Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Resignification practices of youth in zona da mata, Brazil in the transition toward agroecology
Goris, Margriet ; Berg, Leonardo van den; Silva Lopes, Ivonete da; Behagel, Jelle ; Verschoor, Gerard ; Turnhout, Esther - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Agroecology - Framing strategies - Gender - Repeasantization - Resignification - Social movement - Transition - Youth

Youth play an important role in the transition toward agroecology through practices of resignification. This article discusses how young people resignify agroecology by taking part in education initiatives that originate from social movements, and that aim to strengthen young peoples' abilities to reflect on their practices and realities. We used action research to create films with young agroecologists in the region of Zona da Mata Mineira, Brazil. Our analysis draws on films, interviews and participatory observations made during thirteen workshops to visualize the agroecological practices and visions of youth. We explore how social frames-e.g., the specific ways in which people understand reality-shape practices and how these frames are actively changed by youth. The findings show how frames are changed during (1) frame amplification by building on existing local values; (2) frame bridging by linking with other social movements; (3) frame extension by inclusion of new frames; and (4) frame transformation by altering the meaning of agroecology. We find that young people who engage with agroecology contribute to processes of repeasantization that rework local culture to be more inclusive of different populations, generations and genders, and that they foster an appreciation of the interconnectedness of humans and nature.

A longitudinal mixed methods study on changes in body weight, body composition, and lifestyle in breast cancer patients during chemotherapy and in a comparison group of women without cancer : Study protocol
Kruif, J.Th.C.M. De; Visser, M. ; Berg, M.M.G.A. Van Den; Derks, M.J.M. ; Boer, M.R. De; Laarhoven, H.W.M. Van; Vries, J.H.M. De; Vries, Y.C. De; Kampman, E. ; Winkels, R.W. ; Westerman, M.J. - \ 2019
BMC Cancer 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2407
Body composition - Body weight - Breast cancer - Dietary intake - Mixed methods - Perceptions - Physical activity - Quality of life

Background: More than 60% of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect body weight and body composition. Changes in body weight and body composition may detrimentally affect their quality of life, and could potentially increase the risk of disease recurrence, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To date, from existing single method (quantitative or qualitative) studies is not clear whether changes in body weight and body composition in breast cancer patients are treatment related because previous studies have not included a control group of women without breast cancer. Methods: We therefore developed the COBRA-study (Change Of Body composition in BReast cancer: All-in Assessment-study) to assess changes in body weight, body composition and related lifestyle factors such as changes in physical activity, dietary intake and other behaviours. Important and unique features of the COBRA-study is that it used I) a "Mixed Methods Design", in order to quantitatively assess changes in body weight, body composition and lifestyle factors and, to qualitatively assess how perceptions of women may have influenced these measured changes pre-, during and post-chemotherapy, and II) a control group of non-cancer women for comparison. Descriptive statistics on individual quantitative data were combined with results from a thematic analysis on the interviews- and focus group data to understand patients' experiences before, during and after chemotherapy. Discussion: The findings of our mixed methods study, on chemotherapy treated cancer patients and a comparison group, can enable healthcare researchers and professionals to develop tailored intervention schemes to help breast cancer patients prevent or handle the physical and mental changes they experience as a result of their chemotherapy. This will ultimately improve their quality of life and could potentially reduce their risk for other co-morbidity health issues such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Facilitated delignification in CAD deficient transgenic poplar studied by confocal Raman spectroscopy imaging
Segmehl, Jana S. ; Keplinger, Tobias ; Krasnobaev, Artem ; Berg, John K. ; Willa, Christoph ; Burgert, Ingo - \ 2019
Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 206 (2019). - ISSN 1386-1425 - p. 177 - 184.
CAD deficient poplar - Cellulose conformational change - Facilitated delignification - Lignocellulosic biomass - Raman spectroscopy imaging - X-ray diffraction

