Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Powder morphology development during spray drying
Both, Eline M. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Maarten Schutyser; Remko Boom. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439923 - 129
Multiphase effects in forming anisotropic calcium caseinate materials
Wang, Zhaojun - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Atze Jan van der Goot; Remko Boom. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439954 - 130
Breedspoortrekker wordt populairder
Brouwer, Thie Arend ; Rijk, Joost - \ 2019
Comparing structuring potential of pea and soy protein with gluten for meat analogue preparation
Schreuders, Floor K.G. ; Dekkers, Birgit L. ; Bodnár, Igor ; Erni, Philipp ; Boom, Remko M. ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
Journal of Food Engineering 261 (2019). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 32 - 39.
Fibrous structures - Food processing - Plant protein - Shear cell processing - Shear-induced structuring

Pea protein isolate can be combined with wheat gluten into materials with a fibrous morphology using shear induced structuring combined with heating. Results are partly in-line with soy protein isolate-wheat gluten blends, but the latter yields anisotropic materials in a much broader temperature range. Both blends also have the ability to include air. Air bubbles were aligned and deformed at process conditions that gave the most pronounce fibrous products. Mechanically, the pea protein-gluten materials processed at 140 °C had a similar strength as soy protein blends. At 110 and 120 °C, the pea protein blends had a strength that was comparable to a chicken meat reference (50–100 kPa) but weaker than their counterparts with soy (220–300 kPa). Blends of pea protein-gluten show potential for preparing structured plant protein materials, but the application area might be different compared with potential applications of soy protein-gluten blends.

A classification scheme for interfacial mass transfer and the kinetics of aroma release
Weterings, Martijn ; Bodnár, Igor ; Boom, Remko M. ; Beyrer, Michael - \ 2019
Trends in Food Science and Technology (2019). - ISSN 0924-2244
Air water mass transfer - Aroma classification - Aroma release dynamics - Flavor release - Food modelling - food processing - Interfacial mass transfer

Background: The study of aroma release has gained popularity in food science. Nowadays, experiments become increasingly more complex. However, an application of theories on mass transfer, which may help to better explain the results, is lagging behind on these developments. Scope and approach: The goal of this review is to get together, in a concise way, the state of the art on fundamental knowledge of mass transfer in aroma release plus creating an extension of theory with a comprehensible classification that is useful for food scientists. The existing mathematical model is simplified and points that have received little attention are identified. Key findings and conclusions: An overview of experimental studies that focus on the influence of viscosity on aroma release show that there is heterogeneity in results and no consensus exists on the influence of viscosity. Such heterogeneity may be better understood with the effects of mass transfer. These effects are summarized by describing three implications based on non-proportional relationships between the partition coefficient and (A)the overall mass transfer coefficient, (B)the depletion and saturation time-scales, and (C)the peak value of the aroma concentration in the head space. A classification scheme is made to enable food scientists and technologists to apply the complex description in shorter and simpler terms that can be communicated and compared more easily. The scheme depends on a classification in two dimensions based on a thermodynamic factor, the partition coefficient, and a kinetic factor which divides aroma's and experiments into four different classes.

Agroforestry - klimaatneutraal voedsel produceren? : Plant je een boom dan plant je duurzaamheid
Blok, Alice ; Veluw, C. van - \ 2019
Ekoland (2019)1. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 62 - 63.
Hydrosocial territories, agro-export and water scarcity : capitalist territorial transformations and water governance in Peru’s coastal valleys
Damonte, Gerardo ; Boelens, Rutgerd - \ 2019
Water International 44 (2019)2. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 206 - 223.
agro-export - food security - hydrosocial territory - Ica - Peru - rural-urban relationships - Water governance

In recent decades, an agro-export boom has deeply transformed Peru’s coastal valleys, resulting in dramatic territorial changes and social inequality in the Ica Valley. This article explains how politico-economic and socio-institutional forces have triggered the emergence of a new ‘hydrosocial territory’, transforming the Ica Valley into a virtual-water extraction zone that produces luxury export crops for the North and China. In addition, it shows how these territorial reconfigurations have led to ecological damage, water scarcity and increasing rural–urban inequality sustained by a hegemonic development discourse that supports agribusiness-elite territorial dominance and discourages social unrest.

