Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Records 1 - 20 / 635

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export
    A maximum of 250 titles can be exported. Please, refine your queryYou can also select and export up to 30 titles via your marked list.
  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: q=Bongers
Check title to add to marked list
Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests
Gei, Maga ; Rozendaal, Danaë ; Poorter, L. ; Bongers, F. ; Sprent, Janet I. ; Garner, Mira D. ; Aide, T.M. ; Andrade, José Luis ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Lohbeck, M.W.M. ; Pena Claros, M. - \ 2018
tropical forest - secondary succession - legumes
This database is the product of the 2ndFOR collaborative research network on secondary forests. The database contains total basal area data (in m2 ha-1) of legume trees (Leguminosae) for 1207 secondary forest plots differing in time since abandonment. The plots belong to different chonosequence studies. For a description of the database, see Gei et al. 2018. Legume Abundance Along Successional And Rainfall Gradients In Neotropical Forests. Nature Ecology and Evolution. The file "Legume basal area 2ndFOR data.csv" contains the following variables: Chronosequence: name of the chronosequence site Age: age of the plot (in years), "OG" indicates old-growth forest of unknown age LBA: total basal area of legume trees (Leguminosae) of the plot in m2 ha-1 Reference: a citation for the chronosequence study, if available PI/contact person: name(s) of the principal investigator(s) or contact person(s) for the chronosequence study.
Cytokine responses to repeated, prolonged walking in lean versus overweight/obese individuals
Verheggen, Rebecca J.H.M. ; Eijsvogels, Thijs M.H. ; Catoire, Milène ; Terink, Rieneke ; Ramakers, Rob ; Bongers, Coen C.W.G. ; Mensink, Marco ; Hermus, Ad R.M.M. ; Thijssen, Dick H.J. ; Hopman, Maria T.E. - \ 2018
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (2018). - ISSN 1440-2440 - 5 p.
Adaptive response - Inflammation - Obesity - Training

Objectives: Obesity is characterized by a pro-inflammatory state, which plays a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. An exercise bout causes a transient increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, whilst training has anti-inflammatory effects. No previous study examined whether the exercise-induced increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines is altered with repeated prolonged exercise bouts and whether this response differs between lean and overweight/obese individuals. Design: Lean (n = 25, BMI 22.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) and age-/sex-matched overweight/obese (n = 25; BMI 27.9 ± 2.4 kg/m2) individuals performed walking exercise for 30, 40 or 50 km per day on four consecutive days (distances similar between groups). Methods: Circulating cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8) were examined at baseline and <30 min after the finish of each exercise day. Results: At baseline, no differences in circulating cytokines were present between groups. In response to prolonged exercise, all cytokines increased on day 1 (IL-1β: P = 0.02; other cytokines: P < 0.001). IL-6 remained significantly elevated during the 4 exercise days, when compared to baseline. IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 returned to baseline values from exercise day 2 (IL-10, IL-1β, IL-8) or exercise day 3 (TNF-α) onward. No significant differences were found between groups for all cytokines, except IL-8 (Time*Group Interaction P = 0.02). Conclusions: These data suggest the presence of early adaptive mechanisms in response to repeated prolonged walking, demonstrated by attenuated exercise-induced elevations in cytokines on consecutive days that occur similar in lean and overweight/obese individuals.

