Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Facilitated delignification in CAD deficient transgenic poplar studied by confocal Raman spectroscopy imaging
Segmehl, Jana S. ; Keplinger, Tobias ; Krasnobaev, Artem ; Berg, John K. ; Willa, Christoph ; Burgert, Ingo - \ 2019
Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 206 (2019). - ISSN 1386-1425 - p. 177 - 184.
CAD deficient poplar - Cellulose conformational change - Facilitated delignification - Lignocellulosic biomass - Raman spectroscopy imaging - X-ray diffraction

Lignocellulosic biomass represents the only renewable carbon resource which is available in sufficient amounts to be considered as an alternative for our fossil-based carbon economy. However, an efficient biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks is hindered by the natural recalcitrance of the biomass as a result of a dense network of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. These polymeric interconnections make a pretreatment of the biomass necessary in order to enhance the susceptibility of the polysaccharides. Here, we report on a detailed analysis of the favourable influence of genetic engineering for two common delignification protocols for lignocellulosic biomass, namely acidic bleaching and soda pulping, on the example of CAD deficient poplar. The altered lignin structure of the transgenic poplar results in a significantly accelerated and more complete lignin removal at lower temperatures and shorter reaction times compared to wildtype poplar. To monitor the induced chemical and structural alterations at the tissue level, confocal Raman spectroscopy imaging, FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used.

Landscape context and farm uptake limit effects of bird conservation in the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance
Josefsson, Jonas ; Pärt, Tomas ; Berg, Åke ; Lokhorst, Anne Marike ; Eggers, Sönke - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)6. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 2719 - 2730.
agri-environmental schemes - biodiversity - collaborative conservation - farmers - farmland birds - landscape composition - organic farming - unsubsidised conservation

In Europe, agri-environmental schemes (AES) have been unsuccessful in halting biodiversity declines to any great extent. Two shortcomings of AES include the low farm uptake and the modest efficacy of many AES options. Partly in response to these shortcomings, initiatives encouraging farmers to take an active role in biodiversity conservation have gained in popularity. However, almost no evaluations of such initiatives exist. We evaluated uptake of conservation advice on farms in the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance, a BirdLife Sweden-coordinated project aimed at farmland bird conservation, and the response of farmland birds to those actions using farm-level survey data, in a before-after implementation assessment. Uptake was higher for unsubsidised (i.e. non-AES) measures than for AES options, and depended mainly on farmers’ interest in nature, with farm size and production type having less importance. In general, abundances of non-crop nesting and field-nesting bird species declined between inventory years (median interval 3 years). Decreases were more marked in agriculturally marginal regions than in more arable-dominated regions, and declines were stronger on organic than on conventional farms. Negative abundance trends among non-crop nesting species were reduced by an increasing number of conservation measures at the farm, but only in the more arable-dominated landscapes. Changes in field-nesting species, or at species level, did not significantly relate to implemented measures, but the power to detect such effects was generally small due to the small sample size of high-uptake farms as well as high inter-farm variability. Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that volunteer farmer alliances and the addition of unsubsidised measures may be successful in changing the local number of non-crop nesting farmland birds, at the farm level, particularly in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. Thus, unsubsidised measures can be a useful addition to the set of agri-environment tools, although their effects on breeding bird numbers are (as with agri-environmental schemes) dependent on landscape context, as well as on ensuring high on-farm uptake of different interventions.

Zomersneeuw : Beelden op de Berg 11, Belmonte Arboretum Wageningen, 17/6 -23/9 | 2018
Wildschut, Flos ; Fresco, Louise ; Eijsackers, Herman ; Otten, Els ; Bos, René ten - \ 2018
Wageningen : Blauwdruk (Beelden op de Berg 11) - ISBN 9789492474216 - 78
Modifying the Contact Angle of Anisotropic Cellulose Nanocrystals : Effect on Interfacial Rheology and Structure
Berg, Merel E.H. van den; Kuster, Simon ; Windhab, Erich J. ; Adamcik, Jozef ; Mezzenga, Raffaele ; Geue, Thomas ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. ; Fischer, Peter - \ 2018
Langmuir 34 (2018)37. - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 10932 - 10942.