Lignocellulosic biomass represents the only renewable carbon resource which is available in sufficient amounts to be considered as an alternative for our fossil-based carbon economy. However, an efficient biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks is hindered by the natural recalcitrance of the biomass as a result of a dense network of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. These polymeric interconnections make a pretreatment of the biomass necessary in order to enhance the susceptibility of the polysaccharides. Here, we report on a detailed analysis of the favourable influence of genetic engineering for two common delignification protocols for lignocellulosic biomass, namely acidic bleaching and soda pulping, on the example of CAD deficient poplar. The altered lignin structure of the transgenic poplar results in a significantly accelerated and more complete lignin removal at lower temperatures and shorter reaction times compared to wildtype poplar. To monitor the induced chemical and structural alterations at the tissue level, confocal Raman spectroscopy imaging, FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used.

Improving WOFOST model to simulate winter wheat phenology in Europe : Evaluation and effects on yield
Ceglar, A. ; Wijngaart, R. van der; Wit, A. de; Lecerf, R. ; Boogaard, H. ; Seguini, L. ; Berg, M. van den; Toreti, A. ; Zampieri, M. ; Fumagalli, D. ; Baruth, B. - \ 2019
Agricultural Systems 168 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 168 - 180.
Calibration - Crop yield forecasting - Europe - Phenology - Triticum aestivum - WOFOST

This study describes and evaluates improvements to the MARS crop yield forecasting system (MCYFS) for winter soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Europe, based on the WOFOST crop simulation model, by introducing autumn sowing dates, realistic soil moisture initialization, adding vernalization requirements and photoperiodicity, and phenology calibration. Dataset of phenological observations complemented with regional cropping calendars across Europe is used. The calibration of thermal requirements for anthesis and maturity is done by pooling all available observations within European agro-environmental zones and minimizing an objective function that combines the differences between observed and simulated anthesis, maturity and harvest dates. Calibrated phenology results in substantial improvement in simulated dates of anthesis with respect to the original MCYFS simulations. The combined improvements to the system result in a physically more plausible spatial distribution of crop model indicators across Europe. Crop yield indicators point to better agreement with recorded national winter wheat yields with respect to the original MCYFS simulations, most pronounced in central, eastern and southern Europe. However, model skill remains low in large parts of western Europe, which may possibly be attributed to the impacts of wet conditions.

Modelinstrumentarium toelating Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen (TOXSWA) (2018). Tussenrapportage WOT-04-008-024.
Horst, M.M.S. ter; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Berg, F. van den - \ 2018
WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-interne notitie 232)
'Designing Cyber-Physical Systems with aDSL: a Domain-Specific Language and Toolchain'
Berg, Freek van den; Tekinerdogan, B. ; Garousi, V. ; Haverkort, B. - \ 2018
“We fine-tune the amount of water to the plant’s energy supply”: Maurice de Ruijt, cultivation manager at Van de Berg Roses
Haaster, Bram van - \ 2018
ES1406 COST Action: Soil fauna: Key to Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Fertility. How far have we got?
Jimenez, Juan Jose ; Filser, Juliane ; Barot, S. ; Berg, Matty ; Iglesias Briones, Maria ; Butt, Kevin ; Curiel-Yuste, Jorge ; Deckmyn, Gaby ; Domene, Xavier ; Faber, J.H. ; Frey, B. ; Frossard, Aline ; Frouz, J. ; Grebenc, T. ; Guggenberger, G. ; Hackenberger, Davorka ; Iamandei, Maria ; Jones, D. ; Joschko, Monika ; Krogh, Paul Henning ; team, Keysom - \ 2018
Geophysical Research Abstracts 20 (2018). - ISSN 1029-7006
Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to soil fertility, climate change mitigation, combatting land degradation, and the conservation of above-and below-ground biodiversity and associated ecosystem services like decomposition, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, detoxification and maintenance of soil physico-chemical properties. SOM dynamics represent the balance between the input of plant material (residues, root-derived materials) and the output through decomposition (OM mineralization) by organisms, erosion and leaching. Approximately 20% of global CO 2 emissions, one third of global CH4 emissions and two thirds of N2O emissions originate from soils. In many soils, most of the macro-aggregate structure is formed by the activities of soil invertebrates and roots, with important consequences for soil organic matter dynamics, carbon sequestration and water infiltration at several spatial and temporal scales. Current models of SOM dynamics are defined in terms of plant residues input and microbial decomposition, overlooking the important contribution of soil fauna. The composition and activity of soil fauna greatly vary with respect to climate and land use. SOM modelling has thus far largely ignored soil fauna due to various reasons: i) hardly existing communication between [C flow centered] biogeochemistry and [organism-centered] soil ecology, ii) lack of [awareness of] data on soil animals (both in the field and from laboratory experiments) and, iii) two different visions by soil ecologists: foodweb vs. self-organization. An international interdisciplinary approach (COST Action ES1406) is the proper platform for both experimentalists and modellers to discuss and provide solutions. This Action has fostered networking and collaboration for improved SOM models by implementing the role of the soil fauna as a basis for sustainable soil management. Key challenges in SOM management, soil fauna and modelling will be addressed and how far have we got thus far to meet the objectives of this Action.

