Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Towards a typology of intermediaries in sustainability transitions: A systematic review and a research agenda
Kivimaa, P. ; Boon, Wouter ; Hyysalo, Sampsa ; Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2018
Research Policy (2018). - ISSN 0048-7333
Intermediary actors have been proposed as key catalysts that speed up change towards more sustainable socio-technical systems. Research on this topic has gradually gained traction since 2009, but has been complicated by the inconsistency regarding what intermediaries are in the context of such transitions and which activities they focus on, or should focus on. We briefly elaborate on the conceptual foundations of the studies of intermediaries in transitions, and how intermediaries have been connected to different transition theories. This shows the divergence – and sometimes a lack – of conceptual foundations in this research. In terms of transitions theories, many studies connect to the multi-level perspective and strategic niche management, while intermediaries in technological innovation systems and transition management have been much less explored. We aim to bring more clarity to the topic of intermediaries in transitions by providing a definition of transition intermediaries and a typology of five intermediary types that is sensitive to the emergence, neutrality and goals of intermediary actors as well as their context and level of action. Some intermediaries are specifically set up to facilitate transitions, while others grow into the role during the process of socio-technical change. Based on the study, as an important consideration for future innovation governance, we argue that systemic and niche intermediaries are the most crucial forms of intermediary actors in transitions, but they need to be complemented by a full ecology of intermediaries, including regime-based transition intermediaries, process intermediaries and user intermediaries.
IL-37 expression reduces lean body mass in mice by reducing food intake
Kuipers, Eline N. ; Dam, Andrea D. van; Ballak, Dov B. ; Wit, Ellemiek A. de; Dinarello, Charles A. ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Diepen, Janna A. van; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Boon, Mariëtte R. - \ 2018
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19 (2018)8. - ISSN 1661-6596
Energy metabolism - Food intake - High fat diet - IL-37

The human cytokine interleukin (IL)-37 is an anti-inflammatory member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Transgenic expression of IL-37 in mice protects them from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic complications including dyslipidemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. The precise mechanism of action leading to these beneficial metabolic effects is not entirely known. Therefore, we aimed to assess in detail the effect of transgenic IL-37 expression on energy balance, including food intake and energy expenditure. Feeding homozygous IL-37 transgenic mice and wild-type (WT) control mice a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal palm fat) for 6 weeks showed that IL-37 reduced body weight related to a marked decrease in food intake. Subsequent mechanistic studies in mice with heterozygous IL-37 expression versus WT littermates, fed the HFD for 18 weeks, confirmed that IL-37 reduces food intake, which led to a decrease in lean body mass, but did not reduce fat mass and plasma lipid levels or alterations in energy expenditure independent of lean body mass. Taken together, this suggests that IL-37 reduces lean body mass by reducing food intake.

Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) : 6-9 March 2018, Galway, Ireland
Dannheim, Jennifer ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Boon, Arjen ; Brzana, Radoslaw ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Dauvin, Jean-Claude ; Degraer, Steven ; Jackson, Angus ; Janas, Urszula ; Mesel, I.G. de; O'Beirn, Francis ; Pezy, Jean-Philippe ; Raoux, Aurore ; Sheehan, Emma ; Vanaverbeke, Jan - \ 2018
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES WGMBRED Report 2018/HAPISG:02) - 68 p.
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean
Fowler, Ashley M. ; Jørgensen, A.M. ; Svendsen, Jon C. ; Macreadie, Peter I. ; Jones, Daniel O.B. ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Booth, David J. ; Brabant, Robin ; Callahan, Emily ; Claisse, Jeremy T. ; Dahlgren, Thomas G. ; Degraer, Steven ; Dokken, Quenton R. ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Johns, David G. ; Leewis, Robert J. ; Lindeboom, Han J. ; Linden, Olof ; May, Roel ; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Ottersen, Geir ; Schroeder, Donna M. ; Shastri, Sunil M. ; Teilmann, Jonas ; Todd, Victoria ; Hoey, Gert Van; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Coolen, Joop W.P. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16 (2018)10. - ISSN 1540-9295 - p. 571 - 578.
The removal of thousands of structures associated with oil and gas development from the world’s oceans is well underway, yet the environmental impacts of this decommissioning practice remain unknown. Similar impacts will be associated with the eventual removal of offshore wind turbines. We conducted a global survey of environmental experts to guide best decommissioning practices in the North Sea, a region with a substantial removal burden. In contrast to current regulations, 94.7% of experts (36 out of 38) agreed that a more flexible case-by- case approach to decommissioning could benefit the North Sea environment. Partial removal options were considered to deliver better environmental outcomes than complete removal for platforms, but both approaches were equally supported for wind turbines. Key considerations identified for
decommissioning were biodiversity enhancement, provision of reef habitat, and protection from bottom trawling, all of which are negatively affected by complete removal. We provide recommendations to guide the revision of offshore decommissioning policy, including a temporary suspension of obligatory removal.
Decoupling Livestock from Land Use through Industrial Feed Production Pathways
Pikaar, Ilje ; Matassa, Silvio ; Bodirsky, Benjamin L. ; Weindl, Isabelle ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Rabaey, Korneel ; Boon, Nico ; Bruschi, Michele ; Yuan, Zhiguo ; Zanten, Hannah van; Herrero, Mario ; Verstraete, Willy ; Popp, Alexander - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018)13. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 7351 - 7359.

One of the main challenges for the 21st century is to balance the increasing demand for high-quality proteins while mitigating environmental impacts. In particular, cropland-based production of protein-rich animal feed for livestock rearing results in large-scale agricultural land-expansion, nitrogen pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we propose and analyze the long-term potential of alternative animal feed supply routes based on industrial production of microbial proteins (MP). Our analysis reveals that by 2050, MP can replace, depending on socio-economic development and MP production pathways, between 10-19% of conventional crop-based animal feed protein demand. As a result, global cropland area, global nitrogen losses from croplands and agricultural greenhouse gas emissions can be decreased by 6% (0-13%), 8% (-3-8%), and 7% (-6-9%), respectively. Interestingly, the technology to industrially produce MP at competitive costs is directly accessible for implementation and has the potential to cause a major structural change in the agro-food system.

Probabilistic dietary risk assessment of triazole and dithiocarbamate fungicides for the Brazilian population
Jardim, Andreia Nunes Oliveira ; Mello, Denise Carvalho ; Brito, Alessandra Page ; Voet, Hilko van der; Boon, Polly E. ; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra - \ 2018
Food and Chemical Toxicology 118 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 317 - 327.
Brazil - Cumulative acute and chronic dietary risk assessment - dithiocarbamates - MCRA - triazoles

Residue data for triazoles (TR) and dithiocarbamates (DT) in 30,786 samples of 30 foods were obtained from mainly two national monitoring programs, and consumption data from a national survey conducted among persons aged 10 years or older. About 16% of the samples contained TR, mainly grape (53.5%), and 16.2% contained DT, mainly apple (59.3%). Flusilazole was the index compound used for the acute effects of TR for women of child-bearing-age (cranium-facial malformation and skeletal variation), cyproconazole for the chronic effects of TR (hepatoxicity), and ethylene-bis-dithitiocarbamates (EBDC) for DT (thyroid toxicity). Exposures were estimated using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment software. Different models were tested, and a Model-Then-Add approach was found to best estimate the chronic exposures to DT and TR. At the 99.9th percentile (P99.9), the cumulative acute TR intakes accounted for up to 0.5% of the flusilazole ARfD, mainly from beans and rice consumption. The chronic TR and DT intakes accounted for 1 and 6.7% of the respective index compound ADIs, with beans and rice accounting for most of the TR intake (∼70%), and apple for about 51–56% of the DT intake. The estimated risks from the exposure to TR and DT indicate no health concern for the Brazilian population.

Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) computational model: maintenance and management 2017
Boon, P.E. ; