Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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European Journal of Public Health (Journal)
Bekker, Marleen - \ 2018
European Journal of Public Health (2018). - ISSN 1101-1262
2018 Volume 28 Supplement 3: How to Navigate Political Landscapes: Towards a Public Health Political Science
Political analysis in public health: middle-range concepts to make sense of the politics of health. : Introduction to the Supplement 3 Eur J Pub Health
Greer, S.L. ; Bekker, Marleen ; Azzopardi-Muscat, N. ; McKee, M. - \ 2018
European Journal of Public Health 28 (2018)supplement 3. - ISSN 1101-1262 - p. 3 - 6.
Public health is about policy, power, and the public and as such might be thought necessarily political. That does not mean, however, that the place of political analysis and engagement in public health is uncontroversial, and there have been longstanding arguments that to discuss politics sullies the scientific nature of public health. This article, introducing a special issue on political science in public health, argues that rigorous use of middle-range theory can inform our analysis of public health problems and avoid the risks of politicization, excessive abstraction or excessive concreteness. It summarizes key political science concepts discussed in the papers: epistemic communities, interest groups, advocacy coalitions, political parties, institutions, legalism, discourse and the political economy of labour. We hope that the series will provide the public health community with some tools and methods for how to integrate public health knowledge into the sphere of decision making in an appropriate way.
Public health and politics: how political science can help us move forward
Bekker, Marleen ; Greer, S.L. ; Azzopardi-Muscat, N. ; McKee, M. - \ 2018
European Journal of Public Health 28 (2018)supplement 3. - ISSN 1101-1262 - p. 1 - 2.
Comparative institutional analysis for public health: governing voluntary collaborative agreements for public health in England and the Netherlands
Bekker, Marleen ; Mays, N. ; Helderman, J.K. ; Petticrew, M. ; Jansen, M.W.J. ; Knai, C. ; Ruwaard, D. - \ 2018
European Journal of Public Health 28 (2018)suppl. 3. - ISSN 1101-1262 - p. 19 - 25.
Democratic institutions and state-society relations shape governance arrangements and expectations between public and private stakeholders about public health impact. We illustrate this with a comparison between the English Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) and the Dutch ‘All About Health…’ (AaH) programme. As manifestations of a Whole-of-Society approach, in which governments, civil society and business take responsibility for the co-production of economic utility and good health, these programmes are two recent collaborative platforms based on voluntary agreements to improve public health. Using a ‘most similar cases’ design, we conducted a comparative secondary analysis of data from the evaluations of the two programmes. The underlying rationale of both programmes was that voluntary agreements would be better suited than regulation to encourage business and civil society to take more responsibility for improving health. Differences between the two included: expectations of an enforcing versus facilitative role for government; hierarchical versus horizontal coordination; big business versus civil society participants; top-down versus bottom-up formulation of voluntary pledges and progress monitoring for accountability versus for learning and adaptation. Despite the attempt in both programmes to base voluntary commitments on trust, the English ‘shadow of hierarchy’ and adversarial state-society relationships conditioned non-governmental parties to see the pledges as controlling, quasi-contractual agreements that were only partially lived up to. The Dutch consensual political tradition enabled a civil society-based understanding and gradual acceptance of the pledges as the internalization by partner organizations of public health values within their operations. We conclude that there are institutional limitations to the implementation of generic trust-building and learning-based models of change ‘Whole-of-Society’ approaches.
Children’s Reflection-in-action during Collaborative Design-Based Learning
Zhang, Z. ; Bekker, T. ; Markopoulos, P. ; Brok, Perry den - \ 2018
Body stores persist as fitness correlate in a long-distance migrant released from food constraints
Dokter, Adriaan M. ; Fokkema, Wimke ; Bekker, Steven K. ; Bouten, Willem ; Ebbinge, Barwolt S. ; Müskens, Gerard ; Olff, Han ; Jeugd, Henk P. van der; Nolet, Bart A. - \ 2018
Behavioral Ecology 29 (2018)5. - ISSN 1045-2249 - p. 1157 - 1166.
arctic waterfowl - carry-over effects - cultivated grassland - GPS tracking - migratory fueling - recruitment

Long-distance migratory birds rely on the acquisition of body stores to fuel their migration and reproduction. Breeding success depends on the amount of body stores acquired prior to migration, which is thought to increase with access to food at the fueling site. Here, we studied how food abundance during fueling affected time budgets and reproductive success. In a regime of plenty, we expected that 1) limitations on food harvesting would become lifted, allowing birds to frequently idle, and 2) birds would reach sufficient fuel loads, such that departure weight would no longer affect reproductive success. Our study system comprised brent geese (Branta b. bernicla) staging on high-quality agricultural pastures. Fueling conditions were assessed by a combination of high-resolution GPS tracking, acceleration-based behavioral classification, thermoregulation modeling, and measurements of food digestibility and excretion rates. Mark-resighting analysis was used to test for correlations between departure weight and offspring recruitment. Our results confirm that birds loafed extensively, actively postponed fueling in early spring, and took frequent digestion pauses, suggesting that traditional time constraints on harvest and fueling rates are absent on modern-day fertilized grasslands. Nonetheless, departure weight remained correlated with recruitment success. The persistence of this correlation after a prolonged stopover with access to abundant high-quality food, suggests that between-individual differences in departure condition are not so much enforced by food quality and availability during stopover, but reflect individual quality and longer-lived life-history traits, such as health status and digestive capacity, which may be developed before the fueling period.

Landschapsarchitectuur : tussen ontwerp & onderzoek
Nijhuis, Steffen ; Niederer, Danielle ; Bekker, Joeri de; Berkers, Marieke ; Dooren, Noël van; Eker, Mark ; Horlings, Harma ; Janssen, Joks ; Kersten, Inge ; Tilborg, Hank van; Lenzholzer, Sandra ; Maaskant, Madeleine ; Meijer, Jan Herman ; Noordhuizen, Jorrit ; Nijkrake, Wieteke ; Noortman, Adrian ; Vries, Jeroen de; Vlug, Johan ; Stolk, Egbert ; Veenstra, Abe - \ 2017
Wageningen : Dutch School of Landscape Architecture (Dutch School of Landscape Architecture perspectieven vol. 1) - 120
Meet meat : An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch
Bekker, Gerben A. ; Tobi, Hilde ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. - \ 2017
Appetite 114 (2017). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 82 - 92.
Cross-cultural comparison - Cultured meat - Meat - Practice theory - Social practice - Symbolic boundaries

In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries and theory of social practices helps to better understand the possibly culturally dependent operationalization of the concept meat. Ten visiting graduate students from China, 10 from Ethiopia and 10 native Dutch graduate students completed freelist tasks, a pile sort task, interview and essay task, during a single session. We found that butchered animals are at the center of the concept of meat, although depending on culture not all animals are a source of meat. Symbolic boundaries were restricted or stretched depending on social practices within countries. Ethiopian participants applied strictly defined symbolic boundaries, where Chinese and Dutch participants used more broadly defined symbolic boundaries. Cultured meat was seen as a technology for the future and was positioned across the symbolic boundaries of meat.

Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology : The case of cultured meat
Bekker, Gerben A. ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Tobi, Hilde ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van - \ 2017
Appetite 108 (2017). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 245 - 254.
Attitude change - Cultured meat - Explicit attitude - Implicit attitude - Information provision - Mood

Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat.

Referenties en maatlatten voor natuurlijke watertypen voor de kaderrichtlijn water 2015-2021 ; 2e dr.
Altenburg, W. ; Arts, G. ; Baretta-Bekker, J.G. ; Berg, M.S. van den; Broek, T. van den; Buskens, R. ; Bijkerk, R. ; Coops, H.C. ; Dam, H. van; Ee, G. van; Evers, C.H.M. ; Franken, R. ; Higler, B. ; Ietswaart, T. ; Jaarsma, N. ; Jong, D.J. de; Joosten, A.M.T. ; Klinge, M. ; Knoben, R.A.E. ; Kranenbarg, J. ; Loon, W.M.G.M. van; Noordhuis, R. ; Pot, R. ; Twisk, F. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Vlek, H. ; Wolfstein, K. ; Backx, J.J.G.M. ; Beers, M. ; Buijse, A.D. ; Duursema, G. ; Fagel, M. ; Leeuw, J. de; Molen, J. van der; Nijboer, R.C. ; Postma, J. ; Vriese, T. ; Molen, D.T. van der; Herpen, F.C.J. van; Nieuwerburgh, L.L.J. van - \ 2016
Amersfoort : Stowa (Stowa rapport 2012-31) - 466
In het najaar van 2012 werd een geactualiseerde versie van het document Referenties en maatlatten voor natuurlijke watertypen voor de Kaderrichtlijn Water 2015-2021 vastgesteld. Uit het gebruik van deze maatlatten en het programmeren van de Aquokit Biologie (webservice voor toetsen van ecologische kwaliteit met deze maatlatten ontwikkeld door het InformatieHuis Water) bleek dat er correcties en verduidelijkingen nodig waren om te zorgen voor een juiste en consistente toepassing van de maatlatten. Deze correcties en verduidelijkingen zijn doorgevoerd in deze tweede druk. In bijlage 14 is een overzicht opgenomen van de aanpassingen in de maatlat ten opzichte van de eerst druk.
