Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Spiders in the web: understanding the evaluation of REDD+ in SouthWest Ghana
Arts, B.J.M. ; Behagel, J.H. - \ 2018
The implementation of the global programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation (REDD+) is slow and riddled by challenges. It lacks a robust financial mechanism and is widely criticised for producing too little positive impact for climate, nature, and people. In many countries with tropical forests however, a variety of REDD+ projects continue to develop on the ground. This paper fills in some of the gaps in our understanding of the dynamic relation between global policymaking and implementation of REDD+ on the ground. Using the introduction of REDD+ in Southwest Ghana as an example, we apply a practice-based approach to analyse the different roles that local actors and global-local intermediaries played in the introduction of REDD+ in Southwest Ghana. Our results show a more balanced picture than polarised
debates at the global levels suggest. Existing local practices helped REDD+ ‘land’ locally but also transformed REDD+ to resemble such local practices. In turn, this has led to the development of REDD+ initiatives that absorbed elements from established community-based conservation, forest restoration, and sustainable agro-forestry practices.
Institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania: progress and implications
Ochieng, R.M. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Brockhaus, M. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. - \ 2018
Ecology and Society 23 (2018)2. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 13 p.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up a new global discussion on forest monitoring and carbon accounting in developing countries. We analyze and compare the extent to which the concept of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) for REDD+ has become institutionalized in terms of new policy discourses, actors, resources, and rules in Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania. To do so, we draw on discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach. A qualitative scale that distinguishes between “shallow” institutionalization on the one end, and “deep” institutionalization on the other, is developed to structure the analysis and comparison. Results show that in all countries MRV has become institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope, and strategies for forest monitoring, and development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislations to anchor forest monitoring in law and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies are being developed. Nevertheless, the extent to which MRV has been institutionalized varies across countries, with Indonesia experiencing “deep” institutionalization, Peru “shallow-intermediate” institutionalization, and Tanzania “intermediate-deep” institutionalization. We explore possible reasons for and consequences of differences in extent of institutionalization of MRV across countries.
Drivers of European landscape change: stakeholders’ perspectives through Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping
Sluis, T. van der; Arts, B.J.M. ; Kok, K. ; Bogers, M.M.B. ; Gravsholt Busck, Anne ; Sepp, Kalev ; Loupa-Ramos, I. ; Pavlis, V. ; Geamana, Nicoleta ; Crouzat, Emilie - \ 2018
Landscape Research (2018). - ISSN 0142-6397
Understanding complex processes of landscape change is crucial to guide the development of future landscapes and land resources. Through Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping, we studied the processes of landscape change of six different environmental zones in Europe. Results show that landscapes are complex systems, with many interactions. Except for one, all regions show a strong decline in landscape quality. Dominant drivers are EU policy and the global economy, sometimes in conjunction with environmental drivers or the governance system. The process of change differs for all cases, through urbanisation or land abandonment in some cases, and agricultural intensification in others. The (un)intended effects of policies are difficult to predict. Although some EU Policies directly improve landscape quality, their indirect effects as well as other EU policies outweigh this positive influence and jointly result in a decrease of landscape quality. To counter these negative side effects, targeted landscape policies are urgently needed.
Classical Pathway of Complement Activation: Longitudinal Associations of C1q and C1-INH With Cardiovascular Outcomes: The CODAM Study (Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht).
Hertle, E. ; Arts, I.C.W. ; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J. van - \ 2018
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (2018). - ISSN 1079-5642
Objective—The classical complement pathway has been assigned both protective and pathological effects in cardiovascular disease (CVD), but human data are lacking. We determined the associations of the pattern recognition factor C1q and the regulator C1-INH with incident CVD, carotid intima–media thickness, endothelial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation.
Approach and Results—Baseline concentrations of C1q and C1-INH were measured in the CODAM study (Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht; n=574; 61% men; age, 60±7 years). The 7-year incidence of CVD in participants free of CVD at baseline was evaluated using logistic regression analyses (n=342; 73 cases). The lowest incidence of CVD was observed in the middle tertile of C1q (Tlow compared with Tmiddle: odds ratio, 2.38 [95% confidence interval, 1.14–4.95]; Thigh compared with Tmiddle: odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.94–4.07]). C1-INH was not associated with CVD. During the 7-year follow-up period, C1q and C1-INH were not, or inconsistently, associated with carotid intima–media thickness or with biomarker scores reflecting endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation.