The remarkably high number of transitions from marine to terrestrial habitats and vice versa as an adaptation that could have contributed to the ecological success of nematodes
Helder, Hans - \ 2018
Nematodes have been most successful in colonizing soils and marine sediments: it is the only major metazoan group which is persistently abundant and diverse across realms. In marine sediments of shallow waters, nematodes are present at densities between 0,5 and 5 million individuals per m2 (Soetaert et al., 2009). In soil, the number of nematodes under non-extreme environmental conditions ranges from 2-20 million individuals per m2 (Bongers, 1994). In both soil and marine sediments, the density of other, second most abundant metazoans, including polychaetes and harpacticoid copepods in marine sediments, and mites and springtails in terrestrial soils, are about an order of magnitude lower. These data about nematode abundance and diversity prompt questions about the factors underlying the ecological success of this rather basal Ecdysozoan group. One of the main factors contributing to their ecological success could be their ecological flexibility. Using a phylum-wide SSU rDNA data base harbouring over 3,500 taxa allowed us to pinpoint at least 30 major habitat transitions. In Clades 1-6 (formerly referred to as Adenophorea) these transitions were bidirectional, whereas most likely members of Clades 8-12 (previously known as Secernentea) showed exclusively transitions from terrestrial to marine systems. We relate these transitions to the evolution and diversification of the secretory-excretory (S-E) systems as well as to feeding habits. Their ability to feed on types of food sources that are available both in soils and marine sediments such as bacteria, protists, and other nematodes, and to parasitize organismal groups present in both systems including lower and higher plants as well as a wide range of (in)vertebrates will have contributed to the ecological flexibility and the evolutionary success of nematodes.
Changes in iron metabolism during prolonged repeated walking exercise in middle-aged men and women
Terink, Rieneke ; Haaf, D. ten; Bongers, C.W.G. ; Balvers, M.G.J. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Mensink, M. ; Eijsvogels, T.M.H. ; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T. ; Hopman, M.T.E. - \ 2018
European Journal of Applied Physiology 118 (2018)11. - ISSN 1439-6319 - p. 2349 - 2357.
Fe - Hb - Hp - Repetitive exercise

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of prolonged and repeated exercise on iron metabolism in middle-aged adults and to compare differences between sexes. Methods: 50 male (58.9 ± 9.9 year) and 48 female (50.9 ± 11.2 year) individuals were monitored on 4 consecutive days at which they walked on average 8 h and 44 min per day at a self-determined pace. Blood samples were collected 1 or 2 days prior to the start of the exercise (baseline) and every day immediately post-exercise. Samples were analysed for iron, ferritin, haemoglobin, and haptoglobin concentrations. Results: Plasma iron decreased across days, while ferritin increased across days (both p < 0.001). Haptoglobin showed a decrease (p < 0.001) after the first day and increased over subsequent days (p < 0.001). Haemoglobin did not change after the first day, but increased during subsequent days (p < 0.05). At baseline, 8% of the participants had iron concentrations below minimum reference value (10 µmol/L), this increased to 43% at day 4. There was an interaction between sex and exercise days on iron (p = 0.028), ferritin (p < 0.001) and haemoglobin levels (p = 0.004), but not on haptoglobin levels. Conclusion: This study showed decreases in iron, increases in ferritin, a decrease followed by increases in haptoglobin and no change followed by increases in haemoglobin. This is most likely explained by (foot strike) haemolysis, inflammation, and sweat and urine losses. These processes resulted in iron levels below minimum reference value in a large number of our participants.