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are an emerging natural material with the ability to stabilize fluid/fluid interfaces. Native CNC is hydrophilic and does not change the interfacial tension of the stabilized emulsion or foam system. In this study, rodlike cellulose particles were isolated from hemp and chemically modified to alter their hydrophobicity, i.e., their surface activity, which was demonstrated by surface tension measurements of the particles at the air/water interface. The buildup and mechanical strength of the interfacial structure were investigated using interfacial shear and dilatational rheometry. In contrast to most particle or protein-based interfacial adsorption layers, we observe in shear flow a Maxwellian behavior instead of a glasslike frequency response. The slow and reversible buildup of the layer and its unique frequency dependence indicate a weakly aggregated system, which depends on the hydrophobicity and, thus, on the contact angle of the CNC particles at the air/water interface. Exposed to dilatational flow, the weakly aggregated particles cluster and form compact structures. The interfacial structure generated by the different flow fields is characterized by the contact angle, immersion depth, and layer roughness obtained by neutron reflectometry with contrast variation while the size and local structural arrangement of the CNC particles were investigated by AFM imaging.

Extreme drought boosts CO2 and CH4 emissions from reservoir drawdown areas
Kosten, Sarian ; Berg, Sanne van den; Mendonça, Raquel ; Paranaíba, José R. ; Roland, Fabio ; Sobek, Sebastian ; Hoek, Jamon Van Den; Barros, Nathan - \ 2018
Inland Waters : Journal of the International Society of Limnology 8 (2018)3. - ISSN 2044-2041 - p. 329 - 340.
drought - emission peaks - greenhouse gases - reservoirs - rewetting - sediment

Although previous studies suggest that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from reservoir sediment exposed to the atmosphere during drought may be substantial, this process has not been rigorously quantified. Here we determined carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from sediment cores exposed to a drying and rewetting cycle. We found a strong temporal variation in GHG emissions with peaks when the sediment was drained (C emissions from permanently wet sediment and drained sediments were, respectively, 251 and 1646 mg m−2 d−1 for CO2 and 0.8 and 547.4 mg m−2 d−1 for CH4) and then again during rewetting (C emissions from permanently wet sediment and rewetted sediments were, respectively, 456 and 1725mg m−2 d−1 for CO2 and 1.3 and 3.1 mg m−2 d−1 for CH4). To gain insight into the importance of these emissions at a regional scale, we used Landsat satellite imagery to upscale our results to all Brazilian reservoirs. We found that during the extreme drought of 2014–2015, an additional 1299 km2 of sediment was exposed, resulting in an estimated emission of 8.5 × 1011 g of CO2-eq during the first 15 d after the overlying water disappeared and in the first 33 d after rewetting, the same order of magnitude as the year-round GHG emissions of large (∼mean surface water area 454 km2) Brazilian reservoirs, excluding the emissions from the draw-down zone. Our estimate, however, has high uncertainty, with actual emissions likely higher. We therefore argue that the effects of drought on reservoir GHG emissions merits further study, especially because climate models indicate an increase in the frequency of severe droughts in the future. We recommend incorporation of emissions during drying and rewetting into GHG budgets of reservoirs to improve regional GHG emission estimates and to enable comparison between GHG emissions from hydroelectric and other electricity sources. We also emphasize that peak emissions at the onset of drought and the later rewetting should be quantified to obtain reliable emission estimates.

Force-transmitting structures in the digital pads of the tree frog Hyla cinerea : a functional interpretation
Langowski, Julian K.A. ; Schipper, Henk ; Blij, Anne ; Berg, Frank T. van den; Gussekloo, Sander W.S. ; Leeuwen, Johan L. van - \ 2018
Journal of anatomy 233 (2018)4. - ISSN 0021-8782 - p. 478 - 495.
attachment organ - bioadhesion - collagen - connective tissue - fibre-matrix-composite - material stiffness - shear load - smooth muscle