Conclusions—Our results suggest a nonlinear association between C1q and incident CVD. This supports the concept that early steps in classical pathway activation may have both protective and pathological effects on human CVD.
Antigen-dependent effects of divergent selective breeding based on natural antibodies on specific humoral immune responses in chickens
Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Lammers, A. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2018
Vaccine 36 (2018)11. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 1444 - 1452.
Breeding - Chicken - General disease resistance - Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) - Natural antibody - Specific antibody
NAb are defined as antigen binding antibodies present without a known previous exposure to this antigen. NAb are suggested to enhance specific antibody (SpAb) responses, but consequences of different NAb levels on immunization are largely unknown. Layer chickens were divergently selected and bred for keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding NAb titers, resulting in a High line and a Low line. In this study, we investigated: (1) the relation of NAb levels with SpAb titers; and (2) the effect of immunization on NAb titers. The 50 highest females of the High line and the 50 lowest females of the Low line of generation 2 were intramuscularly immunized at 33 weeks of age with 1 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing one of four treatments: (1) negative control (no antigen), (2) 500 μg KLH, (3) 100 μg avian tuberculin purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium avium (PPD), or (4) 250 μg human serum albumin (HuSA). IgM and IgG titers of NAb and SpAb in plasma were determined prior to immunization and weekly for 5 weeks post immunization by indirect ELISA. In addition, antibody affinity was investigated. No differences in SpAb and NAb response against KLH and PPD were observed as a consequence of different NAb titers, but increased and prolonged SpAb and NAb titer responses against HuSA were observed for the High line compared to the Low line. Different natural antibody titers did not impair SpAb dynamics and SpAb affinity. NAb titers were not, or for only short-term, affected by immunization. We show here that NAb may enhance SpAb responses, but that this effect is antigen-dependent. We hypothesize that NAb play a role in general disease resistance through enhancement of the humoral adaptive immune response.
Arts-based methods for transformative engagement : A toolkit
Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Bäckman, Malin ; Grenni, Sara ; Moriggi, Angela ; Pisters, Siri ; Vrieze, Anke de - \ 2018
Wageningen : SUSPLACE - ISBN 9789463432641 - 91
Farmers’ Motivations to Plant and Manage On-Farm Trees in Ghana
Oduro, K.A. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Kyereh, B. ; Mohren, G.M.J. - \ 2018
Small-scale Forestry (2018). - ISSN 1873-7617
Deforestation and forest degradation, especially in the agricultural landscapes, are serious threats to biodiversity conservation and sustainability of the timber industry. Planting trees on farms has been identified as having great potential to increase forest resources from agricultural landscapes. This paper examined farmers’ motivations and behaviour to engage in on-farm tree planting and management in Ghana by combining internal and external factors in a socio-psychological model. Data were collected from 156 smallholder farmers from five communities in two forest districts using a semi-structured questionnaire. Additional farm inventory data were collected from 33 farmers under two on-farm tree planting schemes. On-farm tree planting was perceived as providing income, access to personal timber for furniture, and access to loan facilities. Incentives such as provision of grants, farming inputs, capacity training, and access to markets for agricultural produce are factors that motivate on-farm tree planting in Ghana. The average standing volume of on-farm trees in the study area is 51.9 m3/ha which is almost twice the national average for the off-reserve areas in the semi-deciduous forests to which much of the study sites belong. Many farmers considered high financial costs and limited knowledge of appropriate techniques in managing planted on-farm trees as barriers to the development of tree stock on farms.