Eerste robottrekker actief in de polderklei
Veldhuisen, Bram - \ 2019
Maltodextrin promotes calcium caseinate fibre formation through air inclusion
Wang, Zhaojun ; Dekkers, Birgit L. ; Boom, Remko ; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
Food Hydrocolloids 95 (2019). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 143 - 151.
Air bubble - Anisotropy - Calcium caseinate - Fibrous appearance - Maltodextrin

Commercial calcium caseinate is available as spray-dried and roller-dried powder. Shearing a dense spray-dried calcium caseinate dispersion gives rise to a fibrous material, whereas shearing dense roller-dried calcium caseinate yields a layered material with only slight anisotropy in mechanical strength. The addition of a polysaccharide phase in a continuous protein phase may lead to formation of fibrous structures after shearing, which is hypothesized to be a result of the elongation and orientation of the dispersed polysaccharide domains. We report the effect of the addition of maltodextrin to roller-dried calcium caseinate on structure formation. The strength of the material increased with the addition of maltodextrin, which is partly caused by the withdrawal of water from the caseinate phase towards the maltodextrin phase, leading to a higher local caseinate concentration. The anisotropy of fracture stress and fracture strain were enhanced with up to 5 wt% maltodextrin. The effect of maltodextrin on the mechanical anisotropy and fibrous appearance could be ascribed to the greater air incorporation as a result of the presence of maltodextrin.

A systematic analysis on tomato powder quality prepared by four conductive drying technologies
Qiu, Jun ; Acharya, Parag ; Jacobs, Doris M. ; Boom, Remko M. ; Schutyser, Maarten A.I. - \ 2019
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 54 (2019). - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 103 - 112.
Agitated thin film drying - Colour - Drum drying - Flavour properties - Lycopersicum esculentum - Refractance window drying

Four pilot-scale conductive dryers, namely a vacuum drum dryer (VDD), a drum dryer (DD), an agitated thin film dryer (ATFD) and a refractance window dryer (RWD), were used to dry tomato puree. Drying induced colour differences between the reconstituted puree and the original puree and strongly affected the volatile and non-volatile profiles of the powders. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified four separated groups corresponding to the different drying methods, indicating that the drying methods caused significant variance in compound profiles. Subsequently, pairwise comparison of different dried powders was performed by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). This resulted in a selection of discriminative volatile and non-volatile markers. RWD and VDD produced powders with high volatile markers that may be related to aroma retention. Conversely, DD dried products contained more non-volatile markers that can be related to taste perception. ATFD processed powders had a lower level of discriminant compounds. Industrial relevance: Tomato products are frequently thermally processed and dehydrated. However, processing negatively affects the sensory quality of tomato products. In this study, four conductive drying processes, i.e. vacuum drum drying (VDD), drum drying (DD), agitated thin film drying (ATFD) and refractance window drying (RWD) were studied for being energy-efficient drying methods, while suitable for mild (e.g. due to the reduced pressure) drying of pastes and slurries, such as tomato puree. The pilot-scale drying experiments and subsequent statistical analyses of results on quality markers contributed to unravel the impact of the different conductive drying technologies on tomato powder quality. This study may be considered a starting point for selection of conductive drying technologies for the efficient production of high quality tomato powders and other vegetable powders.

The role of viscosity in morphology development during single droplet drying
Both, E.M. ; Siemons, I. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2019
Food Hydrocolloids 94 (2019). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 510 - 518.

Particle morphology influences the final quality of a powdered product. However, the mechanisms behind morphology formation are not completely understood yet. In this study particle morphology is linked to rheological properties of the concentrated liquid formulations at high concentration. Shear rate sweeps showed jamming of the whey protein at concentrations of ~50% (w/w), whereas maltodextrin remained liquid-like up to concentrations of ~70% (w/w). Morphology development of the latter components during single droplet drying showed that it could be influenced by altering initial droplet size and dry matter content. If droplets had a high initial dry matter (50% (w/w) morphology development started immediately, and the formed morphology could be explained by the rheological behavior of the mixture at that concentration. This indicated that measuring the rheological properties at high concentrations can provide insight in morphology development. Gaining insight on morphology development will eventually lead to higher quality powdered products.

Mild conductive drying of foods
Qiu, Jun - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Maarten Schutyser; Remko Boom. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435796 - 169
Oligosaccharides fractionation cascades with 3 outlet streams
Rizki, Zulhaj ; Janssen, Anja E.M. ; Boom, Remko M. ; Padt, Albert van der - \ 2019
Separation and Purification Technology 221 (2019). - ISSN 1383-5866 - p. 183 - 194.
Membrane cascades - Modelling - Nanofiltration - Oligosaccharides

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were fractionated using nanofiltration cascades. Instead of creating one product and a residual stream, we report on configurations that create 3 separate product streams rich in: (1) monosaccharides (DP1), (2) DP3 and (3) DP ≥ 5. We developed a modular system allowing different operating pressures and membrane types at each stage. Two possible alternative configurations were assessed for a 3-stage cascade both experimentally and via simulation. The simulation was performed using a steady state model and was in a good agreement with the experimental data. Using the simulation model, the system was optimized towards 4 and 5 stage cascades. All designs were evaluated based on the purities and yields of 3 components of interest in the corresponding product streams. Selecting the correct set up, the cascade was able to reach maximum purity of monosaccharides to 66 wt% (from 9 wt%), DP3 to 33 wt% (from 24 wt%) and DP ≥ 5 to 54 wt% (from 34 wt%). Increasing the number of stages improved the maximum purities of the 3 fractions. However, a fifth stage did not increase the purification and the best purities were found using 4-stage rather than 5-stage cascades.