The morphology of the digital pads of tree frogs is adapted towards attachment, allowing these animals to attach to various substrates and to explore their arboreal habitat. Previous descriptions and functional interpretations of the pad morphology mostly focussed on the surface of the ventral epidermis, and little is known about the internal pad morphology and its functional relevance in attachment. In this study, we combine histology and synchrotron micro-computer-tomography to obtain a comprehensive 3-D morphological characterisation of the digital pads (in particular of the internal structures involved in the transmission of attachment forces from the ventral pad surface towards the phalanges) of the tree frog Hyla cinerea. A collagenous septum runs from the distal tip of the distal phalanx to the ventral cutis and compartmentalises the subcutaneous pad volume into a distal lymph space and a proximal space, which contains mucus glands opening via long ducts to the ventral pad surface. A collagen layer connects the ventral basement membrane via interphalangeal ligaments with the middle phalanx. The collagen fibres forming this layer curve around the transverse pad-axis and form laterally separated ridges below the gland space. The topological optimisation of a shear-loaded pad model using finite element analysis (FEA) shows that the curved collagen fibres are oriented along the trajectories of the maximum principal stresses, and the optimisation also results in ridge-formation, suggesting that the collagen layer is adapted towards a high stiffness during shear loading. We also show that the collagen layer is strong, with an estimated tensile strength of 2.0–6.5 N. Together with longitudinally skewed tonofibrils in the superficial epidermis, these features support our hypothesis that the digital pads of tree frogs are primarily adapted towards the generation and transmission of friction rather than adhesion forces. Moreover, we generate (based on a simplified FEA model and predictions from analytical models) the hypothesis that dorsodistal pulling on the collagen septum facilitates proximal peeling of the pad and that the septum is an adaptation towards detachment rather than attachment. Lastly, by using immunohistochemistry, we (re-)discovered bundles of smooth muscle fibres in the digital pads of tree frogs. We hypothesise that these fibres allow the control of (i) contact stresses at the pad–substrate interface and peeling, (ii) mucus secretion, (iii) shock-absorbing properties of the pad, and (iv) the macroscopic contact geometry of the ventral pad surface. Further work is needed to conclude on the role of the muscular structures in tree frog attachment. Overall, our study contributes to the functional understanding of tree frog attachment, hence offering novel perspectives on the ecology, phylogeny and evolution of anurans, as well as the design of tree-frog-inspired adhesives for technological applications.

Designing cyber-physical systems with aDSL : A domain-specific language and tool support
Berg, Freek van den; Garousi, Vahid ; Tekinerdogan, Bedir ; Haverkort, Boudewijn R. - \ 2018
In: 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2018. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. - ISBN 9781538648766 - p. 225 - 232.

A Cyber-Physical System (CPS) comprises the integration of computation, software, networking, and physical processes. Consequently, CPS models extend traditional embedded system models with an increased support for hybrid and heterogeneous models, networking, time synchronization, and especially interoperability. To assist engineers in designing CPSs, we have developed aDSL, a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) that comes with fully-automated tool support and is tailored to interoperability of CPS. The aDSL tool support includes: (i) interactive model description with input validation; (ii) the computation of possible operation modes of subsystems and parts; and, (iii) checking the adherence to requirements for various design alternatives and finding the Pareto optimal designs given these requirements. Moreover, aDSL generates intuitive visualizations throughout the toolchain which help design engineers to better understand the implications of design decisions and communicate them to stakeholders. aDSL has been applied to an agricultural tractor-trailer system case study in which aDSL quickly evaluated 48 designs and rendered all the visualizations of the results.

Perceptions of Dutch health care professionals on weight gain during chemotherapy in women with breast cancer
Kruif, J.Th.C.M. de; Scholtens, M.B. ; Rijt, J. van der; Boer, M.R. de; Berg, M.M.G.A. van den; Vries, Y.C. de; Winkels, R.M. ; Visser, M. ; Kampman, E. ; Westerman, M.J. - \ 2018
Supportive Care in Cancer (2018). - ISSN 0941-4355 - 7 p.
Breast cancer - Dietary intake - Health care professionals - Health risks - Physical activity - Weight gain

Purpose: Dutch Health care professionals (HCPs) provide little information concerning health risks associated with weight gain during chemotherapy for breast cancer. Women with breast cancer have specified the need for more information on nutrition and physical activity to deal with weight gain. The aims of this study were to assess the perceptions of Dutch HCPs on weight gain during chemotherapy and in addition evaluate whether and what kind of information on dietary intake and physical activity HCPs provide to prevent/treat weight gain during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 34 HCPs involved in breast cancer care: general practitioners, oncologists, specialized nurses, and dieticians. Results: To date, little information about nutrition, physical activity, and weight gain is given during chemotherapy because it is not part of most HCPs’ training, it is not included in the guidelines and it is not the best time to bring up information in the opinion of HCPs. Weight gain was perceived as just a matter of a few kilos and not an important health issue during treatment. All HCPs felt it is better that women themselves addressed their weight gain after chemotherapy. Conclusion: More knowledge about health risks associated with chemotherapy-induced weight gain and how to combat these issues needs to be made readily available to the HCPs and should become part of their training. Existing patient guidelines should include information on how to prevent and/or reduce weight gain through self-management of nutrition intake and physical activity during and post chemotherapy.