Cerebral tryptophan metabolism and outcome of tuberculous meningitis : An observational cohort study
Laarhoven, Arjan van; Dian, Sofiati ; Aguirre-Gamboa, Raúl ; Avila-Pacheco, Julian ; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis ; Ruesen, Carolien ; Annisa, Jessi ; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Chaidir, Lidya ; Li, Yang ; Achmad, Tri Hanggono ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Notebaart, Richard A. ; Ruslami, Rovina ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Verbeek, Marcel M. ; Alisjahbana, Bachti ; Kumar, Vinod ; Clish, Clary B. ; Ganiem, A.R. ; Crevel, Reinout van - \ 2018
The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2018). - ISSN 1473-3099
Background: Immunopathology contributes to the high mortality of tuberculous meningitis, but the biological pathways involved are mostly unknown. We aimed to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum metabolomes of patients with tuberculous meningitis with that of controls without tuberculous meningitis, and assess the link between metabolite concentrations and mortality. Methods: In this observational cohort study at the Hasan Sadikin Hospital (Bandung, Indonesia) we measured 425 metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in CSF and serum from 33 HIV-negative Indonesian patients with confirmed or probable tuberculous meningitis and 22 control participants with complete clinical data between March 12, 2009, and Oct 27, 2013. Associations of metabolite concentrations with survival were validated in a second cohort of 101 patients from the same centre. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism typing was used to identify tryptophan quantitative trait loci, which were used for survival analysis in a third cohort of 285 patients. Findings: Concentrations of 250 (70%) of 351 metabolites detected in CSF were higher in patients with tuberculous meningitis than in controls, especially in those who died during follow-up. Only five (1%) of the 390 metobolites detected in serum differed between patients with tuberculous meningitis and controls. CSF tryptophan concentrations showed a pattern different from most other CSF metabolites; concentrations were lower in patients who survived compared with patients who died (9-times) and to controls (31-times). The association of low CSF tryptophan with patient survival was confirmed in the validation cohort (hazard ratio 0·73; 95% CI 0·64-0·83; p<0·0001; per each halving). 11 genetic loci predictive for CSF tryptophan concentrations in tuberculous meningitis were identified (p<0·00001). These quantitative trait loci predicted survival in a third cohort of 285 HIV-negative patients in a prognostic index including age and sex, also after correction for possible confounders (p=0·0083). Interpretation: Cerebral tryptophan metabolism, which is known to affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and CNS inflammation, is important for the outcome of tuberculous meningitis. CSF tryptophan concentrations in tuberculous meningitis are under strong genetic influence, probably contributing to the variable outcomes of tuberculous meningitis. Interventions targeting tryptophan metabolism could improve outcomes of tuberculous meningitis. Funding: Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences; Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research; Radboud University; National Academy of Sciences; Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, Indonesia; European Research Council; and PEER-Health.
The Governance of Indigenous Natural Products in Namibia: A Policy Network Analysis
Ndeinoma, A. ; Wiersum, K.F. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2018
Environmental Management (2018). - ISSN 0364-152X - 16 p.
At the end of the 20th century, optimism existed that non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can form an integral part in conservation and development strategies. However, there is limited knowledge on how the different
stakeholders could relate to the state or to each other in promoting commercialization of NTFPs. Applying the policy network as an analytical framework, we investigated the structural patterns of actor relations in the governance structure of indigenous natural products (INPs) in Namibia,
to understand the implications of such relations on INP policy process. The findings indicate that the INP policy network in Namibia is multi-dimensional, consisting of the Indigenous Plant Task Team (IPTT)—the key governance
structure for resource mobilization and information sharing;and functional relations which serve specific roles in theINP value chain. The existing relations have facilitated policy development particularly for heavily regulated species,
such as devil’s claw; but for other species, onlyincremental changes are observed in terms of small-scale processing facilities for value addition and exclusive purchase agreements for sustainable sourcing of INPs. Participation
of primary producers, private actors and quality standardization bodies is limited in INPs governance structures, which narrow the scope of information sharing.
Consequently, despite that the IPTT has fostered publicly funded explorative pilot projects, ranging from production to marketing of INPs, there are no clear guidelines how these projects results can be transferred to private entities
for possible commercialization. Further collaboration and information sharing is needed to guide public sector relations with the private entities and cooperatives.
Genomic Region Containing Toll-Like Receptor Genes Has a Major Impact on Total IgM Antibodies Including KLH-Binding IgM Natural Antibodies in Chickens
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Vereijken, A.L.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Immunology 8 (2018). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 14 p.