Parametric estimation of P(X >Y) for normal distributions in the context of probabilistic environmental risk assessment.
Jacobs, R. ; Bekker, A.A. ; Voet, H. van der; Braak, C.J.F. ter - \ 2015
PeerJ 3 (2015). - ISSN 2167-8359
species sensitivity distributions - stress-strength model - confidence-intervals - reliability - less - inference
Estimating the risk, P(X > Y), in probabilistic environmental risk assessment of nanoparticles is a problem when confronted by potentially small risks and small sample sizes of the exposure concentration X and/or the effect concentration Y. This is illustrated in the motivating case study of aquatic risk assessment of nano-Ag. A non-parametric estimator based on data alone is not sufficient as it is limited by sample size. In this paper, we investigate the maximum gain possible when making strong parametric assumptions as opposed to making no parametric assumptions at all. We compare maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimators with the non-parametric estimator and study the influence of sample size and risk on the (interval) estimators via simulation. We found that the parametric estimators enable us to estimate and bound the risk for smaller sample sizes and small risks. Also, the Bayesian estimator outperforms the maximum likelihood estimators in terms of coverage and interval lengths and is, therefore, preferred in our motivating case study.
Do plant traits retrieved from a database accurately predict on-site measurements?
Cordlandwehr, V. ; Meredith, R.L. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Bekker, R.M. ; Groenendael, J.M. van; Bakker, J.P. - \ 2013
Journal of Ecology 101 (2013)3. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 662 - 670.
northwest european flora - life-history traits - land-use change - intraspecific variability - functional diversity - aboveground biomass - relative importance - leaf traits - communities - ecology
1. Trait-based approaches are increasingly used to obtain an insight into the functional aspects of plant communities. Since measuring traits can be time-consuming, large international databases of plant traits are being compiled to share the effort. From these databases, average trait values are often extracted per species by averaging trait values of individuals over multiple populations and habitats. However, the accuracy of such aggregated information from regional databases as a surrogate for on-site measurements has seldom been tested. 2. For the local species pool (aggregated at the habitat-level) and the plant communities on the plots (aggregated at the community-level), we quantified how accurately trait values for each species measured at the plot (plot scale) and those averaged per species and site (site scale) can be estimated from those retrieved from a North-west-European trait database. We analysed three widely used plant traits, canopy height (CH), leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA), of species occurring in a wet meadow and a salt marsh. 3. Database values more accurately predicted traits aggregated at the habitat-level than those aggregated at the community-level. In addition, traits with lower plasticity, such as LDMC, were more accurately predicted by database values. The performance of database values also depended upon the habitat studied, for example, habitat-level SLA values were accurately predicted by database values in the wet meadow but inaccurately predicted in the salt marsh. 4. Synthesis. This study reveals that the accuracy of traits retrieved from a database depends on the level of aggregation (lower at community-level), the trait (lower in plastic traits) and the habitat type (lower in extreme habitats). For studies focussing on processes mainly acting at the site scale (e.g. trait–environment relationships), traits retrieved from a regional database and filtered according to habitat will probably lead to good results. Whereas studying processes acting at the plot scale (e.g. niche partitioning), requires the additional effort of measuring traits on-site.
Database means compared to on-site measurement of traits
Cordlandwehr, V. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Bekker, R.M. ; Bakker, J.P. - \ 2013
In: Proceedings of 56th Symposium of the International Association for Vegetation Science, 26–30 June 2013 Tartu Estonia. - - p. 37 - 37.
