Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Evaluation of the performance of PoultryBot, an autonomous mobile robotic platform for poultry houses
Vroegindeweij, Bastiaan A. ; Blaauw, Sam K. ; IJsselmuiden, Joris M.M. ; Henten, Eldert J. van - \ 2018
Biosystems Engineering 174 (2018). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 295 - 315.
Autonomous navigation - Floor egg collection - Mobile monitoring - Mobile robot - Performance evaluation - Poultry farming

Assessment of animal status, housing conditions and manually collecting floor eggs are the major daily tasks for poultry farmers. To assist the farmer in these tasks, PoultryBot, an autonomous mobile robot for use in poultry houses has been developed. In earlier research, several components of PoultryBot were discussed in detail. Here, performance of the robot is evaluated under practical conditions. For navigation, different paths were used to assess its navigation performance for various tasks, such as area sweeping and surveying close to walls. PoultryBot proved capable of navigating autonomously more than 3000 m, while avoiding obstacles and dealing with the hens present. The robustness of its navigation performance was tested by confronting PoultryBot with obstacles in different positions with respect to its path and using different settings of the navigation parameters. Both factors clearly influenced the driving behaviour of PoultryBot. For floor egg collection, detection and collection of eggs was assessed at 5 predefined egg positions lateral to the path of the robot. Over 300 eggs were tested; 46% were collected successfully, 37% was not collected successfully, and 16% were missed. The most observed failures occurred when the collection device was just next to the egg. It is thought that this problem can be solved by improving the control algorithm. The results demonstrate the validity of the PoultryBot concept and the possibility of autonomous floor egg collection in commercial poultry houses. Furthermore, they indicate that application of smart autonomous vehicles in dense animal environments is feasible.

Microalgae as renewable raw material for bioproducts : identification and biochemical composition of microalgae from a raceway pond in The Netherlands
Broek, L.A.M. van den; Wagemakers, M.J.M. ; Verschoor, A.M. ; Frissen, A.E. ; Haveren, J. van; Blaauw, R. ; Mooibroek, H. - \ 2018
In: Biomass as Renewable Raw Material for Bioproducts of High Tech-Value / Popa, Valentin, Volf, Irina, Elsevier - ISBN 9780444637741 - p. 39 - 68.
Microalgae contain valuable lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates that can be used for food and nonfood applications. Here we describe the general aspects of the production, identification, and biorefinery of microalgae. In addition, as an illustrative example we present data obtained over the course of one year from two neighboring seminatural open raceway ponds located in Borculo in the eastern part of the Netherlands. A stable community developed in these ponds and the green microalgae species dynamics and lipid, protein, and carbohydrate profiles of the biomass were investigated. Throughout the year, Desmodesmus species were the most abundant green microalgae present. The biomass harvested from the raceway ponds showed a rather similar lipid, protein, and carbohydrate content over the year. Glucose and mannose were the dominant neutral sugars, and linolenic acid (C18:3) was the major fatty acid in the oil fraction.
Assessing fresh urine puddle physics in commercial dairy cow houses
Snoek, Dennis J.W. ; Stigter, Hans ; Blaauw, Sam K. ; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. ; Ogink, Nico W.M. - \ 2017
Biosystems Engineering 159 (2017). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 133 - 142.
Ammonia emission - Cow urine - Dairy barn - Puddle area - Puddle depth
Ammonia emission from dairy barns can be reduced by measures that improve removal of urine from floors. Information characterizing physical and chemical properties of urine puddles on floors are essential to improve mitigation measures, however information representative for practical barn conditions is scanty. The objective of this paper is to assess the area (A p ) and depth (D p ) of fresh urine puddles in commercial dairy barns, and to investigate the effect of floor type, season and manure scraping on these variables. Sixteen farms were measured in a factorial design of four Floor-Management types (FMTypes). Each farm was measured in two seasons and underwent an intense-floor-cleaning treatment (PREclean) before puddle creation for the D p measurement, which was compared with those created under normal floor conditions with on-farm manure scraping. Overall mean values were 0.83 m2 for A p and 1.0 mm for D p . For both A p and D p the variation within a farm was large but negligible between farms. FMType significantly affected both variables. The V-shaped asphalt floor resulted in larger A p (1.04 m2) and D p (1.5 mm) than those of slatted and grooved floors (mean values 0.76 m2, 0.93 mm). Our study demonstrates that the draining capacity of solid floors is a critical design issue in lowering ammonia emission. The PREclean treatment resulted in D p values that were 3 times lower than values for puddles created under normal floor conditions. We conclude that there is a considerable potential to improve draining of excreted puddles by increasing the cleaning performance of manure scrapers.