Natural antibodies (NAb) are antigen binding antibodies present in individuals without a previous exposure to this antigen. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding NAb levels were previously associated with survival in chickens. This suggests that selective breeding for KLH-binding NAb may increase survival by means of improved general disease resistance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify genes underlying genetic variation in NAb levels. The studied population consisted of 1,628 adolescent layer chickens with observations for titers of KLH-binding NAb of the isotypes IgM, IgA, IgG, the total KLH-binding (IgT) NAb titers, total antibody concentrations of the isotypes IgM, IgA, IgG, and the total antibodies concentration in plasma. GWAS were performed using 57,636 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). One chromosomal region on chromosome 4 was associated with KLH-binding IgT NAb, and total IgM concentration, and especially with KLH-binding IgM NAb. The region of interest was fine mapped by imputing the region of the study population to whole genome sequence, and subsequently performing an association study using the imputed sequence variants. 16 candidate genes were identified, of which FAM114A1, Toll-like receptor 1 family member B (TLR1B), TLR1A, Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3) showed the strongest associations. SNP located in coding regions of the candidate genes were checked for predicted changes in protein functioning. One SNP (at 69,965,939 base pairs) received the maximum impact score from two independent prediction tools, which makes this SNP the most likely causal variant. This SNP is located in TLR1A, which suggests a fundamental role of TLR1A on regulation of IgM levels (i.e., KLH-binding IgM NAb, and total IgM concentration), or B cells biology, or both. This study contributes to increased understanding of (genetic) regulation of KLH-binding NAb levels, and total antibody concentrations.
Is the tier-1 effect assessment for herbicides protective for aquatic algae and vascular plant communities?
Wijngaarden, René P.A. van; Arts, Gertie H.P. - \ 2018
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37 (2018)1. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 175 - 183.
Algae - Aquatic macrophytes - Micro-/mesocosms - Plants - Single-species toxicity tests
In the aquatic tier-1 effect assessment for plant protection products with an herbicidal mode of action in Europe, it is usually algae and/or vascular plants that determine the environmental risks. This tier includes tests with at least 2 algae and 1 macrophyte (Lemna). Although such tests are considered to be of a chronic nature (based on the duration of the test in relation to the life cycle of the organism), the measurement endpoints derived from the laboratory tests with plants (including algae) and used in the first-tier effect assessment for herbicides are acute effect concentrations affecting 50% of the test organisms (EC50 values) and not no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) or effect concentrations affecting 10% of the test organisms (EC10) values. Other European legislative frameworks (e.g., the Water Framework Directive) use EC10 values. The present study contributes to a validation of the tiered herbicide risk assessment approach by comparing the standard first-tier effect assessment with results of microcosm and mesocosm studies. We evaluated EC50 and EC10 values for standard test algae and macrophytes based on either the growth rate endpoint (ErC50) or the lowest available endpoint for growth rate or biomass/yield (Er/EyC50). These values were compared with the regulatory acceptable concentrations for the threshold option as derived from microcosm and mesocosm studies. For these studies, protection is maintained if growth rate is taken as the regulatory endpoint instead of the lowest value of either growth rate or biomass/yield in conjunction with the standard assessment factor of 10. Based on a limited data set of 14 herbicides, we did not identify a need to change the current practice. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:175–183.
The 'green' and 'self' in green self-governance - a study of 264 green space initiatives by citizens
Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 20 (2018)1. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 96 - 113.
Scholars observe an increased involvement of citizens in green space governance. This paper focuses on green self-governance, in which citizens play a major role in realizing, protecting and/or managing green space. While existing research on green selfgovernance focuses mostly on specific cases, we aim to contribute towards a large overview via an inventory of 264 green self-governance practices across The Netherlands. With this, we discuss the relevance of green self-governance for nature conservation and its relationship with authorities. In our analysis, we show that green self-governance practices are very diverse: they pursue a wide variety of physical and social objectives; employ a multitude of physical and political activities; involve different actors besides citizens; mobilize different internal and external funding sources; and are active within and outside of protected areas. While green selfgovernance can contribute towards protection and management of green space and towards social values, we highlight that this contribution is mostly of a local relevance. Most practices are small scale and objectives do not always match those of authorities. Although we speak of self-governance, authorities play an important role in many practices, for example, as financial donor, landowner or regulatory authority. In this, self-governance is often not completely ‘self’.