Polyelectrolyte-activated carbon composite electrodes for inverted membrane capacitive deionization (iMCDI)
Fritz, Pina A. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schroen, K. - \ 2019
Separation and Purification Technology 220 (2019). - ISSN 1383-5866 - p. 145 - 151.
Carbon electrodes - Desalination - Exergy analysis - Inverted capacitive deionization - Ion exchange membranes - Membrane capacitive deionization - Polyelectrolyte - Polymers

A new way of desalination using capacitive deionization (CDI) technology is by inverting the potential profile (inverted capacitive deionization iCDI). This means ions adsorb to the electrodes at 0 V and desorb when biasing the electrodes to larger potential differences. Previously, this operation was achieved by preparing electrode materials with anionic and cationic surface charges. Here we show, as a novelty, that an inverted CDI operation is also possible with conventional activated carbon electrodes when used in combination with ion exchange membranes (inverted membrane capacitive deionization iMCDI). Further we show that, the salt separation could be increased to 5.2 mg/g using 0 V for ion loading and −1.5 V for regeneration of polyelectrolyte-activated carbon composite electrodes. These are made with a water soluble styrene butadiene rubber binder and positively (poly(diallyldimethyl-ammoniumchloride)) and negatively charged (polystyrene sulfonate) polyelectrolytes and used in combination with ion exchange membranes. This leads to increased separation performance, and exergy efficiency, whereas cumulative exergy loss values remain low, indicating promising resource use efficiencies, competitive with conventional membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI).

Fine ultrafiltration of concentrated oligosaccharide solutions – Hydration and pore size distribution effects
Aguirre Montesdeoca, Victor ; Janssen, Anja E.M. ; Boom, R.M. ; Padt, A. van der - \ 2019
Journal of Membrane Science 580 (2019). - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 161 - 176.
High concentration - Hydration - Maxwell-Stefan equations - Oligosaccharides - Pore size distribution

The effects of high concentration in the fine ultrafiltration of a solution of oligosaccharides were investigated both experimentally and using a mass transfer model based on the Maxwell-Stefan equations. At high concentrations, negative retentions were found for the smaller sugars, which cannot be ascribed to effects of ionic interaction, membrane adsorption or fouling. Instead, the behaviour could be quantitatively described by incorporating the effects of the thermodynamic non-ideality of the solutions and the effects of the pore size distribution. Experiments were performed to validate the model using as feed an oligosaccharide mixture with a concentration up to a 35% w/w. The model predictions allows the identification of an optimum feed concentration at which the efficiency of the separation is maximized. The results show that the fine ultrafiltration of sugars can be well described and predicted when taking into account the relevant thermodynamic interactions, the membrane pore size distribution and pressure effects.

Arabinoxylans-enriched fractions : From dry fractionation of wheat bran to the investigation on bread baking performance
Zhang, Lu ; Boven, Anneloes van; Mulder, Jorinde ; Grandia, Jeroen ; Chen, Xiao Dong ; Boom, Remko M. ; Schutyser, Maarten A.I. - \ 2019
Journal of Cereal Science 87 (2019). - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 1 - 8.
Arabinoxylans - Bread baking - Dry fractionation - Valorization

Arabinoxylans- (AX-) enriched fractions were separated from wheat bran by dry fractionation and utilized for fiber fortification in bread. The obtained AX-enriched fractions (AXF) contained 39.2–55.8% arabinoxylans (dry basis). To produce bread with various AX-fortification levels, wheat flour was partially replaced with AXF in the recipe, i.e., 2%, 5% and 10% of flour weight. Results indicate 10% AX fortification led to decreased specific volume, harder and coarser crumb and darker color of bread, while 2% and 5% showed no significant influence. Next, the bread recipe was adjusted based on Farinograph water absorption and the AXF was pre-soaked in water (with or without xylanase) at 40 C for 16 h before dough mixing. The recipe and process adjustment reduced the detrimental effects of a high-level AX-fortification on bread quality. Bread with 10% AXF showed comparable quality properties as the control and its fiber content (11.75% dry basis) was found twice higher than the control (5.48% dry basis). However, usage of xylanase did not further improve the bread quality under tested conditions. In conclusion, this study shows that AX-enriched fractions from wheat bran have valorization potential for application in food.