Integrated development programs in Sub Sahara Africa: Does a multi-faceted market-based approach to food crops stimulate food security and agricultural development in the breadbasket of Tanzania?
Berg, M.M. van den - \ 2018
Data for impact evaluation of a project aiming to stimulate agricultural productivity to ensure food security in several districts of Tanzania by integrating various areas of intervention, such as development of farmer organisations, improved access to inputs through agrodealer networks, extension, and access to output markets through contracting with processors.
Body composition is associated with risk of toxicity-induced modifications of treatment in women with stage I–IIIB breast cancer receiving chemotherapy
Berg, Maaike M.G.A. van den; Kok, Dieuwertje E. ; Posthuma, Liesbeth ; Kamps, Lisette ; Kelfkens, Celine S. ; Buist, Nicole ; Geenen, Maud ; Haringhuizen, Annebeth ; Heijns, Joan B. ; Lieshout, Rianne H.M.A. van; Los, Maartje ; Sommeijer, Dirkje W. ; Timmer-Bonte, Johanna N.H. ; Kruif, Anja Th.C.M. de; Laarhoven, Hanneke W.M. van; Kampman, Ellen ; Winkels, Renate M. - \ 2018
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (2018). - ISSN 0167-6806 - 7 p.
Body composition - Breast cancer - Chemotherapy - Fat mass - Toxicity

Purpose: Initial dose of chemotherapy is planned based on body surface area, which does not take body composition into account. We studied the association between fat mass (kg and relative to total body weight) as well as lean mass (kg and relative to total body weight) and toxicity-induced modifications of treatment in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods: In an observational study among 172 breast cancer patients (stage I–IIIB) in the Netherlands, we assessed body composition using dual-energy X-ray scans. Information on toxicity-induced modifications of treatment, defined as dose reductions, cycle delays, regimen switches, or premature termination of chemotherapy, was abstracted from medical records. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to assess associations between body composition and the risk of toxicity-induced modifications of treatment. Results: In total, 95 out of 172 (55%) patients experienced toxicity-induced modifications of treatment. Higher absolute and relative fat mass were associated with higher risk of these modifications (HR 1.14 per 5 kg; 95% CI 1.04–1.25 and HR 1.21 per 5%; 95% CI 1.05–1.38, respectively). A higher relative lean mass was associated with a lower risk of modifications (HR 0.83 per 5%; 95% CI 0.72–0.96). There was no association between absolute lean mass and risk of toxicity-induced modifications of treatment. Conclusions: A higher absolute and a higher relative fat mass was associated with an increased risk of toxicity-induced modifications of treatment. Absolute lean mass was not associated with risk of these treatment modifications, while higher relative lean mass associated with lower risk of modifications. These data suggest that total fat mass importantly determines the risk of toxicities during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