DISCOVER: Development of Innovative Sustainable COVEring materials for Roofs
Berg, W.J. van den; Zandvoort, F. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Blaauw, R. - \ 2016
Roofing materials are high quality products with a long life-time, but are made mainly from fossil raw materials and its derivatives; like bituminous roofing based on the oil derivative bitumen, or synthetic membranes that are based on polymers stemming from the petroleum chemistry (Figure 1). The uncertainty of petroleum exploitation, the by consequence high fluctuations in price, as well as the CO2 footprint motivate us to look for alternative renewable raw materials. The target is to maintain the technical and functional characteristics.
MAGIC: Biobased alternative for sound- and vibration-reducing materials in railway fastening systems
Blaauw, R. ; Vogelzang, W. ; Knoop, J.R.I. ; Thiyagarajan, S. ; Es, D.S. van; Ridderikhoff, Hans ; Smits, Angela ; Honcoop, Erwin ; Houwen, Gerrien van der; Kerkhoven, Joost ; Koteris, Stefan - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research is working on the development of environmentally-friendly resins for elastic rail fastening systems for railway track. Currently the resins for these systems are petroleum-based polyurethanes. In the MAGIC project, Wageningen UR is working with Dutch companies edilon)(sedra and Croda.
North-Sea-Weed-Chain: sustainable seaweed from the North Sea; an exploration of the value chain
Groenendijk, F.C. ; Bikker, P. ; Blaauw, R. ; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Jak, R.G. ; Kamermans, P. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Prins, H. ; Stuiver, M. ; Werf, A.K. van der; Scholl, M.M. ; Wald, J. - \ 2016
IMARES (Report / IMARES C055/16) - 94 p.
seaweeds - seaweed culture - seaweed products - feasibility studies - economic viability - public-private cooperation - economic cooperation - projects - biobased economy - zeewieren - zeewierenteelt - zeewierproducten - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische haalbaarheid - publiek-private samenwerking - economische samenwerking - projecten
Zeewier is een potentieel belangrijke voedselbron en grote duurzame koolstofbron voor de biobased economy. Met de groeiende wereldbevolking is het noodzakelijk om voor ons voedsel meer te kijken naar de zee als ‘landbouwgebied’. Boeren op zee is een grote uitdaging. Het vereist grote investeringen in infrastructuur. Voordat ondernemers hierin kunnen investeren moeten realistische vooruitzichten zijn op kweekmogelijkheden en winstgevende eindproducten. Dit project had tot doel de verschillende schakels in de keten van zeewierproductie tot vermarkting tegen het licht te houden. Duurzaamheid van de productie is hierbij leidend geweest.
Exopolysaccharides from Botryococcus braunii and the production of bioplastics
Broek, L.A.M. van den; Klis, F. van der; Stoutjesdijk, J.H. ; Boeriu, C. ; Blaauw, R. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings 4th EPNOE International Polysaccharide Conference: Polysaccharides and polysaccharide-based advanced materials: from science to industry. - - p. 136 - 136.
Noord4Bio: concrete kansen voor een biobased economy in Noord-Nederland
Bos, H.L. ; Blaauw, R. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Euverink, G.J. ; Bekkering, E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1555) - ISBN 9789462575134 - 145
regionale economie - regionale ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - biobased economy - consultancy - noord-nederland - chemische industrie - regional economics - regional development - economic development - north netherlands - chemical industry
Noord-Nederland (de drie noordelijke provincies) kan een grootschalige producent en leverancier worden van hernieuwbare grondstoffen voor de regionale productie van ‘groene’ chemicaliën, kunststoffen en veevoeder eiwit. Voortbouwend op eerdere rapporten zoals het actieplan van de commissie Willems en de roadmap van de NOM, zijn in deze Noord4Bio-studie concrete kansen geïdentificeerd om de agrarische sector aan te laten sluiten op de chemie- en kunststoffensectoren van de regio, en zijn op basis van deze kansen aanbevelingen geformuleerd waarmee duurzame groei van de regio kan worden bewerkstelligd.
Biorefinery of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima for fuels and chemicals
Lopez Contreras, A.M. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Blaauw, R. ; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N. ; Wal, H. van der; Huijgen, W.J.J. ; Hal, J.W. van - \ 2014
- 12 p.