Data from: Towards smarter harvesting from natural palm populations by sparing the individuals that contribute most to population growth or productivity
Jansen, M. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Bongers, F. ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2018
Chamaedorea - forest management - harvest simulations - individual heterogenity - Integral Project Model - leaf harvesting - NFTP - sustainability - Chamaedorea elegans
1. Natural populations deliver a wide range of products that provide income for millions of people and need to be exploited sustainably. Large heterogeneity in individual performance within these exploited populations has the potential to improve population recovery after exploitation and thus help sustaining yields over time. 2. We explored the potential of using individual heterogeneity to design smarter harvest schemes, by sparing individuals that contribute most to future productivity and population growth, using the understorey palm Chamaedorea elegans as a model system. Leaves of this palm are an important non-timber forest product and long-term inter-individual growth variability can be evaluated from internode lengths. 3. We studied a population of 830 individuals, half of which was subjected to a 67 % defoliation treatment for three years. We measured effects of defoliation on vital rates and leaf size – a trait that determines marketability. We constructed integral projection models in which vital rates depended on stem length, past growth rate, and defoliation, and evaluated transient population dynamics to quantify population development and leaf yield. We then simulated scenarios in which we spared individuals that were either most important for population growth or had leaves smaller than marketable size. 4. Individuals varying in size or past growth rate responded similarly to leaf harvesting in terms of growth and reproduction. By contrast, defoliation-induced reduction in survival chance was smaller in large individuals than in small ones. Simulations showed that harvest-induced population decline was much reduced when individuals from size and past growth classes that contributed most to population growth were spared. Under this scenario cumulative leaf harvest over 20 years was somewhat reduced, but long-term leaf production was sustained. A three-fold increase in leaf yield was generated when individuals with small leaves are spared. 5. Synthesis and applications This study demonstrates the potential to create smarter systems of palm leaf harvest by accounting for individual heterogeneity within exploited populations. Sparing individuals that contribute most to population growth ensured sustained leaf production over time. The concepts and methods presented here are generally applicable to exploited plant and animal species which exhibit considerable individual heterogeneity.
Assessing the structural differences between tropical forest types using Terrestrial Laser Scanning
Decuyper, Mathieu ; Mulatu, Kalkidan Ayele ; Brede, Benjamin ; Calders, Kim ; Armston, John ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Mora, Brice ; Clevers, Jan G.P.W. ; Kooistra, Lammert ; Herold, Martin ; Bongers, Frans - \ 2018
Forest Ecology and Management 429 (2018). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 327 - 335.
Increasing anthropogenic pressure leads to loss of habitat through deforestation and degradation in tropical forests. While deforestation can be monitored relatively easily, forest management practices are often subtle processes, that are difficult to capture with for example satellite monitoring. Conventional measurements are well established and can be useful for management decisions, but it is believed that Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) has a role in quantitative monitoring and continuous improvement of methods. In this study we used a combination of TLS and conventional forest inventory measures to estimate forest structural parameters in four different forest types in a tropical montane cloud forest in Kafa, Ethiopia. Here, the four forest types (intact forest, coffee forest, silvopasture, and plantations) are a result of specific management practices (e.g. clearance of understory in coffee forest), and not different forest communities or tree types. Both conventional and TLS derived parameters confirmed our assumptions that intact forest had the highest biomass, silvopasture had the largest canopy gaps, and plantations had the lowest canopy openness. Contrary to our expectations, coffee forest had higher canopy openness and similar biomass as silvopasture, indicating a significant loss of forest structure. The 3D vegetation structure (PAVD – Plant area vegetation density) was different between the forest types with the highest PAVD in intact forest and plantation canopy. Silvopasture was characterised by a low canopy but high understorey PAVD, indicating regeneration of the vegetation and infrequent fuelwood collection and/or non-intensive grazing. Coffee forest canopy had low PAVD, indicating that many trees had been removed, despite coffee needing canopy shade. These findings may advocate for more tangible criteria such as canopy openness thresholds in sustainable coffee certification schemes. TLS as tool for monitoring forest structure in plots with different forest types shows potential as it can capture the 3D position of the vegetation volume and open spaces at all heights in the forest. To quantify changes in different forest types, consistent monitoring of 3D structure is needed and here TLS is an add-on or an alternative to conventional forest structure monitoring. However, for the tropics, TLS-based automated segmentation of trees to derive DBH and biomass is not widely operational yet, nor is species richness determination in forest monitoring. Integration of data sources is needed to fully understand forest structural diversity and implications of forest management practices on different forest types.
Conservation Science and Practice Must Engage With the Realities of Complex Tropical Landscapes
Boedhihartono, A.K. ; Bongers, F. ; Boot, R.G.A. ; Dijk, Jerry van; Jeans, Helen ; Kuijk, Marijke van; Koster, H. ; Reed, James ; Sayer, J. ; Sunderland, Terry ; Turnhout, E. ; Vianen, J. van; Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2018
Tropical conservation science 11 (2018). - ISSN 1940-0829 - p. 1 - 7.
There is a growing disconnect between the international conferences where grand solutions for tropical conservation are designed and the complex local realities in tropical landscapes where plans need to be implemented. Every tropical landscape is different and no “one size will fit all.” There is a tendency for global processes to prescribe simple generalized solutions that provide good sound bites that can be communicated with political actors and the media. Sustainable outcomes in tropical landscapes require locally adapted, unique approaches supported by long-term processes of learning and adaptation. Tropical biologists and conservationists can play a key role by establishing effective local–global links and by directly engaging in local policy discourses while remaining connected to evolving political imperatives
Chemical differentiation of Bolivian Cedrela species as a tool to trace illegal timber trade
Paredes-Villanueva, Kathelyn ; Espinoza, Edgard ; Ottenburghs, Jente ; Sterken, Mark G. ; Bongers, Frans ; Zuidema, Pieter A. - \ 2018
Forestry 91 (2018)5. - ISSN 0015-752X - p. 603 - 613.
Combating illegal timber trade requires the ability to identify species and verify geographic origin of timber. Forensic techniques that independently verify the declared species and geographic origin are needed, as current legality procedures are based on certificates and documents that can be falsified. Timber from the genus Cedrela is among the most economically valued tropical timbers worldwide. Three Cedrela species are included in the Appendix III of CITES: C. fissilis, C. odorata and C. angustifolia (listed as C. lilloi). Cedrela timber is currently traded with false origin declarations and under a different species name, but tools to verify this are lacking. We used Direct Analysis in Real Time Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (DART-TOFMS) to chemically identify Cedrela species and sites of origin. Heartwood samples from six Cedrela species (the three CITES-listed species plus C. balansae, C. montana and C. saltensis) were collected at 11 sites throughout Bolivia. Mass spectra detected by DART-TOFMS comprised 1062 compounds; their relative intensities were analysed using Principal Component Analyses, Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA) and Random Forest analyses to check discrimination potential among species and sites. Species were identified with a mean discrimination error of 15–19 per cent, with substantial variation in discrimination accuracy among species. The lowest error was observed in C. fissilis (mean = 4.4 per cent). Site discrimination error was considerably higher: 43–54 per cent for C. fissilis and 42–48 per cent for C. odorata. These results provide good prospects to differentiate C. fissilis from other species, but at present there is no scope to do so for other tested species. Thus, discrimination is highly species specific. Our findings for tests of geographic origin suggest no potential to discriminate at the studied scale and for the studied species. Cross-checking results from different methods (KDA and Random Forest) reduced discrimination errors. In all, the DART-TOFMS technique allows independent verification of claimed identity of certain Cedrela species in timber trade.
Domestication of Amazonian forests
Levis, Carolina - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers, co-promotor(en): Marielos Pena Claros; C.R. Clement. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438735 - 267
Cum laude
The persistence of a broad range of antibiotics during calve, pig and broiler manure storage
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Lahr, J. ; Nibbeling, C. ; Jansen, L.J.M. ; Bongers, I.E.A. ; Wipfler, E.L. ; Schans, M.G.M. van de - \ 2018
Chemosphere 204 (2018). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 267 - 276.
Antibiotics - Dissipation - Environment - Fate - Manure - Persistence - Reviewer suggestions

