Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The role of tomato WRKY genes in plant responses to combined abiotic and biotic stresses
Bai, Yuling ; Sunarti, Sri ; Kissoudis, Christos ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Linden, C.G. van der - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Abiotic stress - Biotic stress - Combined stresses - Disease resistance - Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) - PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI)

In the field, plants constantly face a plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses that can impart detrimental effects on plants. In response to multiple stresses, plants can rapidly reprogram their transcriptome through a tightly regulated and highly dynamic regulatory network where WRKY transcription factors can act as activators or repressors. WRKY transcription factors have diverse biological functions in plants, but most notably are key players in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In tomato there are 83 WRKY genes identified. Here we review recent progress on functions of these tomato WRKY genes and their homologs in other plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice, with a special focus on their involvement in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In particular, we highlight WRKY genes that play a role in plant responses to a combination of abiotic and biotic stresses.

Effects of agricultural management practices on soil quality : A review of long-term experiments for Europe and China
Bai, Zhanguo ; Caspari, Thomas ; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez ; Batjes, Niels H. ; Mäder, Paul ; Bünemann, Else K. ; Goede, Ron de; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Xu, Minggang ; Ferreira, Carla Sofia Santos ; Reintam, Endla ; Fan, Hongzhu ; Mihelič, Rok ; Glavan, Matjaž ; Tóth, Zoltán - \ 2018
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 265 (2018). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 1 - 7.
Agricultural management practices - Literature review - Long-term field experiments - Response ratio - Soil quality indicators
In this paper we present effects of four paired agricultural management practices (organic matter (OM) addition versus no organic matter input, no-tillage (NT) versus conventional tillage, crop rotation versus monoculture, and organic agriculture versus conventional agriculture) on five key soil quality indicators, i.e., soil organic matter (SOM) content, pH, aggregate stability, earthworms (numbers) and crop yield. We have considered organic matter addition, no-tillage, crop rotation and organic agriculture as “promising practices”; no organic matter input, conventional tillage, monoculture and conventional farming were taken as the respective references or “standard practice” (baseline). Relative effects were analysed through indicator response ratio (RR) under each paired practice. For this we considered data of 30 long-term experiments collected from 13 case study sites in Europe and China as collated in the framework of the EU-China funded iSQAPER project. These were complemented with data from 42 long-term experiments across China and 402 observations of long-term trials published in the literature. Out of these, we only considered experiments covering at least five years. The results show that OM addition favourably affected all the indicators under consideration. The most favourable effect was reported on earthworm numbers, followed by yield, SOM content and soil aggregate stability. For pH, effects depended on soil type; OM input favourably affected the pH of acidic soils, whereas no clear trend was observed under NT. NT generally led to increased aggregate stability and greater SOM content in upper soil horizons. However, the magnitude of the relative effects varied, e.g. with soil texture. No-tillage practices enhanced earthworm populations, but not where herbicides or pesticides were applied to combat weeds and pests. Overall, in this review, yield slightly decreased under NT. Crop rotation had a positive effect on SOM content and yield; rotation with ley very positively influenced earthworms’ numbers. Overall, crop rotation had little impact on soil pH and aggregate stability − depending on the type of intercrop; alternatively, rotation of arable crops only resulted in adverse effects. A clear positive trend was observed for earthworm abundance under organic agriculture. Further, organic agriculture generally resulted in increased aggregate stability and greater SOM content. Overall, no clear trend was found for pH; a decrease in yield was observed under organic agriculture in this review.
New geographical insights of the latest expansion of fusarium oxysporum f.Sp. Cubense tropical race 4 into the greater mekong subregion
Zheng, Si Jun ; García-Bastidas, Fernando A. ; Li, Xundong ; Zeng, Li ; Bai, Tingting ; Xu, Shengtao ; Yin, Kesuo ; Li, Hongxiang ; Fu, Gang ; Yu, Yanchun ; Yang, Liu ; Nguyen, Huy Chung ; Douangboupha, Bounneuang ; Khaing, Aye Aye ; Drenth, Andre ; Seidl, Michael F. ; Meijer, Harold J.G. ; Kema, Gert H.J. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
China - Fusarium wilt - Laos - Myanmar - Phytogeography - Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) - The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) - Vietnam
Banana is the most popular and most exported fruit and also a major food crop for millions of people around the world. Despite its importance and the presence of serious disease threats, research into this crop is limited. One of those is Panama disease or Fusarium wilt. In the previous century Fusarium wilt wiped out the “Gros Michel” based banana industry in Central America. The epidemic was eventually quenched by planting “Cavendish” bananas. However, 50 years ago the disease recurred, but now on “Cavendish” bananas. Since then the disease has spread across South-East Asia, to the Middle-East and the Indian subcontinent and leaped into Africa. Here, we report the presence of Fusariumoxysporumf.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) in “Cavendish” plantations in Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam. A combination of classical morphology, DNA sequencing, and phenotyping assays revealed a very close relationship between the Foc TR4 strains in the entire Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), which is increasingly prone to intensive banana production. Analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphisms enabled us to initiate a phylogeography of Foc TR4 across three geographical areas—GMS, Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East revealing three distinct Foc TR4 sub-lineages. Collectively, our data place these new incursions in a broader agroecological context and underscore the need for awareness campaigns and the implementation of validated quarantine measures to prevent further international dissemination of Foc TR4.
Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions and mitigation options from livestock production in peri-urban agriculture : Beijing – A case study
Wei, S. ; Bai, Z.H. ; Chadwick, D. ; Hou, Y. ; Qin, W. ; Zhao, Z.Q. ; Jiang, R.F. ; Ma, L. - \ 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production 178 (2018). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 515 - 525.
Climate change - Manure management - Mitigation option - Temporal and spatial variation - Urban livestock production
Livestock production in peri-urban areas constitutes an important sub-sector of the agricultural production system in China, and contributes to environmental degradation and local air borne pollution contributing to smog. As a result, local policies are being implemented to safeguard the environment. However, there has been little attempt to quantify the impact of environmental policies on livestock production structure, spatial distribution and their related greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Here, we calculated the inventories of GHGs and NH3 emissions for 2010 and 2014 for peri-urban livestock production in Beijing, using reliable spatially explicit data, which was collected from 1748 industrial farms in 2010 and 2351 industrial farms in 2014, including pig, dairy, beef cattle, poultry and sheep farms. Our estimates indicated that total industrial livestock production increased by 17% between 2010 and 2014, even under the more strict environmental protection polices, with farm size decreasing by between 7% and 47%. Up to 50% of the industrial livestock farms have remained in operation, with the rest closing down or being moved to other regions. Following this trend, total GHGs emission decreased from 5.0 to 4.5 Tg CO2-eq between 2010 and 2014. Most of the GHGs emission reduction was due to the lowering of energy related carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in 2014. Total NH3 emission decreased from 102 to 96 Gg between 2010 and 2014, mainly due to more stringent environmental regulations for new and extended farms (increased in farm size), e.g. Discharge standard for pollutants for livestock and poultry breeding. Our study identified that GHGs and NH3 emission hotspots were concentrated in suburban areas (around the city centre and with less agricultural resource and population density) in 2010. However, between 2010 and 2014 these hotspots moved to the exurban plain and mountain area following the closure or sub-division of intensive farms in suburban regions and construction of new and small farms in exurban areas (around the suburban and with more agricultural resource and lower population density). Scenario analysis suggests that total GHGs emission can be reduced by up to 1.0 Tg CO2-eq (23% of total livestock sector emissions) in Beijing, using a combination of modifications of farm type, livestock diet and manure management. The integrated scenario can reduce CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions by 27%, 9% and 35%, compared to the reference scenario. Within this short period of time (5 years), policies have had direct impacts on peri-urban livestock production in Beijing, resulting in marked changes in the structure of different livestock sectors, as well as the GHGs and NH3 emission inventories and their spatial distribution. Our analysis clearly shows that the success of these (and future) polices relies on optimizing spatial management of new livestock production systems. Policy and farmer guidance should focus on optimizing livestock diet and on-farm manure management, industrial production systems and the pig and poultry sectors in peri-urban regions.
Global environmental costs of China's thirst for milk
Bai, Zhaohai ; Lee, Michael R.F. ; Ma, Lin ; Ledgard, Stewart ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Ma, Wenqi ; Guo, Mengchu ; Zhao, Zhanqing ; Wei, Sha ; Li, Shengli ; Liu, Xia ; Havlík, Petr ; Luo, Jiafa ; Hu, Chunsheng ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)5. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2198 - 2211.