Seaweeds (also called macroalgae) are considered a potential biomass feedstock for biorefineries for production of energy and chemicals. In this study, a biorefinery strategy for the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima is described. Fresh S. latissima harvested at the Irish coast contained glucose and mannitol as most abundant fermentable sugars. The fresh biomass was chopped and pressed in order to obtain a liquid fraction (press juice), which contained 16 g/L of mannitol as main sugar component, and an insoluble fraction referred to a “press cake”. The mannitol in the press liquid has been extracted and purified to serve as a substrate for chemical conversions. The use of the press juice and hydrolysed press cake as substrates for production of acetone, butanol and ethanol by anaerobic fermentation has been evaluated. While the press juice was easily fermentable after addition of nutrients, the press cake was toxic for the microorganisms. When the press cake hydrolysate was diluted, fermentation was possible. The toxicity of the hydrolysate might be associated to the high salt concentrations determined in it. The use of the residue after enzymatic hydrolysis of the press cake as fertilizer has been evaluated.
First test of Parrot AR drone in our office
Blaauw, S.K. - \ 2014
Farm Technology Group Wageningen UR
From research to action: enhancing crop yield through wild pollinators
Garibaldi, A. ; Carvalheiro, L.G. ; Leonhardt, S.D. ; Aizen, M.A. ; Blaauw, B.R. ; Isaacs, R. ; Kuhlman, M. ; Kleijn, D. ; Klein, A.M. ; Kremen, C. ; Morandin, L. ; Scheper, J.A. ; Winfree, R. - \ 2014
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12 (2014)8. - ISSN 1540-9295 - p. 439 - 447.
bee abundance - ecosystem services - agricultural landscapes - diversity - communities - populations - resources - responses - metaanalysis - management
Recent evidence highlights the value of wild-insect species richness and abundance for crop pollination worldwide. Yet, deliberate physical importation of single species (eg European honey bees) into crop fields for pollination remains the mainstream management approach, and implementation of practices to enhance crop yield (production per area) through wild insects is only just beginning. With few exceptions, studies measuring the impacts of pollinator-supporting practices on wild-insect richness and pollination service success – particularly in relation to long-term crop yield and economic profit – are rare. Here, we provide a general framework and examples of approaches for enhancing pollinator richness and abundance, quantity and quality of pollen on stigmas, crop yield, and farmers' profit, including some benefits detected only through long-term monitoring. We argue for integrating the promotion of wild-insect species richness with single-species management to benefit farmers and society.
De biomassabehoefte van de chemische industrie in een biobasedeconomy : inschattingen gebaseerd op drie ideaaltypische technologische scenario's
Blaauw, Rolf ; Bos, Harriët ; Hal, Jaap van; Saygin, Değer ; Patel, Martin - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1376) - ISBN 9789461734891 - 22
chemische industrie - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biomassa - scenario-analyse - efficiëntie - vergassing - fermentatie - biomassaconversie - chemical industry - biobased chemistry - biomass - scenario analysis - efficiency - gasification - fermentation - biomass conversion
In dit rapport wordt een inschatting gemaakt van de totale toekomstige behoefte van de petrochemische industrie in Europa aan biomassa voor het maken van chemicaliën en materialen, en het genereren van de procesenergie die daarvoor nodig is. Hierbij wordt uitgegaan van de volledige overstap van nafta, de huidige grondstof van de petrochemische industrie, naar biomassa. De inschatting wordt gemaakt op basis van drie verschillende ideaaltypische scenario’s volgens fundamenteel verschillende technologische routes.
Seaweed biorefinery: production of fuels and chemicals from seaweed native to the North-Sea
Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Lopez Contreras, A.M. ; Blaauw, R. ; Haveren, J. van - \ 2013
Correlation between activation of PPAR¿ and resistin downregulation in a mouse adipocyte cell line by a series of thiazolidinediones.
Sotiriou, A. ; Blaauw, R.H. ; Meijer, C. ; Gijsbers, L.H. ; Burg, B. van der; Vervoort, J. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. - \ 2013
Toxicology in Vitro 27 (2013)5. - ISSN 0887-2333 - p. 1425 - 1432.
insulin-resistance - adipose-tissue - antihyperglycemic agents - expression - receptor - glucose - metabolism - mechanisms - biology - obesity
The present study shows significant correlations between the EC50 for PPAR¿ activation in a reporter gene cell line and resistin downregulation in mouse adipocytes, and between the IC50 for resistin downregulation and the already published minimum effective dose for antihyperglycemic activity in a mouse model. These correlations indicate that PPAR¿ mediated downregulation of resistin might promote insulin sensitivity and that downregulation of resistin in mouse adipocytes provides an adequate and possibly more direct bioassay for screening of newly developed antihyperglycemic compounds. Because of the higher throughput of the PPAR¿ the resistin downregulation assays seems most suitable to be used as a second tier in a tiered screening strategy.