After administration to livestock, a large fraction of antibiotics are excreted unchanged via excreta and can be transferred to agricultural land. For effective risk assessment a critical factor is to determine which antibiotics can be expected in the different environmental compartments. After excretion, the first relevant compartment is manure storage. In the current study, the fate of a broad scope of antibiotics (n = 46) during manure storage of different livestock animals (calves, pigs, broilers) was investigated. Manure samples were fortified with antibiotics and incubated during 24 days. Analysis was carried out by LC-MS. The dissipation of the antibiotics was modelled based on the recommendations of FOCUS working group. Sulphonamides relatively quickly dissipate in all manure types, with a DT90 of in general between 0.2 and 30 days. Tetracyclines (DT90 up to 422 days), quinolones (DT90 100–5800 days), macrolides (DT90 18–1000 days), lincosamides (DT90 135–1400 days) and pleuromutilins (DT90 of 49–1100 days) are in general much more persistent, but rates depend on the manure type. Specifically lincomycin, pirlimycin, tiamulin and most quinolones are very persistent in manure with more than 10% of the native compound remaining after a year in most manure types. For all compounds tested in the sub-set, except the macrolides, the dissipation was an abiotic process. Based on the persistence and current frequency of use, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, flumequine and tilmicosin can be expected to end up in environmental compartments. Ecotoxicological data should be used to further prioritize these compounds.

Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in Neotropical forests
Gei, Maga ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Bongers, Frans ; Sprent, Janet I. ; Garner, Mira D. ; Aide, T.M. ; Andrade, José Luis ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Cole, Rebecca J. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Jong, Ben De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos Do; Fernandes, G.W. ; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Mora, Francisco ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Reich, Peter B. ; Reyes-García, Casandra ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Pérez, I.E. ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. ; Silver, Whendee ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa De; Sullivan, Benjamin W. ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Uriarte, Maria ; Breugel, Michiel Van; Wal, Hans Van Der; Veloso, Maria Das Dores Magalhães ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Powers, Jennifer S. - \ 2018
Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018)7. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1104 - 1111.
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area is twice as high in dry compared with wet secondary forests. The tremendous ecological success of legumes in recently disturbed, water-limited forests is likely to be related to both their reduced leaflet size and ability to fix N2, which together enhance legume drought tolerance and water-use efficiency. Earth system models should incorporate these large-scale successional and climatic patterns of legume dominance to provide more accurate estimates of the maximum potential for natural nitrogen fixation across tropical forests.
Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

Towards smarter harvesting from natural palm populations by sparing the individuals that contribute most to population growth or productivity
Jansen, Merel ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Bongers, Frans ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Zuidema, Pieter A. - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)4. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 1682 - 1691.
Chamaedorea - Forest management - Harvest simulations - Individual heterogeneity - Integral Projection Model - Leaf harvesting - Non-timber forest product - Palm leaves - Population dynamics - Sustainability
Natural populations deliver a wide range of products that provide income for millions of people and need to be exploited sustainably. Large heterogeneity in individual performance within these exploited populations has the potential to improve population recovery after exploitation and thus help sustain yields over time. We explored the potential of using individual heterogeneity to design smarter harvest schemes, by sparing individuals that contribute most to future productivity and population growth, using the understorey palm Chamaedorea elegans as a model system. Leaves of this palm are an important non-timber forest product and long-term inter-individual growth variability can be evaluated from internode lengths. We studied a population of 830 individuals, half of which was subjected to a 67% defoliation treatment for 3 years. We measured effects of defoliation on vital rates and leaf size-a trait that determines marketability. We constructed integral projection models in which vital rates depended on stem length, past growth rate and defoliation and evaluated transient population dynamics to quantify population development and leaf yield. We then simulated scenarios in which we spared individuals that were either most important for population growth or had leaves smaller than marketable size. Individuals varying in size or past growth rate responded similar to leaf harvesting in terms of growth and reproduction. By contrast, a reduction in survival chance was smaller in large individuals than in small ones. Simulations showed that harvest-induced population decline was greatly reduced when sparing individuals from size and past growth classes that contributed most to population growth. Under this scenario, cumulative leaf harvest over 20 years was somewhat reduced, but long-term leaf production was sustained. A threefold increase in leaf yield was generated when individuals with small leaves were spared. Synthesis and applications. This study demonstrates the potential to create smarter systems of palm leaf harvest by accounting for individual heterogeneity within exploited populations. Sparing individuals that contribute most to population growth ensured sustained leaf production over time. The concepts and methods presented here are generally applicable to exploited plant and animal species which exhibit considerable individual heterogeneity.
Subtle variation in shade avoidance responses may have profound consequences for plant competitiveness
Bongers, Franca J. ; Pierik, Ronald ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Evers, Jochem B. - \ 2018
Annals of Botany 121 (2018)5. - ISSN 0305-7364 - p. 863 - 873.
Background and Aims: Although phenotypic plasticity has been shown to be beneficial for plant competitiveness for light, there is limited knowledge on how variation in these plastic responses plays a role in determining competitiveness. Methods: A combination of detailed plant experiments and functional–structural plant (FSP) modelling was used that captures the complex dynamic feedback between the changing plant phenotype and the within-canopy light environment in time and 3-D space. Leaf angle increase (hyponasty) and changes in petiole elongation rates in response to changes in the ratio between red and far-red light, two important shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana growing in dense population stands, were chosen as a case study for plant plasticity. Measuring and implementing these responses into an FSP model allowed simulation of plant phenotype as an emergent property of the underlying growth and response mechanisms. Key Results: Both the experimental and model results showed that substantial differences in competitiveness may arise between genotypes with only marginally different hyponasty or petiole elongation responses, due to the amplification of plant growth differences by small changes in plant phenotype. In addition, this study illustrated that strong competitive responses do not necessarily have to result in a tragedy of the commons; success in competition at the expense of community performance. Conclusions: Together, these findings indicate that selection pressure could probably have played a role in fine-tuning the sensitive shade avoidance responses found in plants. The model approach presented here provides a novel tool to analyse further how natural selection could have acted on the evolution of plastic responses.