Cattle feed - Greenhouse gas - Land use, nitrogen losses - Milk trade - Shared socio-economic pathways scenarios
China has an ever-increasing thirst for milk, with a predicted 3.2-fold increase in demand by 2050 compared to the production level in 2010. What are the environmental implications of meeting this demand, and what is the preferred pathway? We addressed these questions by using a nexus approach, to examine the interdependencies of increasing milk consumption in China by 2050 and its global impacts, under different scenarios of domestic milk production and importation. Meeting China's milk demand in a business as usual scenario will increase global dairy-related (China and the leading milk exporting regions) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 35% (from 565 to 764 Tg CO 2eq ) and land use for dairy feed production by 32% (from 84 to 111 million ha) compared to 2010, while reactive nitrogen losses from the dairy sector will increase by 48% (from 3.6 to 5.4 Tg nitrogen). Producing all additional milk in China with current technology will greatly increase animal feed import; from 1.9 to 8.5 Tg for concentrates and from 1.0 to 6.2 Tg for forage (alfalfa). In addition, it will increase domestic dairy related GHG emissions by 2.2 times compared to 2010 levels. Importing the extra milk will transfer the environmental burden from China to milk exporting countries; current dairy exporting countries may be unable to produce all additional milk due to physical limitations or environmental preferences/legislation. For example, the farmland area for cattle-feed production in New Zealand would have to increase by more than 57% (1.3 million ha) and that in Europe by more than 39% (15 million ha), while GHG emissions and nitrogen losses would increase roughly proportionally with the increase of farmland in both regions. We propose that a more sustainable dairy future will rely on high milk demanding regions (such as China) improving their domestic milk and feed production efficiencies up to the level of leading milk producing countries. This will decrease the global dairy related GHG emissions and land use by 12% (90 Tg CO 2eq reduction) and 30% (34 million ha land reduction) compared to the business as usual scenario, respectively. However, this still represents an increase in total GHG emissions of 19% whereas land use will decrease by 8% when compared with 2010 levels, respectively.
Agroforestry enables high efficiency of light capture, photosynthesis and dry matter production in a semi-arid climate
Zhang, Dongsheng ; Du, Guijuan ; Sun, Zhanxiang ; Bai, Wei ; Wang, Qi ; Feng, Liangshan ; Zheng, Jiaming ; Zhang, Zhe ; Liu, Yang ; Yang, Shu ; Yang, Ning ; Feng, Chen ; Cai, Qian ; Evers, Jochem B. ; Werf, Wopke van der; Zhang, Lizhen - \ 2018
European Journal of Agronomy 94 (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 1 - 11.
Border row effect - Leaf photosynthesis - Millet - Peanut - Sweet potato
Agroforestry systems, which combine annual crops with trees, are used widely in semi-arid regions to reduce wind erosion and improve resource (e.g. water) use efficiency. Limited knowledge is available on optimizing such systems by the choice of crop species with specific physiological traits (i.e. C3 vs C4, N-fixing vs non-N-fixing). In this study we quantified the light interception and utilization efficiency of trees and crops in agroforestry systems comprising apricot trees and a C3 species (sweet potato), a C4 species (millet) or an N-fixing legume species (peanut), and used measurements in the sole stands as a reference. A significant delay in leaf growth was found in millet. Maximum LAI of millet was 17% higher in agroforestry then expected from sole crop LAI, taking into account the relative density of 2/3, while a 25% decrease in maximum LAI compared to expected was observed in peanut and sweet potato. The total light interception in agroforestry was 54% higher than in sole tree stands and 23% higher than in sole crops. The millet intercepted more light and produced more biomass in agroforestry than peanut and sweet potato. The LUE values of the crops in the mixed systems were higher than those of the sole crops, as was the photosynthetic efficiency of individual leaves, especially in plants in the border rows of the crop strips. High light capture in agroforestry made a greater contribution to productivity of understory crops than the increases in light use efficiency. We conclude that agroforestry systems with apricot trees and annual crops, especially millet, can improve light utilization in semi-arid climates and contribute to regional sustainability and adaptation to climate change.