Food systems for healthier diets in Ethiopia : toward a research agenda
Gebru, Mestawet ; Remans, Roseline ; Brouwer, Inge ; Baye, Kaleab ; Melesse, M.B. ; Covic, Namukolo ; Habtamu, Fekadu ; Abay, Alem Hadera ; Hailu, Tesfaye ; Hirvonen, Kalle ; Kassaye, Tarik ; Kennedy, Gina ; Lachat, Carl ; Lemma, Ferew ; McDermott, John ; Minten, Bart ; Moges, Tibebu ; Reta, Fidaku ; Tadesse, Eneye ; Taye, Tamene ; Truebswasser, Ursula ; Berg, Marrit van den - \ 2018
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (IFPRI Discussion Paper 01720) - 51 p.
Ethiopia - food systems - dietary diversity - nutrition
While dietary energy supply has improved, diets in Ethiopia remain low in diversity and provide insufficient amounts of protein, vitamin A, and zinc. Poor dietary quality contributes to the multiple burden of malnutrition in the country, with 38% stunting among children under five years and 24% anemia and 8% overweight among adult women.
Recent Ethiopian government policies and programs call for sustainable food systems approaches aimed at achieving better nutrition for all. Such food systems approaches imply actions that include but also go beyond agriculture to consider the many processes and actors involved in food production, processing, storage, transportation, trade, transformation, retailing, and consumption.
In this paper, we identify research streams to support the operationalizing of such food systems approaches in Ethiopia. To this end, we engaged with stakeholders, reviewed the literature, and applied a food systems framework to research priorities in the Ethiopian context. We develop an initial food systems profile of Ethiopia and identify 25 priority research questions, categorized into three main areas. A first area focuses on diagnosis and foresight research, for example, to further characterize dietary gaps and transitions in the context of the variety of Ethiopian settings, and to understand and anticipate which food system dynamics contribute positively or negatively to those trends. A second area includes implementation research and focuses on building a base of evidence on the dietary impact of combined demand-, market-, and supply-side interventions/innovations that focus on nonstaples; potential trade-offs in terms of economic, social, and environmental outcomes; and interactions between food system actors. A third area focuses on institutional and policy processes and explores enabling factors and private or public anchors that can take food systems approaches for healthier diets to a regional or national scale.
The paper contextualizes the case of Ethiopia within global food systems thinking and thereby aims to stimulate in- and cross-country learning.
Microalgae: from Bio-based Curiosity Towards a Bulk Feedstock
Lam, G.P. 't; Vermuë, M.H. ; Janssen, M. ; Barbosa, M.J. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Eppink, M.H.M. ; Berg, C. van den - \ 2018
In: Intensification of Biobased Processes / Górak, Andrzej, Stankiewicz, Andrzej, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC Green Chemistry ) - ISBN 9781782628552 - p. 289 - 302.

This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in microalgae cultivation and downstream processing with a focus on microalgae biorefinery. Microalgae are promising feedstocks for the production of a variety of bulk compounds in the near future. Current process designs typically consist of microalgae cultivation, harvesting, cell disruption and finally a product extraction/fractionation step. For every unit operation, the latest insights are discussed. From this overview, the current state-of-development and future directions towards large scale bulk-chemical production from microalgae are discussed.