‘Algen en verf: nog lange weg te gaan' : Wageningse onderzoekers over hogere algenbra
Blaauw, Rolf ; Mooibroek, Hans - \ 2012
paints - algae - algae culture - plant oils - biobased economy - biobased chemistry
Renewable linear alpha olefins by selective ethenolysis of decarboxylated fatty acids
Klis, F. van der; Notre, J.E.L. le; Blaauw, R. ; Haveren, J. van; Es, D.S. van - \ 2012
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 114 (2012)8. - ISSN 1438-7697 - p. 911 - 918.
productive catalyst turnovers - metathesis catalysts - cross-metathesis - methyl oleate - natural oils - dimethyl carbonate - high conversion - diesel fuel - deoxygenation - feedstocks
A two-step concept for the production of linear alpha olefins from biomass is reported. As a starting material an internally unsaturated C17 alkene was used, which was obtained by the decarboxylation of oleic acid. Here, we report on the ethenolysis of this bio-based product, using commercially available metathesis catalysts. The desired alpha olefin products, 1-nonene and 1-decene, were obtained in excellent yield (96%) and selectivity (96%). Practical applications: The two-step conversion described in this contribution, starting from unsaturated fatty acids, provides a method for the production of industrially important linear alpha olefins. These valuable products are widely used as starting materials for the production of surfactants and polymers such as linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE).
Agricultural intensification and de-intensification differentially affect taxonomic diversity of predatory mites, earthworms, enchytraeids, nematodes and bacteria.
Postma-Blaauw, M.B. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Bloem, J. ; Faber, J.H. ; Brussaard, L. - \ 2012
Applied Soil Ecology 57 (2012). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 39 - 49.
microbial community structure - soil nematode - management regimes - maturity index - food webs - land-use - grassland - biodiversity - agroecosystems - populations
Agricultural intensification is known to impact the soil biota community. In a previous study, the impact of agricultural intensification on total abundances and functional group structure of major soil biota groups were measured. In this study we address the effects of conversion of extensively managed grassland to arable land on taxonomic diversity at genus and species level of four major soil biota groups (predatory mites, earthworms, enchytraeids, nematodes and bacteria). Vice versa, the effect of agricultural de-intensification (re-establishment of grassland on former arable land) on soil biota taxonomic diversity was also studied. Conversion of an extensively managed grassland to arable land had detrimental effects on taxonomic richness and diversity across taxonomic groups in the short-term, with largest effects on soil biota with larger body size. Effects of arable management were detrimental shortly after conversion. Restoration of grassland resulted in establishment of a species-rich community of nematodes (with partly different species), and recovery of the earthworm community. Predatory mite species were less successful in re-establishing and negative effects on enchytraeid species persisted. When combining the results of Postma-Blaauw et al. (2010) with the present study, we conclude that agricultural intensification resulted in a reduction in abundance and taxonomic diversity of nematodes and bacteria, whereas functional group structure of these groups was little affected. In contrast, predatory mites and earthworms were affected both in functional group structure and in taxonomic diversity. We conclude that agricultural intensification affects total abundances and taxonomic diversity of soil biota in agricultural land, but not necessarily the functional group diversity. Reduced taxonomic diversity may result in reduced resilience to stress, whereas reduced total abundances of microbiota may affect ecosystem functions such as nutrient mineralization.
Alpha Olefins from fatty acids
Klis, F. van der; Notre, J.E.L. le; Blaauw, R. ; Haveren, J. van; Es, D.S. van - \ 2011
Alpha Olefins from fatty acids
Klis, F. van der; Notre, J.E.L. le; Blaauw, R. ; Haveren, J. van; Es, D.S. van - \ 2011
Oxidative decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids
Klis, F. van der; Hoorn, M.H. van den; Blaauw, R. ; Haveren, J. van; Es, D.S. van - \ 2011
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 113 (2011)5. - ISSN 1438-7697 - p. 562 - 571.
alkyl radicals - carboxylic-acids - complexes - alkenes - peroxydisulfate - silver(ii) - mechanism - olefins
Long-chain internal olefins were prepared by silver(II)-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids by sodium peroxydisulfate. Similar to saturated carboxylic acids, 1-alkenes were the major decarboxylation product in the additional presence of copper(II), whereas in the absence of copper(II) alkanes were predominantly formed. In both cases, the internal unsaturation of the fatty acids remained largely intact, although the moderate yields indicated that side reactions occurred to a significant extent. The simple procedure makes this multistep one-pot reaction useful for the synthesis of a variety of internally unsaturated hydrocarbons. The purified products, almost all of which are prepared for the first time, may serve as reference compounds for studies on the heterogeneously catalyzed decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids in the absence of hydrogen.
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