Plant behaviour under combined stress : tomato responses to combined salinity and pathogen stress
Bai, Yuling ; Kissoudis, Christos ; Yan, Zhe ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Linden, Gerard van der - \ 2018
The Plant Journal 93 (2018)4. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 781 - 793.
combined biotic and abiotic stresses - plant disease - resistance gene - salinity stress - stress interaction - stress tolerance
Crop plants are subjected to a variety of stresses during their lifecycle, including abiotic stress factors such as salinity and biotic stress factors such as pathogens. Plants have developed a multitude of defense and adaptation responses to these stress factors. In the field, different stress factors mostly occur concurrently resulting in a new state of stress, the combined stress. There is evidence that plant resistance to pathogens can be attenuated or enhanced by abiotic stress factors. With stress tolerance research being mostly focused on plant responses to individual stresses, the understanding of a plant's ability to adapt to combined stresses is limited. In the last few years, we studied powdery mildew resistance under salt stress conditions in the model crop plant tomato with the aim to understand the requirements to achieve plant resilience to a wider array of combined abiotic and biotic stress combinations. We uncovered specific responses of tomato plants to combined salinity-pathogen stress, which varied with salinity intensity and plant resistance genes. Moreover, hormones, with their complex regulation and cross-talk, were shown to play a key role in the adaptation of tomato plants to the combined stress. In this review, we attempt to understand the complexity of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress combinations, with a focus on tomato responses (genetic control and cross-talk of signaling pathways) to combined salinity and pathogen stresses. Further, we provide recommendations on how to design novel strategies for breeding crops with a sustained performance under diverse environmental conditions.
Soil Quality - a critical review
Bunemann, Else K. ; Bongiorno, G. ; Bai, Z.G. ; Creamer, Rachel ; Deyn, G.B. de; Goede, R.G.M. de; Fleskens, L. ; Geissen, V. ; Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Mäder, Paul ; Pulleman, M.M. ; Sukkel, W. ; Groenigen, J.W. van; Brussaard, L. - \ 2018
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 120 (2018). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 105 - 125.
Sampling and analysis or visual examination of soil to assess its status and use potential is widely practiced from plot to national scales. However, the choice of relevant soil attributes and interpretation of measurements are not straightforward, because of the complexity and site-specificity of soils, legacy effects of previous land use, and trade-offs between ecosystem services. Here we review soil quality and related concepts, in terms of definition, assessment approaches, and indicator selection and interpretation. We identify the most frequently used soil quality indicators under agricultural land use. We find that explicit evaluation of soil quality with respect to specific soil threats, soil functions and ecosystem services has rarely been implemented, and few approaches provide clear interpretation schemes of measured indicator values. This limits their adoption by land managers as well as policy. We also consider novel indicators that address currently neglected though important soil properties and processes, and we list the crucial steps in the development of a soil quality assessment procedure that is scientifically sound and supports management and policy decisions that account for the multi-functionality of soil. This requires the involvement of the pertinent actors, stakeholders and end-users to a much larger degree than practiced to date.
Identify stakeholders' understandings of life cycle assessment results on wastewater related issues
Bai, Shunwen ; Zhu, Xueqin ; Wang, Xiuheng ; Ren, Nanqi - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 622-623 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 869 - 874.
Conjoint analysis - Life cycle assessment - Stakeholders' preferences - Waste management
To facilitate decision-making processes in waste management, it is important to not only evaluate environmental impacts, but also to measure how stakeholders form opinions and make choices based one valuation results. Life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been widely used to evaluate environmental impacts; however, LCAs cannot be used to measure how people make judgments based on evaluation results. As such, in this study, we combined LCA with conjoint analysis, an economic method that allows individuals to consider all factors and demonstrate their preferences simultaneously. We used this combined method in a case study on wastewater treatment, and obtained two major types of estimation results: (1) the relative importance of each impact category of LCA, and (2) the overall preferences of respondents for each alternative. This study also highlighted some issues regarding the combination of methodologies, such as the selection of impact categories in LCA, the conversion of impact categories into understandable attributes for conjoint analysis, and weaknesses in conjoint analysis that need to be addressed and corrected in future studies.
Combined transcriptome and translatome analyses reveal a role for tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis in the control of DOG1-dependent seed dormancy
Bai, Bing ; Novák, Ondřej ; Ljung, Karin ; Hanson, Johannes ; Bentsink, Leónie - \ 2018
New Phytologist 217 (2018)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1077 - 1085.