Authenticity and the Contradictions of the “Ecotourism Script” : Global Marketing and Local Politics in Ghana
Büscher, Bram ; Bremer, Renée van den; Fletcher, Robert ; Koot, Stasja - \ 2017
Critical Arts 31 (2017)4. - ISSN 0256-0046 - p. 37 - 52.
authenticity - development - ecotourism - Ghana - marketing - politics
Tourism in Ghana has been developing rapidly over the last decade. By marketing over a dozen “community ecotourism” sites, particularly around monkey and forest sanctuaries, Ghana hopes to attract travellers to spend money in the country and so aid local development and protect natural resources. This paper analyses this trend, outlining several contradictions in the country’s national branding of “authenticity” in ecotourism and how this takes local shape in the case of the Tafi-Atome monkey sanctuary in Eastern Ghana. We propose that actors on different levels in Ghana appear to market and brand ecotourism according to a “script” that directs and influences local ecotourism practices in ways that obscure these contradictions and thereby enable continuation of and belief in the script. We conclude that this “ecotourism script” is central to the promotion and implementation of ecotourism in general, and needed to maintain the belief that the activity is an important conservation and development panacea.
Een onverwachte concentratie van Zwarte Zee-eenden in de Hollandse kustzone in een gebied met hoge dichtheden van geschikte schelpdieren
Fijn, R.C. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Dirksen, Sjoerd ; Arts, Floor ; Asch, M. van; Baptist, M.J. ; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Engels, Bas ; Horssen, Peter van; Jong, Job de; Perdon, K.J. ; Zee, Els M. van der; Ham, N. - \ 2017
Limosa 90 (2017)3. - ISSN 0024-3620 - p. 97 - 117.
Een onverwachte concentratie van Zwarte Zee-eenden in de Hollandse kustzone in een gebied met hoge dichtheden van geschikte schelpdieren De winterverspreiding van Zwarte Zee-eenden in Nederland concentreerde zich in de afgelopen jaren ten noorden van de oostelijke Waddeneilanden
en in mindere mate in de Voordelta. In sommige jaren verblijven echter grote groepen op andere plaatsen. In de voorjaren van 2013 en 2014 doken ineens grote aantallen Zwarte Zee-eenden op voor de kust van Texel en in de winter van
2015/16 meldden zeetrektellers ongekend grote aantallen voor de kust van Camperduin, een locatie waar in de tweede helft van de vorige eeuw ook wel eens grote aantallen werden gezien. In deze studie is gekeken in hoeverre het plotseling verschijnen van grote aantallen Zwarte Zee-eenden bij Camperduin in 2015/16 kan worden verklaard door het aanwezige voedsel in de zeebodem
An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plants: recommendations from a 1st SETAC Europe workshop
Arts, G.H.P. ; Dollinger, M. ; Kohlschmid, Eva ; Maltby, Lorraine ; Ochoa-Acuna, H. ; Poulsen, V. - \ 2017
Brussels : SETAC - 55 p.
An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plants: recommendations from a 2nd SETAC Europe workshop
Arts, G.H.P. ; Kohlschmid, Eva ; Maltby, Lorraine ; Mayer, C. ; Meregalli, G. ; Poulsen, Veronique ; Streissl, F. - \ 2017
Brussels : SETAC - 80 p.
Does a transdisciplinary approach to forestry education meet students' career aspitations? : Lessons from a curriculum innovation in Ghana
Ameyaw, J.A.S. ; Wals, A.E.J. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2017
International Forestry Review 19 (2017)4. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 397 - 412.
The forestry sector is generally transitioning towards becoming more inclusive, responsive and responsible, thus creating an increasingly dynamic professional environment. Many universities are thus broadening the scope of traditional forestry programmes towards a more transdisciplinary paradigm. This paper assesses the transdisciplinary approach used in a Natural Resource and Environmental Governance programme in Ghana. It identifies students' motivations for choosing this transdisciplinary programme and determines how the programme satisfies their future career aspirations. The study reveals that students prefer transdisciplinarity because they expect it will make them more versatile, thus offering better job prospects. Our study also shows that although the programme exhibits features of transdisciplinarity, its collaborations beyond academia is still rather limited. Despite this, we found that the programme largely satisfies the aspirations of most students, except those with non-academic career aspirations. The paper concludes by arguing that transdisciplinary education requires a supportive institutional environment.
Onderzoeksagenda oostvaardersplassen van Staatsbosbeheer
Arts, Bas - \ 2017
Lid van een adviesgroep Onderzoeksagenda oostvaardersplassen van Staatsbosbeheer
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy (Publisher)
Arts, Bas - \ 2017
Review of Chapter 6 of the 7th Dutch National Communication to the UNFCCC for the Netherlands Ministry of Environment and Infrastructure (October 2017).
International Cooperative Initiatives on Biodiversity (ICIBs)
Arts, Bas - \ 2017
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