In functional ecology trait-based approaches are widely used. Gathering on-site measurements of traits can be very laborious, therefore, using traits retrieved from regional or global databases as proxies appears a convenient solution. However, many traits show intraspecific variability in trait values. Thus, using species mean trait values might lead to skewed patterns in traits and by that misinterpretations. The extent to which this is a problem probably depends on geographic scale, level of trait aggregation, type of process and habitat type. If we knew when it would be possible to use mean trait values of species from regional or global databases as an accurate proxy for on-site trait values of individuals, local-level experiments could be conducted without the often laborious task of measuring the functional traits of individual plants for each sampled community. Using data from two grassland sites, a salt marsh and a wet hay-meadow, we analysed the effect of species mean trait values retrieved from a regional database on the resulting trait structure of our plant communities. We compared on-site measurements from a 2 × 2 m scale with species mean traits aggregated per site (i.e. the habitat species pool), and those retrieved from a regional database (the LEDA trait database). We focused on the commonly used morphological plant traits canopy height, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content. Our results show that database values are more accurate in predicting the trait values in the habitat species pool as compared to the community mean traits aggregated per 2 × 2 m plots. The performance of database values also depends upon the trait and habitat type considered, as we show that traits with a high plasticity and traits in stressful habitats are being less accurately predicted. We can also explain why species trait means generally show a skewed representation of community traits as not only species composition, but also the individuals within species influence the community means. For studies focussing on processes mainly acting at the site scale (e.g. trait-environment relationships) traits retrieved from a regional database and filtered according to habitat will probably lead to reliable results. In contrast, studies focussing on processes acting at the plot scale (e.g. niche partitioning), require the additional effort of measuring traits on-site.
A combination of functionally different plant traits provides a means to quantitatively predict a broad range of species assemblages in NW Europe
Douma, J.C. ; Aerts, R. ; Witte, J.P.M. ; Bekker, R.M. ; Kunzmann, D. ; Metselaar, K. ; Bodegom, P.M. van - \ 2012
Ecography 35 (2012)4. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 364 - 373.
vegetatietypen - plantenecologie - vegetation types - plant ecology - relative growth-rate - community ecology - strategies - diversity - convergence - divergence - patterns - model - components - nitrogen
Assembly theory predicts that filtering processes will select species by their attributes to build a community. Some filters increase functional similarity among species, while others lead to dissimilarity. Assuming converging processes to be dominant within habitats, we tested in this study whether species assemblages across a wide range of habitats can be distinguished quantitatively by their mean trait compositions. In addition, we investigated how many and which traits are needed to describe the differences between species assemblages best. The approach has been applied on a dataset that included 12 plant traits and 7644 vegetation releves covering a wide range of habitats in the Netherlands. We demonstrate that due to the dominant role of converging processes 1) the functional composition can explain up to 80% of the floristic differences between species assemblages using seven plant traits, showing that plant trait combinations provide a powerful tool for predicting the occurrence of species assemblages across different habitats; 2) to achieve a high performance, traits should be taken from different strategy components, i.e. traits that are functionally orthogonal, which does not necessarily coincide with low trait-trait correlations; 3) the different strategy components identified in this study correspond to the strategy components of some conventional plant ecological strategy schemes (PESS) schemes to describe the variation between individual species. However, some PESS merge traits into one strategy component that are shown to be functionally different when predicting species assemblages. If such PESS is used to predict assemblages, this leads to a loss in predictive capacity. Potentially, our new approach is globally applicable to quantify community assembly patterns. However this needs to be tested.
Role of phosphate in the central metabolism of two lactic acid bacteria-a comparative systems biology approach
Levering, J. ; Musters, M.W.J.M. ; Bekker, M. ; Bellomo, D. ; Fiedler, T. ; Vos, W.M. de; Hugenholtz, F. ; Kreikemeyer, B. ; Kummer, U. ; Teusink, B. - \ 2012
FEBS Journal 279 (2012)7. - ISSN 1742-464X - p. 1274 - 1290.
pyruvate formate-lyase - group-a streptococci - lactococcus-lactis - phosphotransferase system - lactate-dehydrogenase - comparative genomics - in-vivo - glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase - enterococcus-faecalis - inducer expulsion
Lactic acid-producing bacteria survive in distinct environments, but show common metabolic characteristics. Here we studied the dynamic interactions of the central metabolism in Lactococcus lactis, extensively used as a starter culture in the dairy industry, and Streptococcus pyogenes, a human pathogen. Glucose-pulse experiments and enzymatic measurements were performed to parameterize kinetic models of glycolysis. Significant improvements were made to existing kinetic models for L. lactis, which subsequently accelerated the development of the first kinetic model of S. pyogenes glycolysis. The models revealed an important role for extracellular phosphate in the regulation of central metabolism and the efficient use of glucose. Thus, phosphate, which is rarely taken into account as an independent species in models of central metabolism, should be considered more thoroughly in the analysis of metabolic systems in the future. Insufficient phosphate supply can lead to a strong inhibition of glycolysis at high glucose concentrations in both species, but this was more severe in S. pyogenes. S. pyogenes is more efficient at converting glucose to ATP, showing a higher tendency towards heterofermentative energy metabolism than L. lactis. Our comparative systems biology approach revealed that the glycolysis of L. lactis and S. pyogenes have similar characteristics, but are adapted to their individual natural habitats with respect to phosphate regulation
Informed consent: noodzakelijk kwaad?