Berg aan bewijs dat silicium de weerbaarheid verhoogt: element is meer aandacht waard
Delden, S.H. van; Heuvelink, E. - \ 2018
Onder Glas 15 (2018)5. - p. 16 - 17.
Selective and mild fractionation of microalgal proteins and pigments using aqueous two-phase systems
Suarez Ruiz, Catalina A. ; Emmery, Daniel P. ; Wijffels, Rene H. ; Eppink, Michel H.M. ; Berg, Corjan van den - \ 2018
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 93 (2018)9. - ISSN 0268-2575 - p. 2774 - 2783.
aqueous two-phase systems - cholinium-based ionic liquids - microalgae biorefinery - pigments - proteins

BACKGROUND: Microalgal biomass is generally used to produce a single product instead of valorizing all of the cellular components. The biomass production and downstream processes are too expensive if only one product is valorized. A new approach was proposed for the simultaneous and selective partitioning of pigments and proteins from disrupted Neochloris oleoabundans cultivated under saline and freshwater conditions. RESULTS: An aqueous two-phase system composed of polyethylene glycol and cholinium dihydrogen phosphate selectively separated microalgal pigments from microalgal proteins. 97.3 ± 1.0% of lutein and 51.6 ± 2.3% of chlorophyll were recovered in the polymer-rich phase. Simultaneously, up to 92.2 ± 2.0% of proteins were recovered in a third phase (interface) in between the aqueous phases (interface). The recovered proteins, including Rubisco with a molecular weight of ∼560 kDa, seem to be intact and pigments did not suffer degradation, demonstrating the mildness of this system for fractionating microalgal biomolecules. CONCLUSION: The ability of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to simultaneously and efficiently fractionate different biomolecules in a mild manner from disrupted microalgae is demonstrated. This is an important step towards the development of a multiproduct microalgae biorefinery.

Prevention Efforts for Malaria
Tizifa, Tinashe A. ; Kabaghe, Alinune N. ; McCann, Robert S. ; Berg, Henk van den; Vugt, Michele van; Phiri, Kamija S. - \ 2018
Current Tropical Medicine Reports 5 (2018)1. - p. 41 - 50.
Community mobilization - Malaria - Methods under development - Prevention in high-risk populations - Sub-Saharan Africa - Vector control

Purpose of Review: Malaria remains a global burden contributing to morbidity and mortality especially in children under 5 years of age. Despite the progress achieved towards malaria burden reduction, achieving elimination in more countries remains a challenge. This article aims to review the prevention and control strategies for malaria, to assess their impact towards reducing the disease burden and to highlight the best practices observed. Recent Findings: Use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying has resulted a decline in the incidence and prevalence of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Other strategies such as larval source management have been shown to reduce mosquito density but require further evaluation. New methods under development such as house improvement have demonstrated to minimize disease burden but require further evidence on efficacy. Development of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine that provides protection in under-five children has provided further progress in efforts of malaria control. Summary: There has been a tremendous reduction in malaria burden in the past decade; however, more work is required to fill the necessary gaps to eliminate malaria.

Selective and energy efficient extraction of functional proteins from microalgae for food applications
Suarez Garcia, E. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Safi, C. ; Sijtsma, L. ; Eppink, M.H.M. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Berg, C. van den - \ 2018
Bioresource Technology 268 (2018). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 197 - 203.
Bead milling - Energy efficient - Functional protein - Gelation - Surface activity

The use of a single controlled bead milling step of the microalga Tetraselmis suecica resulted in a soluble fraction, rich in functional proteins. This was achieved by fine-tuning the processing time, thereby exploiting the difference in rates of protein and carbohydrate release during milling. Soluble proteins were extracted under mild conditions -room temperature, no addition of chemicals, pH 6.5-, with a yield of 22.5% and a specific energy consumption of 0.6 kWh kgDW −1, which is within the recommended minimum energy for an extraction step in a biorefinery process. The resulting protein extract contained 50.4% (DW) of proteins and 26.4% carbohydrates, showed light green color and displayed superior surface activity and gelation behavior compared to whey protein isolate. The proposed process is simple (only one bead milling step), scalable, and allows the mild extraction of functional proteins, making it interesting for industrial applications in the food industry.

Techno-Functional Properties of Crude Extracts from the Green Microalga Tetraselmis suecica
SuarezGarcia, E. ; Leeuwen, J.J.A. Van; Safi, C. ; Sijtsma, L. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Eppink, M.H.M. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Berg, C. van den - \ 2018
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 66 (2018)29. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7831 - 7838.
bead milling - crude extract - filtration - gelation - surface activity

A mild fractionation process to extract functional biomolecules from green microalgae was implemented. The process includes bead milling, centrifugation, and filtration with several membrane cut-offs. For each fraction, the corresponding composition was measured, and the surface activity and gelation behavior were determined. A maximum protein yield of 12% was obtained in the supernatant after bead milling and between 3.2 and 11.7% after filtration. Compared to whey protein isolate, most of the algae fractions exhibited comparable or enhanced functionality. Surface activity for air-water and oil-water interfaces and gelation activities were notably superior for the retentate fractions compared to the permeates. It is proposed that such functionality in the retentates is due to the presence of hydrophobic compounds and molecular complexes exhibiting a similar behavior as Pickering particles. We demonstrated that excellent functionality can be obtained with crude fractions, requiring minimum processing and, thus, constituting an interesting option for commercial applications.