The importance of translational regulation during Arabidopsis seed germination has been shown previously. Here the role of transcriptional and translational regulation during seed imbibition of the very dormant DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) near-isogenic line was investigated. Polysome profiling was performed on dormant and after-ripened seeds imbibed for 6 and 24 h in water and in the transcription inhibitor cordycepin. Transcriptome and translatome changes were investigated. Ribosomal profiles of after-ripened seeds imbibed in cordycepin mimic those of dormant seeds. The polysome occupancy of mRNA species is not affected by germination inhibition, either as a result of seed dormancy or as a result of cordycepin treatment, indicating the importance of the regulation of transcript abundance. The expression of auxin metabolism genes is discriminative during the imbibition of after-ripened and dormant seeds, which is confirmed by altered concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid conjugates and precursors.
Trichomes: interaction sites of tomato leaves with biotrophic powdery mildew pathogens
Suzuki, Tomoko ; Murakami, Tomoe ; Takizumi, Yoshihiro ; Ishimaru, Hiroyuki ; Kudo, Daiki ; Takikawa, Yoshihiro ; Matsuda, Yoshinori ; Kakutani, Koji ; Bai, Yuling ; Nonomura, Teruo - \ 2018
European Journal of Plant Pathology 150 (2018)1. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 115 - 125.
Delayed cell death - Erysiphe trifoliorum - Hypersensitive cell death - Papilla formation - Podosphaera xanthii - Pseudoidium neolycopersici

The present study aimed to explore the possibility of using the type I trichomes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to monitor the infection processes of powdery mildews by microscopy. Individual trichome cells of two tomato genotypes were inoculated with pathogenic and non-pathogenic powdery mildew species, Pseudoidium neolycopersici, Erysiphe trifoliorum and Podosphaera xanthii. On the trichome cells of the tomato cultivar Moneymaker, hyphae of the pathogenic Pseudoidium neolycopersici (isolates KTP-03 and KTP-04) grew vigorously; whereas hyphal growth of the non-pathogenic Erysiphe trifoliorum and Podosphaera xanthii ceased after appressorium formation, which was associated with papilla formation and hypersensitive cell death, respectively. Similar infection processes of the tested powdery mildews were seen in Moneymaker epidermal cells. Therefore, tomato trichomes are suitable for analysing, at individual cell level, the infection processes of different pathotypes of powdery mildews and for observing the cytological responses of plants by non-pathogenic powdery mildews. On the other hand, it was observed that both isolates KTP-03 and KTP-04 failed to produce conidiophores on the hyphae elongating on Moneymaker trichomes. Similarly, no conidiophores were produced on the hyphae elongating on trichomes of Solanum peruvianum LA2172, which is resistant to KTP-03 and susceptible to KTP-04. Interestingly, delayed cell death occurred in LA2172 epidermal cells, which were attacked by KTP-03 hyphae elongating from trichomes and conidiophores were formed on new hyphae growing from the leaf epidermal cells. Thus, leaf trichomes and epidermal cells of the wild tomato species LA2172 reacted differently to the avirulent isolate KTP-03.

The phylogeny of Galerucinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the performance of mitochondrial genomes in phylogenetic inference compared to nuclear rRNA genes
Nie, Rui E. ; Breeschoten, Thijmen ; Timmermans, Martijn J.T.N. ; Nadein, Konstantin ; Xue, Huai Jun ; Bai, Ming ; Huang, Yuan ; Yang, Xing Ke ; Vogler, Alfried P. - \ 2018
Cladistics-The International Journal of the Willi Hennig Society 34 (2018)2. - ISSN 0748-3007 - p. 113 - 130.

With efficient sequencing techniques, full mitochondrial genomes are rapidly replacing other widely used markers, such as the nuclear rRNA genes, for phylogenetic analysis but their power to resolve deep levels of the tree remains controversial. We studied phylogenetic relationships of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) in the tribes Galerucini and Alticini (root worms and flea beetles) based on full mitochondrial genomes (103 newly sequenced), and compared their performance to the widely sequenced nuclear rRNA genes (full 18S, partial 28S). Our results show that: (i) the mitogenome is phylogenetically informative from subtribe to family level, and the per-nucleotide contribution to nodal support is higher than that of rRNA genes, (ii) the Galerucini and Alticini are reciprocally monophyletic sister groups, if the classification is adjusted to accommodate several 'problematic genera' that do not fit the dichotomy of lineages based on the presence (Alticini) or absence (Galerucini) of the jumping apparatus, and (iii) the phylogenetic results suggest a new classification system of Galerucini with eight subtribes: Oidina, Galerucina, Hylaspina, Metacyclina, Luperina, Aulacophorina, Diabroticina and Monoleptina.