Bekker, G.A. ; Tobi, H. - \ 2012
Stator, periodiek van VVS 13 (2012). - ISSN 1567-3383 - p. 30 - 32.
On the Bivariate Kummer-Beta Type IV Distribution
Jacobs, R. ; Bekker, A. ; Human, S.W. - \ 2012
Communications in Statistics. Part A, Theory and Methods 41 (2012)18. - ISSN 0361-0926 - p. 3339 - 3354.
product - variables - quotient - moments
In this article, the non central bivariate Kummer-beta Type IV distribution is introduced and derived via the Laplace transform of the non central bivariate beta distribution by Gupta et al. (2011 ). We focus on and discuss the central bivariate Kummer-beta Type IV distribution; this distribution is a special case of the non central bivariate Kummer-beta Type IV distribution and extends the popular Jones’ bivariate beta distribution. The probability density functions of the product and the ratio of the components of the central bivariate Kummer-beta Type IV distribution are also derived and we provide tabulations of the associated lower percentage points as well as some upper percentage points that are useful in reliability.
New options for flexitarians
Elzerman, Hanneke ; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Weele, Cor van der; Bekker, Gerben ; Dagevos, Hans - \ 2011
TRY - a global database of plant traits
Kattge, J. ; Diaz, S. ; Lavorel, S. ; Prentices, I.C. ; Leadley, P. ; Bönisch, G. ; Garnier, E. ; Westobys, M. ; Reich, P.B. ; Wrights, I.J. ; Cornelissen, C. ; Violle, C. ; Harisson, S.P. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Reichstein, M. ; Enquist, B.J. ; Soudzilovskaia, N.A. ; Ackerly, D.D. ; Anand, M. ; Atkin, O. ; Bahn, M. ; Baker, T.R. ; Baldochi, D. ; Bekker, R. ; Blanco, C.C. ; Blonders, B. ; Bond, W.J. ; Bradstock, R. ; Bunker, D.E. ; Casanoves, F. ; Cavender-Bares, J. ; Chambers, J.Q. ; Chapin III, F.S. ; Chave, J. ; Coomes, D. ; Cornwell, W.K. ; Craine, J.M. ; Dobrin, B.H. ; Duarte, L. ; Durka, W. ; Elser, J. ; Esser, G. ; Estiarte, M. ; Fagan, W.F. ; Fang, J. ; Fernadez-Mendez, F. ; Fidelis, A. ; Finegan, B. ; Flores, O. ; Ford, H. ; Frank, D. ; Freschet, T. ; Fyllas, N.M. ; Gallagher, R.V. ; Green, W.A. ; Gutierrez, A.G. ; Hickler, T. ; Higgins, S.I. ; Hodgson, J.G. ; Jalili, A. ; Jansen, S. ; Joly, C.A. ; Kerkhoff, A.J. ; Kirkup, D. ; Kitajima, K. ; Kleyer, M. ; Klotz, S. ; Knops, J.M.H. ; Kramer, K. ; Kühn, I. ; Kurokawa, H. ; Laughlin, D. ; Lee, T.D. ; Leishman, M. ; Lens, F. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Lloyd, J. ; Llusia, J. ; Louault, F. ; Ma, S. ; Mahecha, M.D. ; Manning, P. ; Massad, T. ; Medlyn, B.E. ; Messier, J. ; Moles, A.T. ; Müller, S.C. ; Nadrowski, K. ; Naeem, S. ; Niinemets, Ü. ; Nöllert, S. ; Nüske, A. ; Ogaya, R. ; Oleksyn, J. ; Onipchenko, V.G. ; Onoda, Y. ; Ordonez Barragan, J.C. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2011
Global Change Biology 17 (2011)9. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2905 - 2935.
relative growth-rate - tropical rain-forest - hawaiian metrosideros-polymorpha - litter decomposition rates - leaf economics spectrum - old-field succession - sub-arctic flora - functional traits - wide-range - terrestrial biosphere
Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.
Dispersal failure contributes to plant losses in NW Europe
Ozinga, W.A. ; Bekker, R.M. ; Bakker, J.P. - \ 2011
In: CEES Progress report 2009 / Nunnink, J., Plenter-Hartman, E., Groningen : CEES, University of Groningen - p. 64 - 66.
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