Assessment of MPAS variable resolution simulations in the grey-zone of convection against WRF model results and observations : An MPAS feasibility study of three extreme weather events in Europe
Kramer, Matthijs ; Heinzeller, Dominikus ; Hartmann, Hugo ; Berg, Wim van den; Steeneveld, Gert Jan - \ 2018
Climate Dynamics (2018). - ISSN 0930-7575 - p. 1 - 24.
Convection-permitting forecast - Föhn - Grey-zone - Hail - MPAS - Numerical weather prediction - Voronoi grid - WRF

Regional weather forecasting models like the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model allow for nested domains to save computational effort and provide detailed results for mesoscale weather phenomena. The sudden resolution change by nesting may cause artefacts in the model results. On the contrary, the novel global Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) runs on Voronoi meshes that allow for smooth resolution transition towards the desired high resolution in the region of interest. This minimises the resolution-related artefacts, while still saving computational effort. We evaluate the MPAS model over Europe focussing on three mesoscale weather events: a synoptic gale over the North Sea, a föhn effect in Switzerland, and a case of organised convection with hail over the Netherlands. We use four different MPAS meshes (60 km global refined to-3 km (60– 3 km), analogous 30–3 km, 15–3 km, global 3 km) and compare their results to routine observations and a WRF setup with a single domain of 3 km grid spacing. We also discuss the computational requirements for the different MPAS meshes and the operational WRF setup. In general, the MPAS 3 km and WRF model results correspond to the observations. However, a global model at 3 km resolution as a replacement for WRF is not feasible for operational use. More importantly, all variable-resolution meshes employed in this study show comparable skills in short-term forecasting within the high-resolution area at considerably lower computational costs.

Integrated Product Recovery Will Boost Industrial Cyanobacterial Processes
Berg, Corjan van den; Eppink, Michel H.M. ; Wijffels, Rene H. - \ 2018
Trends in Biotechnology (2018). - ISSN 0167-7799
cyanobacteria - process integration - product recovery - separation

Cyanobacteria promise to be an important industrial platform for the production of a variety of biobased products such as fuels, plastics, and isoprenoids. Recent advances in synthetic biology have resulted in various cyanobacterial strain improvements. Nevertheless, these new strains are still hampered by product inhibition, resulting in low volumetric productivities, product concentrations, and yields on light. To circumvent these issues, continuous product recovery will need to be applied, resulting in economically viable industrial processes. Optimal product recovery strategies can be developed by considering biological and separation process constraints as well as photobioreactor design. Integrated product recovery will be indispensable to bring the cyanobacterial cell factory to industrial scale.

On farm observations to increase genetic gain in breeding schemes for village poultry production–A simulation study
Chu, Thinh Tuan ; Bastiaansen, John W.M. ; Norberg, Elise ; Berg, Peer - \ 2018
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A-Animal Science (2018). - ISSN 0906-4702 - 11 p.
Breeding scheme - group recording - GxE - stochastic simulation - village poultry

To improve genetic gain of breeding programs for village poultry production, breeding schemes with observations obtained in village production systems using individual (VIO) and group recording (VGO) were examined under different levels of genotype-by-environment-interactions (GxE). GxE was modeled by varying the correlation between traits measured in the breeding station and village environments for bodyweight (rg_BW) and egg production (rg_EP). Relative and absolute genetic gains obtained from VIO and VGO were used for comparison between the schemes. Results showed that village observations significantly improved genetic gains compared to the scheme without birds tested in the village. The improvement was only slightly larger with individual observations than with group observations. Higher rg_BW and rg_EP led to lower relative genetic gain, but a higher absolute gain of VIO and VGO. It is recommended to apply a breeding scheme using group recording of village performance when strong GxE in breeding for village poultry is expected.