Supplement use and dietary sources of folate, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids during preconception : The GLIMP2 study
Looman, Moniek ; Berg, Claudia van den; Geelen, Anouk ; Samlal, Rahul A.K. ; Heijligenberg, Rik ; Klein Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M.T. ; Balvers, Michiel G.J. ; Leendertz-Eggen, Caroline L. ; Wijnberger, Lia D.E. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M. - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)8. - ISSN 2072-6643
Diet - Folate - N-3 fatty acids - Preconception - Supplements - Vitamin D

An adequate nutritional status during the preconception period is important, particularly for folate, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids (i.e., EPA+DHA). We aimed to determine supplement intake and the main dietary sources of folate, vitamin D, and EPA+DHA using the data of 66 Dutch women aged 18–40 years who wished to become pregnant. Additionally, associations of these intakes with their blood levels were examined. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, and supplement use with a structured questionnaire. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined in serum and folate and phospholipid EPA+DHA levels in plasma. Partial Spearman’s correlations, restricted cubic splines and trend analyses over tertiles of nutrient intakes were performed to examine intake-status associations. A large proportion of women did not meet the Dutch recommended intakes of folate (50%), vitamin D (67%), and EPA+DHA (52%). Vegetables were the main contributor to dietary folate intake (25%), oils and fats to dietary vitamin D intake (39%), and fish to dietary EPA+DHA intake (69%). Fourteen percent of the women had an inadequate folate status and 23% an inadequate vitamin D status. Supplemental folate intake, supplemental and dietary vitamin D intake and dietary EPA+DHA intake were significantly associated with their blood levels. In conclusion, even in our highly educated population, a large proportion did not achieve recommended folate, vitamin D and n-3 fatty acid intakes. Promotion of folate and vitamin D supplement use and fish consumption is needed to improve intakes and blood levels of these nutrients in women who wish to become pregnant.

Land-atmosphere interactions the LoCo perspective
Santanello, Joseph A. ; Dirmeyer, Paul A. ; Ferguson, Craig R. ; Findell, Kirsten L. ; Tawfik, Ahmed B. ; Berg, Alexis ; Ek, Michael ; Gentine, Pierre ; Guillod, Benoit P. ; Heerwaarden, Chiel van; Roundy, Joshua ; Wulfmeyer, Volker - \ 2018
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 99 (2018)6. - ISSN 0003-0007 - p. 1253 - 1272.

Metrics derived by the LoCo working group have matured and begun to enter the mainstream, signaling the success of the GEWEX approach to foster grassroots participation.

Community-based malaria control in southern Malawi : A description of experimental interventions of community workshops, house improvement and larval source management
Berg, Henk van den; Vugt, Michèle van; Kabaghe, Alinune N. ; Nkalapa, Mackenzie ; Kaotcha, Rowlands ; Truwah, Zinenani ; Malenga, Tumaini ; Kadama, Asante ; Banda, Saidon ; Tizifa, Tinashe ; Gowelo, Steven ; Mburu, Monicah M. ; Phiri, Kamija S. ; Takken, Willem ; McCann, Robert S. - \ 2018
Malaria Journal 17 (2018)1. - ISSN 1475-2875
Community participation - Community workshops - Health education - House improvement - Integrated vector management - Larval source management - Malaria transmission - Vector control

