001; per each halving). 11 genetic loci predictive for CSF tryptophan concentrations in tuberculous meningitis were identified (p<0·00001). These quantitative trait loci predicted survival in a third cohort of 285 HIV-negative patients in a prognostic index including age and sex, also after correction for possible confounders (p=0·0083). Interpretation: Cerebral tryptophan metabolism, which is known to affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and CNS inflammation, is important for the outcome of tuberculous meningitis. CSF tryptophan concentrations in tuberculous meningitis are under strong genetic influence, probably contributing to the variable outcomes of tuberculous meningitis. Interventions targeting tryptophan metabolism could improve outcomes of tuberculous meningitis. Funding: Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences; Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research; Radboud University; National Academy of Sciences; Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, Indonesia; European Research Council; and PEER-Health.
The Governance of Indigenous Natural Products in Namibia: A Policy Network Analysis
Ndeinoma, A. ; Wiersum, K.F. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2018
Environmental Management 62 (2018)1. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 29 - 44.
At the end of the 20th century, optimism existed that non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can form an integral part in conservation and development strategies. However, there is limited knowledge on how the different
stakeholders could relate to the state or to each other in promoting commercialization of NTFPs. Applying the policy network as an analytical framework, we investigated the structural patterns of actor relations in the governance structure of indigenous natural products (INPs) in Namibia,
to understand the implications of such relations on INP policy process. The findings indicate that the INP policy network in Namibia is multi-dimensional, consisting of the Indigenous Plant Task Team (IPTT)—the key governance
structure for resource mobilization and information sharing;and functional relations which serve specific roles in theINP value chain. The existing relations have facilitated policy development particularly for heavily regulated species,
such as devil’s claw; but for other species, onlyincremental changes are observed in terms of small-scale processing facilities for value addition and exclusive purchase agreements for sustainable sourcing of INPs. Participation
of primary producers, private actors and quality standardization bodies is limited in INPs governance structures, which narrow the scope of information sharing.
Consequently, despite that the IPTT has fostered publicly funded explorative pilot projects, ranging from production to marketing of INPs, there are no clear guidelines how these projects results can be transferred to private entities
for possible commercialization. Further collaboration and information sharing is needed to guide public sector relations with the private entities and cooperatives.
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