Biocontrol of plant diseases is not an unsafe technology!
Koch, Eckhard ; Becker, J.O. ; Berg, Gabriele ; Hauschild, R. ; Jehle, J. ; Köhl, J. ; Smalle, Kornelia - \ 2018
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 125 (2018)2. - ISSN 1861-3829 - p. 121 - 125.
Biocontrol - Safety - Registration - Metabolites
In their opinion paper "The unpredictable risk imposed by microbial secondary metabolites: how safe is biological control of plant diseases?" (J. Plant Dis. Prot. 124, 413-419;, H.B. Deising, I. Gase and Y. Kubo criticize the use of microbial pesticides in plant protection. They point to the ability of microorganisms to form toxic metabolites and fear severe health problems when antagonistic microorganisms are increasingly released into agro-ecosystems. In our opinion, this view fails to reflect the reality because it largely ignores the ecology of microorganisms. In this contribution, we state reasons why biocontrol of plant diseases is a safe technology.
Understanding farm diversity to promote agroecological transitions
Teixeira, Heitor Mancini ; Berg, Leonardo van den; Cardoso, Irene Maria ; Vermue, Ardjan J. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
Agroecological practice - Participatory action research - Participatory farm typology - Peasant - Statistical farm typology

Agroecology is increasingly promoted by scientists, non-governmental organisations (NGO's), international organisations and peasant movements as an approach to foster the transition to sustainable and equitable food systems. The challenges to agroecological transitions are not the same for all farmers, as they can face different social and bio-physical conditions. We developed a farm typology combining participatory and quantitative methodologies to assess and categorise farm diversity and its implications for developing strategies to promote agroecological transitions. The participatory typology was developed during workshops to acquire insights on local farmers' perceptions and knowledge, and to generate hypotheses on family farm diversity. The participatory-based hypotheses were tested in the quantitative farm characterisation, which provided information on household characteristics, production strategies, land use, participation in public policies and extension services. Farms were located in Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, which harbour a wide diversity of farmers and where different actors have been engaged in agroecological transitions for the past 30 years. Our main findings were: (i) In the face of agroecological transitions, farmers differ in their management strategies, practices and principles; (ii) farmers identified as agroecological typically had stronger engagements in a network composed of farmers' organisations, universities and NGO's; (iii) agroecological farms showed great potential to provide a wide range of ecosystem services as they featured a higher crop diversity and a higher number of crops for self-consumption; (iv) to promote agroecology, it is crucial to recognise peasant knowledge, to change the dominant discourse on agriculture through social movement dynamics, and to generate support from public policies and funds; and (v) participatory and quantitative methodologies can be combined for more precise and relevant assessments of agroecological transitions.

Does organic farming provide a viable alternative for smallholder rice farmers in India?
Eyhorn, Frank ; Berg, Marrit van den; Decock, Charlotte ; Maat, Harro ; Srivastava, Ashish - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2071-1050
Contract farming - Farming systems - Rural livelihoods - Sustainable development - System of rice intensification - Traditional varieties

Smallholder rice farming is characterized by low returns and substantial environmental impact. Conversion to organic management and linking farmers to fair trade markets could offer an alternative. Engaging in certified cash-crop value chains could thereby provide an entry path to simultaneously reduce poverty and improve environmental sustainability. Based on comprehensive data from a representative sample of approximately 80 organic and 80 conventional farms in northern India, we compared yield and profitability of the main rotation crops over a period of five years. Contrary to the widespread belief that yields in organic farming are inevitably lower, our study shows that organic farmers achieved the same yields in cereals and pulses as conventional farmers, with considerably lower external inputs. Due to 45% lower production costs and higher sales prices, organic basmati cultivation was 105% more profitable than cultivating ordinary rice under conventional management. However, since holdings are small and the share of agricultural income of total household income is declining, conversion to organic basmati farming alone will not provide households a sufficiently attractive perspective into the future. We propose that future efforts to enhance the long-term viability of rice-based organic farming systems in this region focus on diversification involving higher value crops.