Background: Increased engagement of communities has been emphasized in global plans for malaria control and elimination. Three interventions to reinforce and complement national malaria control recommendations were developed and applied within the context of a broad-based development initiative, targeting a rural population surrounding a wildlife reserve. The interventions, which were part of a 2-year research trial, and assigned to the village level, were implemented through trained local volunteers, or 'health animators', who educated the community and facilitated collective action. Results: Community workshops on malaria were designed to increase uptake of national recommendations; a manual was developed, and training of health animators conducted, with educational content and analytical tools for a series of fortnightly community workshops in annual cycles at village level. The roll-back malaria principle of diagnosis, treatment and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets was a central component of the workshops. Structural house improvement to reduce entry of malaria vectors consisted of targeted activities in selected villages to mobilize the community into voluntarily closing the eaves and screening the windows of their houses; the project provided wire mesh for screening. Corrective measures were introduced to respond to field challenges. Committees were established at village level to coordinate the house improvement activities. Larval source management (LSM) in selected villages consisted of two parts: one on removal of standing water bodies by the community at large; and one on larviciding with bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis by trained village committees. Community workshops on malaria were implemented as 'core intervention' in all villages. House improvement and LSM were implemented in addition to community workshops on malaria in selected villages. Conclusions: Three novel interventions for community mobilization on malaria prevention and control were described. The interventions comprised local organizational structure, education and collective action, and incorporated elements of problem identification, planning and evaluation. These methods could be applicable to other countries and settings.

Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and risk of renal function decline and all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients
Osté, Maryse C.J. ; Gomes-Neto, António W. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Gans, Rijk O.B. ; Borst, Martin H. de; Berg, Else van den; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Navis, Gerjan J. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. - \ 2018
American Journal of Transplantation 18 (2018)10. - ISSN 1600-6135 - p. 2523 - 2533.
Clinical research/practice - Graft survival - Kidney transplantation/nephrology - Nutrition - Patient survival
Renal transplant recipients (RTR) are at risk of decline of graft function and premature mortality, with high blood pressure as an important risk factor for both. To study the association of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with these adverse events, we conducted a prospective cohort study of adult RTR. Dietary data were collected using a validated 177-item food frequency questionnaire and an overall DASH-score was obtained. We included 632 stable RTR (mean ± standard deviation age 53.0 ± 12.7 years, 57% men). Mean DASH score was 23.8 ± 4.7. During median follow-up of 5.3 (interquartile range, 4.1-6.0) years, 119 (18.8%) RTR had renal function decline, defined as a combined endpoint of doubling of serum creatinine and death-censored graft failure, and 128 (20.3%) died. In Cox-regression analyses, RTR in the highest tertile of the DASH score had lower risk of both renal function decline (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.96, P = .03) and all-cause mortality (HR = 0.52; 95%CI, 0.32-0.83, P = .006) compared to the lowest tertile, independent of potential confounders. Adherence to a DASH-style diet is associated with lower risk of both renal function decline and all-cause mortality. These results suggest that a healthful diet might benefit long-term outcome in RTR.
Nonlinear shear and dilatational rheology of viscoelastic interfacial layers of cellulose nanocrystals
Berg, Merel van den; Kuster, Simon ; Windhab, E.J. ; Sagis, L.M.C. ; Fischer, P. - \ 2018
Physics of Fluids 30 (2018)7. - ISSN 1070-6631 - 11 p.
compressibility - contact angle - Hydrophobicity - nanomechanics - nanoparticles - polymers - Rheology - softening - viscoelasticity - work hardening
We present a nonlinear rheological investigation of model rod-like particles at the air/water interface in dilatation and shear. Cellulose nanocrystals were modified to vary their surface hydrophobicity, creating a range of surface-active particles with varying contact angle. The interfacial rheological properties were studied using a series of frequency sweeps in small amplitude oscillatory shear as well as strain sweeps under large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) and large amplitude oscillatory dilatation (LAOD) to include the nonlinear behavior. A multi-mode Maxwell model was used to fit the frequency sweeps that were obtained during formation of the interfacial layer. A shift toward longer
relaxation times was found, more pronounced for particles with higher hydrophobicity. Lissajous plots in LAOS revealed strain stiffening, yielding, and unconstrained flow of the interfacial layers.
Lissajous plots in LAOD revealed strain hardening in compression and strain softening in expansion, increasing with surface pressure and with particle hydrophobicity. While interfacial layers commonly show gel or solid-like behavior, our findings imply a weakly aggregated system. The rheological
behavior indicates the formation of larger clusters for particles with high hydrophobicity compared to smaller clusters for particles with low hydrophobicity. The particle-particle interactions therefore vary with hydrophobicity, suggesting that capillary interactions are important for the formation of these microstructures.
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