Simultaneous Silicon Oxide Growth and Electrophoretic Deposition of Graphene Oxide
Fritz, Pina A. ; Lange, Stefanie C. ; Giesbers, Marcel ; Zuilhof, Han ; Boom, Remko M. ; Schroën, C.G.P.H. - \ 2019
Langmuir 35 (2019)10. - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 3717 - 3723.

During electrophoretic deposition of graphene oxide (GO) sheets on silicon substrates, not only deposition but also simultaneous anodic oxidation of the silicon substrate takes place, leading to a three-layered material. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal the presence of GO sheets on the silicon substrate, and this is also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), albeit that the carbon portion increases with increasing emission angle, hinting at a thin carbon layer. With increasing applied potential and increasing conductivity of the GO solution, the carbon signal decreases, whereas the overall thickness of the added layer formed on top of the silicon substrate increases. Through XPS spectra in which the Si 2p peaks shifted under those conditions to 103-104 eV, we were able to conclude that significant amounts of oxygen are present, indicative of the formation of an oxide layer. This leads us to conclude that GO can be deposited using electrophoretic deposition, but that at the same time, silicon is oxidized, which may overshadow effects previously assigned to GO deposition.

Modelling ultrafiltration performance by integrating local (critical) fluxes along the membrane length
Aguirre-Montesdeoca, Victor ; Janssen, Anja E.M. ; Padt, A. Van der; Boom, R.M. - \ 2019
Journal of Membrane Science 578 (2019). - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 111 - 125.
Gel layer - Local critical flux - Maxwell-Stefan - Non-idealities - Protein ultrafiltration

Despite the vast number of studies on the understanding and estimation of the permeate flux in ultrafiltration, most of them base their estimations on either one or another mechanism, without pointing out a clear ‘bridge’ between them. The aim of this paper is to assess these mechanisms on the determination of the permeate flux, using as feed a multicomponent mixture of BSA, NaCl and H 2 O. Maxwell-Stefan Equations expressed as function of the components' volume fractions were used for an easier consideration of the non-idealities of the system. These non-idealities (hydration, adsorption, electrical interactions and volume exclusion) were critical in the local fluxes calculation, for which an increase in the thickness of the boundary layer along the filtration channel was considered. The developed model proved to be suitable for the estimation of fluxes lower than the limiting flux. Since the non-idealities of the system can be calculated along the concentration polarization layer, no extra information on the protein diffusivity was needed. Additionally, the fact that the model includes all the components from the solution offers the possibility of including the rejection of the accompanying ions in the calculations.

Understanding the role of air and protein phase on mechanical anisotropy of calcium caseinate fibers
Wang, Zhaojun ; Tian, Bei ; Boom, R.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2019
Food Research International 121 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 862 - 869.
Calcium caseinate dispersions can be transformed into anisotropic, fibrous materials using the concept of shear-induced structuring. The aim of this study is to further investigate the relative importance of air bubbles and protein on the mechanical anisotropy of calcium caseinate material. In this study, the effect of air on mechanical anisotropy of these fibrous materials was described with a load-bearing model, with the void fraction, and the bubble length and width as input parameters. The anisotropy of the protein phase was estimated using materials obtained from deaerated dispersions after shearing at different shear rates. We concluded that the deformation of air bubbles can only partly explain the mechanical anisotropy; the anisotropy of the protein phase is more important. Based on all results, we further concluded that the anisotropy of the protein phase was affected by the air bubbles present during the structuring process. This effect was explained by locally higher shear rate in the protein matrix during the structuring process.
Ultrafiltration of non-spherical molecules
Aguirre Montesdeoca, Victor ; Bakker, Jaap ; Boom, R.M. ; Janssen, Anja E.M. ; Padt, A. van der - \ 2019
Journal of Membrane Science 570-571 (2019). - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 322 - 332.
Capsule-shaped molecules - Elongated molecules - Hydration of sugars - Oligosaccharides - Pore size distribution

Information about the sizes of the solute molecules and membrane pores is needed to estimate solute rejection in filtration processes. Molecules are normally regarded as spheres, and the Stokes radius is commonly used to represent their molecular size. However, many molecules used in food and pharma processes are oligomers or polymers which are strongly elongated; therefore, considering them spherical affects the accuracy of the model predictions. We here adapt the so-called Steric Pore Model to a more realistic representation of the transfer of rigid elongated molecules into and through ultrafiltration membrane pores. To do so, sugars with different degree of polymerization were used as model molecules. They were considered to be capsule-shaped to facilitate their size estimation. In order to represent the system as accurately as possible, the effect of hydration on the sugars size was included, and the membrane pore size distribution was estimated based on rejection data. It was demonstrated that considering these molecules to be capsule-shaped instead of spherical generates better predictions over the entire rejection spectrum using a unique pore size distribution. Additionally, this capsular geometry lets us simplify the calculations, making the estimation of the rejection straightforward.

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