Functional characterization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Clade V MLO genes
Berg, J.A. ; Appiano, Michela ; Bijsterbosch, G. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Schouten, H.J. ; Bai, Y. - \ 2017
cucumber - cucumis sativus - powdery mildew - MLO - susceptiblity genes - gene expression
Silencing of DND1 in potato and tomato impedes conidial germination, attachment and hyphal growth of Botrytis cinerea
Sun, K. ; Tuinen, A. van; Kan, J.A.L. van; Wolters, A.M.A. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Bai, Y. - \ 2017
BMC Plant Biology 17 (2017). - ISSN 1471-2229
Background
Botrytis cinerea, a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, attacks many crops including potato and tomato. Major genes for complete resistance to B. cinerea are not known in plants, but a few quantitative trait loci have been described in tomato. Loss of function of particular susceptibility (S) genes appears to provide a new source of resistance to B. cinerea in Arabidopsis.
Results
In this study, orthologs of Arabidopsis S genes (DND1, DMR6, DMR1 and PMR4) were silenced by RNAi in potato and tomato (only for DND1). DND1 well-silenced potato and tomato plants showed significantly reduced diameters of B. cinerea lesions as compared to control plants, at all-time points analysed. Reduced lesion diameter was also observed on leaves of DMR6 silenced potato plants but only at 3 days post inoculation (dpi). The DMR1 and PMR4 silenced potato transformants were as susceptible as the control cv Desiree. Microscopic analysis was performed to observe B. cinerea infection progress in DND1 well-silenced potato and tomato leaves. A significantly lower number of B. cinerea conidia remained attached to the leaf surface of DND1 well-silenced potato and tomato plants and the hyphal growth of germlings was hampered.
Conclusions
This is the first report of a cytological investigation of Botrytis development on DND1-silenced crop plants. Silencing of DND1 led to reduced susceptibility to Botrytis, which was associated with impediment of conidial germination and attachment as well as hyphal growth. Our results provide new insights regarding the use of S genes in resistance breeding.
Farm development, differences between and within dairy farming systems
Junfei, Bai ; Zhai, Shixian ; Beldman, A.C.G. ; Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Zijlstra, J. - \ 2017
- 1 p.
How China's nitrogen footprint of food has changed from 1961 to 2010
Guo, Mengchu ; Chen, Xiaohui ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Jiang, Rongfeng ; Galloway, James N. ; Leach, Allison M. ; Cattaneo, Lia R. ; Oenema, Oene ; Ma, Lin ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)10. - ISSN 1748-9318
China - Nitrogen footprint - nitrogen losses - virtual nitrogen factor
People have increased the amount of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment as a result of food production methods and consumption choices. However, the connection between dietary choices and environmental impacts over time has not yet been studied in China. Here we combine a nitrogen footprint tool, the N-Calculator, with a food chain model, NUFER (NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use), to analyze the N footprint of food in China. We use the NUFER model to provide a detailed estimation of the amounts and forms of Nr released to the environment during food production, which is then used to calculate virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs, unit: kg N released/kg N in product) of major food items. The food N footprint consists of the food consumption N footprint and food production N footprint. The average per capita food N footprint increased from 4.7 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 1960s to 21 kg N capita-1 yr-1 in the 2000s, and the national food N footprint in China increased from 3.4 metric tons (MT) N yr-1 in the 1960s to 28 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. The proportion of the food N footprint that is animal-derived increased from 37% to 54% during this period. The food production N footprint accounted for 84% of the national food N footprint in the 2000s, compared to 62% in the 1960s. More Nr has been added to the food production systems to produce enough food for a growing population that is increasing its per-capita food consumption. The increasing VNFs in China indicate that an increasing amount of Nr is being lost per unit of N embedded in food products consumed by humans in the past five decades. National N losses from food production increased from 6 MT N yr-1 in the 1960s to 23 MT N yr-1 in the 2000s. N was lost to the environment in four ways: ammonia (NH3) emissions and dinitrogen (N2) emissions through denitrification (each account for nearly 40%), N losses to water systems (20%), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (1%). The average per capita food N footprint in China is relatively high compared with those of developed countries in the 2000s. To reduce the food N footprint in China, it is important to both reduce the Nr losses during food production and encourage diets associated with a lower N footprint, such as shifting towards a more plant-based diet.
Combined transcriptome and translatome analyses reveal a role for tryptophan dependent auxin biosynthesis in the control of DOG1 dependent seed dormancy
Bai, Bing ; Novák, Ondřej ; Ljung, Karin ; Hanson, Johannes ; Bentsink, L. - \ 2017
Arabidopsis thaliana - GSE75368 - PRJNA304010
Transcriptome and translatome analyses of 6 and 24 hours imbibed seeds dormant and non-dormant seeds of NILDOG1-Cvi with and without addition of the transcription inhibitor Cordycepin. NILDOG1-Cvi is the Ler WT containing an introgression of the Cvi accession on chromosome 5, which includes the DOG1 gene.
Functional characterization of a syntaxin involved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) resistance against powdery mildew
Bracuto, Valentina ; Appiano, Michela ; Zheng, Zheng ; Wolters, Anne-Marie A. ; Yan, Zhe ; Ricciardi, Luigi ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Pavan, Stefano ; Bai, Yuling - \ 2017
Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-462X - 10 p.
Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei - Mlo resistance - Non-host resistance - Oidium neolycopersici - Tomato syntaxins

Specific syntaxins, such as Arabidopsis AtPEN1 and its barley ortholog ROR2, play a major role in plant defense against powdery mildews. Indeed, the impairment of these genes results in increased fungal penetration in both host and non-host interactions. In this study, a genome-wide survey allowed the identification of 21 tomato syntaxins. Two of them, named SlPEN1a and SlPEN1b, are closely related to AtPEN1. RNAi-based silencing of SlPEN1a in a tomato line carrying a loss-of-function mutation of the susceptibility gene SlMLO1 led to compromised resistance toward the tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici. Moreover, it resulted in a significant increase in the penetration rate of the non-adapted powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Codon-based evolutionary analysis and multiple alignments allowed the detection of amino acid residues that are under purifying selection and are specifically conserved in syntaxins involved in plant-powdery mildew interactions. Our findings provide both insights on the evolution of syntaxins and information about their function which is of interest for future studies on plant–pathogen interactions and tomato breeding.

The development of biodiversity conservation measures in China's hydro projects : A review
Bai, Ruiqiao ; Liu, Xuehua ; Liu, Xiaofei ; Liu, Lanmei ; Wang, Jianping ; Liao, Sihui ; Zhu, Annah ; Li, Zhouyan - \ 2017
Environment International 108 (2017). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 285 - 298.
Biodiversity conservation - China - Hydropower - Policy - Research

The hydropower capacity of China ranks first in the world and accounts for approximately 20% of the total energy production in the country. While hydropower has substantially contributed to meeting China's renewable energy targets and providing clean energy to rural areas, the development of hydropower in China has been met with significant controversy. Ecologically, hydro projects alter the landscape, with potential impacts to the country's aquatic biodiversity. Over the past four decades in China, various mainstream opinions and misunderstandings have been presented concerning how to alleviate the negative impacts of hydro projects on aquatic ecosystems. This article reviews research concerning potential mitigation measures to enhance aquatic biodiversity conservation in hydro projects in China. Based on the academic attention such research has attracted, three technical measures for aquatic biodiversity conservation are considered: (1) fish passages, (2) restocking efforts and (3) river and lake renovations. This article provides a historical comparison of these three practices in China to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The article also reviews the relevant legislation, regulations and technical guidelines concerning China's hydro projects dating back to 1979. The dynamics in research, publications, and patents concerning these three mitigation measures are summarized to demonstrate their technological developments in the context of legislative and policy advances. Data were gathered through the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database and the State Intellectual Property Office of the People's Republic of China. Based on the analysis provided, the article recommends an expansion of China's environmental certification system for hydro projects, more robust regional legislation to bolster the national framework, the cooperation between upstream and downstream conservation mechanisms, and better monitoring to determine the efficacy of mitigation measures.

Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize
Cai, Qian ; Zhang, Yulong ; Sun, Zhanxiang ; Zheng, Jiaming ; Bai, Wei ; Zhang, Yue ; Yang, Liu ; Feng, Liangshan ; Feng, Chen ; Zhang, Zhe ; Yang, Ning ; Evers, Jochem ; Zhang, Lizhen - \ 2017
Biogeosciences 14 (2017)16. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 3851 - 3858.

A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above-A nd below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root = shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

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