How People Domesticated Amazonian Forests
Levis, C. ; Flores, Bernardo ; Moreira, Priscilla ; Luize, Bruno G. ; Alves, Rubana ; Franco-Moraes, Juliano ; Lins, Juliana ; Konings, Evelien ; Pena Claros, M. ; Bongers, F. ; Costa, Flavia ; Clement, Charles - \ 2018
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 5 (2018). - ISSN 2296-701X - 21 p.
For millennia, Amazonian peoples have managed forest resources, modifying the natural environment in subtle and persistent ways. Legacies of past human occupation are striking near archaeological sites, yet we still lack a clear picture of how human management practices resulted in the domestication of Amazonian forests. The general view is that domesticated forests are recognizable by the presence of forest patches dominated by one or a few useful species favored by long-term human activities. Here, we used three complementary approaches to understand the long-term domestication of Amazonian forests. First, we compiled information from the literature about how indigenous and traditional Amazonian peoples manage forest resources to promote useful plant species that are mainly used as food resources. Then, we developed an interdisciplinary conceptual model of how interactions between these management practices across space and time may form domesticated forests. Finally, we collected field data from 30 contemporary villages located on and near archaeological sites, along four major Amazonian rivers, to compare with the management practices synthesized in our conceptual model. We identified eight distinct categories of management practices that contribute to form forest patches of useful plants: (1) removal of non-useful plants, (2) protection of useful plants, (3) attraction of non-human animal dispersers, (4) transportation of useful plants, (5) selection of phenotypes, (6) fire management, (7) planting of useful plants, and (8) soil improvement. Our conceptual model, when ethnographically projected into the past, reveals how the interaction of these multiple management practices interferes with natural ecological processes, resulting in the domestication of Amazonian forest patches dominated by useful species. Our model suggests that management practices became more frequent as human population increased during the Holocene. In the field, we found that useful perennial plants occur in multi-species patches around archaeological sites, and that the dominant species are still managed by local people, suggesting long-term persistence of ancient cultural practices. The management practices we identified have transformed plant species abundance and floristic composition through the creation of diverse forest patches rich in edible perennial plants that enhanced food production and food security in Amazonia.
Wild native trees in tropical homegardens of Southeast Mexico : Fostered by fragmentation, mediated by management
Rooduijn, Bastiaan ; Bongers, Frans ; Wal, Hans van der - \ 2018
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 254 (2018). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 149 - 161.
Conservation - Homegardens - Human-environment interactions - Landscape fragmentation - Plant diversity - Tree utilization
Tropical homegardens (THGs) are a model system for rural development that may reconcile food production with social resilience and biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly changing landscapes. This study quantified the sink function of THGs for wild native trees in relation to tree cover fragmentation, garden management and household socio-economics. Abundance, richness and diversity of naturally established spared native trees were recorded for 59 rural THGs in Southeast Mexico, along a gradient of tree cover fragmentation. The majority of native species and individuals encountered in THGs had arrived naturally. Contrary to previous work, both the abundance and diversity of spared native trees increased with tree cover fragmentation. However, this sink function was strongly mediated by the type of garden management: lush, multi-layered gardens and gardens with few exotics and low labour input had more spared native trees of more species, while simple-structured gardens and gardens with high labour input and many exotic fruits had only few. Overall, the results indicate that tree cover fragmentation determines which species come in, and management determines how many of each stay. Our results clearly demonstrate that THGs are crucial sinks for wild native trees in deforested fragmented landscapes. THGs are ubiquitous, and could also be key sources for reforestation; here we coin homegarden-based natural regeneration as a new concept. Since garden management has a clear impact, further research is needed as to how socio-economic, cultural and ecological functions of THGs can be optimised in different landscape contexts.
Demographic drivers of functional composition dynamics
Muscarella, Robert ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Poorter, Lourens ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge Enrique ; Breugel, Michiel van; Bongers, Frans - \ 2017
Ecology 98 (2017)11. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 2743 - 2750.
community-weighted mean traits - leaf phosphorus - seed size - specific leaf area - succession - tropical forests - wood density

Mechanisms of community assembly and ecosystem function are often analyzed using community-weighted mean trait values (CWMs). We present a novel conceptual framework to quantify the contribution of demographic processes (i.e., growth, recruitment, and mortality) to temporal changes in CWMs. We used this framework to analyze mechanisms of secondary succession in wet tropical forests in Mexico. Seed size increased over time, reflecting a trade-off between colonization by small seeds early in succession, to establishment by large seeds later in succession. Specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf phosphorus content decreased over time, reflecting a trade-off between fast growth early in succession vs. high survival late in succession. On average, CWM shifts were driven mainly (70%) by growth of surviving trees that comprise the bulk of standing biomass, then mortality (25%), and weakly by recruitment (5%). Trait shifts of growing and recruiting trees mirrored the CWM trait shifts, and traits of dying trees did not change during succession, indicating that these traits are important for recruitment and growth, but not for mortality, during the first 30 yr of succession. Identifying the demographic drivers of functional composition change links population dynamics to community change, and enhances insights into mechanisms of succession.

Response to Comment on "persistent effects of pre-Columbian plant domestication on Amazonian forest composition"
Braga Junqueira, Andre ; Levis, Carolina ; Bongers, Frans ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Clement, Charles Roland ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Steege, Hans Ter - \ 2017
Science 358 (2017)6361. - ISSN 0036-8075 - 2 p.

McMichael et al. state that we overlooked the effects of post-Columbian human activities in shaping current floristic patterns in Amazonian forests. We formally show that post- Columbian human influences on Amazonian forests are indeed important, but they have played a smaller role when compared to the persistent effects of pre-Columbian human activities on current forest composition..

Explaining long-term inter-individual growth variation in plant populations : persistence of abiotic factors matters
Jansen, Merel ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Bongers, Frans ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Gavito, Mayra E. ; Zuidema, Pieter A. - \ 2017
Oecologia 185 (2017)4. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 663 - 674.
Chamaedorea elegans - Forest understorey - Individual heterogeneity - Life history - Population dynamics

An unanswered question in ecology is whether the environmental factors driving short-term performance also determine the often observed long-term performance differences among individuals. Here, we analyze the extent to which temporal persistence of spatial heterogeneity in environmental factors can contribute to long-term inter-individual variation in stem length growth. For a natural population of a long-lived understorey palm, we first quantified the effect of several environmental factors on stem length growth and survival. We then performed individual-based simulations of growth trajectories, in which we varied, for two environmental factors: (1) the strength of the effect on stem length growth and (2) the temporal persistence. Short-term variation in stem length growth was strongly driven by light availability. Auto-correlation in light availability and soil pH increased simulated variation in stem length growth among 20-year-old palms to levels similar to the observed variation. Analyses in which we varied both the strength of the effect on stem length growth and the temporal persistence of the environmental factors revealed that a large fraction of observed long-term growth differences can be explained, as long as one of these effects is strong. This implies that environmental factors that are relatively unimportant for short-term performance can still drive long-term performance differences when the environmental variation is sufficiently persistent over time.

Community ecology of Neotropical ticks, hosts, and associated pathogens
Esser, Heleen J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Frans Bongers, co-promotor(en): Patrick Jansen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436908 - 200
metastigmata - host specificity - host parasite relationships - biodiversity - species diversity - pathogens - size - community ecology - tickborne diseases - panama - tropics - hosts - gastheerspecificiteit - gastheer parasiet relaties - biodiversiteit - soortendiversiteit - pathogenen - grootte - gemeenschapsecologie - ziekten overgebracht door teken - tropen - gastheren (dieren, mensen, planten)

The ongoing loss of global biodiversity is unprecedented in both magnitude and pace, raising urgent questions as to how this loss will affect ecosystem functioning and human well-being. Control of infectious diseases has been proposed as an important ecosystem service that is likely to be affected by biodiversity loss. A negative relationship between biodiversity and disease risk could offer a win-win situation for nature conservation and human health. However, the generality of this relationship remains the subject of contentious debate. The aim of this thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between ticks and their vertebrate hosts in a biodiversity hotspot, and how loss of biodiversity affects these interactions and ultimately, tick-borne disease risk. My study was unique in that I simultaneously considered and directly assessed broader communities of Neotropical wildlife, ticks, and tick-borne pathogens across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient.

Determining whether and how biodiversity loss affects tick-borne disease risk in tropical forests requires a thorough understanding of tick-host associations, which are a function of tick-host specificity as well as host biological and ecological traits. In chapter 2, I therefore quantified the degree to which adult ticks are host-specific in my study region: Panama. Using quantitative network analyses and phylogenetic tools with null model comparisons, I found that the adult life stages of most tick species were specific to a limited number of host species that were phylogenetically closely related. In Chapter 4 I showed that species assemblages of adult ticks became increasingly diverse on larger-bodied host species, indicating that adult ticks in Panama tend to select for large reproduction hosts.

In contrast to adult ticks, understanding the ecological interactions between immature ticks and their hosts in the tropics has long been hampered by a lack of morphological identification keys. Therefore, in Chapter 3, I describe the development of a DNA barcode reference library for the molecular identification of larvae and nymphs. This reference library was highly effective in species-level identification of immature ticks collected from birds (Chapter 3) and small mammals (Chapter 4 and 6). Several avian ecological traits were positively associated with tick parasitism, but the potential role of wild birds in tick-borne disease transmission seems to be limited in Panama. Immature ticks did not show any specificity to particular bird species or avian ecological traits (Chapter 3), and species assemblages of immatures ticks were equally diverse across a large number of host taxa (Chapter 4). This suggests that larvae and nymphs may feed more opportunistically than their adult counterparts.

High host specificity in adult ticks implies high susceptibility to tick-host coextinction, even if immature ticks feed opportunistically. In chapter 5, I tested this hypothesis by surveying tick and vertebrate host communities across a forest fragmentation gradient. Forest fragments consisted of previously connected islands and peninsulas in the Panama Canal and ranged 1000-fold in size. Abundance and species richness of ticks was positively related to that of wildlife, which in turn was related to the size of the forest fragment. Specialist tick species were only present in fragments where their specific reproduction hosts were captured by camera traps. Further, less diverse tick communities were dominated by a generalist tick species. These results indicate that loss of wildlife had cascading effects on tick communities through local host-parasite coextinction.

In Chapter 6, I studied how communities of wildlife, ticks, and tick-borne microbes changed along a more ‘typical’ disturbance gradient, in which forest fragments were embedded in an agricultural and sub-urban landscape, rather than surrounded by water. I found that wildlife community disassembly either diluted, amplified, or had no effect on infection prevalence in ticks, depending on the pathogen and degree of disturbance. However, hyperabundance of medium- to large-sized frugivores and herbivores (important reproduction hosts for adult ticks) in sites that lacked apex predators was related to exponential increases in tick density, negating any effect of reduced pathogen prevalence. Moreover, high tick species richness in these sites was related to high microbial and pathogen richness. High parasite diversity is thus a source of infectious diseases. When medium- to large-sized frugivores and herbivores also disappeared, densities of infected ticks declined, suggesting a non-linear relationship between biodiversity loss and tick-borne disease risk, in which initial loss of apex predators increases disease risk, but further loss of species decreases disease risk again.

In this thesis, I have quantified host-feeding relationships of adult and immature Neotropical ticks, many of which (in the case of larvae and nymphs) were largely unknown. I have shown that adult ticks tend to be highly host-specific, particularly to larger-bodied vertebrates, whereas immature ticks appear to have broader host-use patterns. I found that ticks are susceptible to local host-tick coextirpation, and that the relationship between biodiversity loss and tick-borne disease risk is non-linear. My results emphasize the importance of directly assessing host community composition and suggest that the presence of specific (reproduction) hosts are a more important factor than species richness per se for tick population and tick-borne disease dynamics.

Check title to add to marked list
<< previous | next >>

Show 20 50 100 records per page

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.