Fungicide evaluation to rate the efficacy to control early blight for the EuroBlight table
Evenhuis, A. ; Hausladen, H. ; Nielsen, B.J. ; Berg, W. van den; Schepers, H.T.A.M. - \ 2018
Lelystad : (Confidential Wageningen Plant Research Report 3750328100) - 28 p.
Soy supplementation : Impact on gene expression in different tissues of ovariectomized rats and evaluation of the rat model to predict (post)menopausal health effect
Islam, Mohammed A. ; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J. ; Berg, Johannes H.J. van den; Velpen, Vera van der; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Leeuwen, F.X.R. van - \ 2018
Toxicology Reports 5 (2018). - ISSN 2214-7500 - p. 1087 - 1097.
(Post)menopausal health effect - Gene expression - Ovariectomized rat model - Soy isoflavone supplementation

This toxicogenomic study was conducted to predict (post)menopausal human health effects of commercial soy supplementation using ovariectomized rats as a model. Different target tissues (i.e. breast, uterus and sternum) and non-target tissues (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), adipose and liver) of ovariectomized F344 rats exposed to a commercially available soy supplement for eight weeks, were investigated. Changes in gene expression in these tissues were analysed using whole-genome microarray analysis. No correlation in changes in gene expression were observed among different tissues, indicating tissue specific effects of soy isoflavone supplementation. Out of 87 well-established estrogen responsive genes (ERGs), only 19 were found to be significantly regulated (p < 0.05) in different tissues, particularly in liver, adipose and uterus tissues. Surprisingly, no ERGs were significantly regulated in estrogen sensitive breast and sternum tissues. The changes in gene expression in PBMC and adipose tissue in rats were compared with those in (post)menopausal female volunteers who received the same supplement in a similar oral dose and exposure duration in human intervention studies. No correlation in changes in gene expression between rats and humans was observed. Although receiving a similar dose, in humans the plasma levels expressed as total free aglycones were several folds higher than in the rat. Therefore, the overall results in young ovariectomized female F344 rats indicated that using rat transcriptomic data does not provide a suitable model for human risk or benefit analysis of soy isoflavone supplementation.

Landscape context and farm uptake limit effects of bird conservation in the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance
Josefsson, Jonas ; Pärt, Tomas ; Berg, Åke ; Lokhorst, Anne Marike ; Eggers, Sönke - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)6. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 2719 - 2730.
agri-environmental schemes - biodiversity - collaborative conservation - farmers - farmland birds - landscape composition - organic farming - unsubsidised conservation

In Europe, agri-environmental schemes (AES) have been unsuccessful in halting biodiversity declines to any great extent. Two shortcomings of AES include the low farm uptake and the modest efficacy of many AES options. Partly in response to these shortcomings, initiatives encouraging farmers to take an active role in biodiversity conservation have gained in popularity. However, almost no evaluations of such initiatives exist. We evaluated uptake of conservation advice on farms in the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance, a BirdLife Sweden-coordinated project aimed at farmland bird conservation, and the response of farmland birds to those actions using farm-level survey data, in a before-after implementation assessment. Uptake was higher for unsubsidised (i.e. non-AES) measures than for AES options, and depended mainly on farmers’ interest in nature, with farm size and production type having less importance. In general, abundances of non-crop nesting and field-nesting bird species declined between inventory years (median interval 3 years). Decreases were more marked in agriculturally marginal regions than in more arable-dominated regions, and declines were stronger on organic than on conventional farms. Negative abundance trends among non-crop nesting species were reduced by an increasing number of conservation measures at the farm, but only in the more arable-dominated landscapes. Changes in field-nesting species, or at species level, did not significantly relate to implemented measures, but the power to detect such effects was generally small due to the small sample size of high-uptake farms as well as high inter-farm variability. Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that volunteer farmer alliances and the addition of unsubsidised measures may be successful in changing the local number of non-crop nesting farmland birds, at the farm level, particularly in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. Thus, unsubsidised measures can be a useful addition to the set of agri-environment tools, although their effects on breeding bird numbers are (as with agri-environmental schemes) dependent on landscape context, as well as on ensuring high on-farm uptake of different interventions.

Zomersneeuw : Beelden op de Berg 11, Belmonte Arboretum Wageningen, 17/6 -23/9 | 2018
Wildschut, Flos ; Fresco, Louise ; Eijsackers, Herman ; Otten, Els ; Bos, René ten - \ 2018
Wageningen : Blauwdruk (Beelden op de Berg 11) - ISBN 9789492474216 - 78
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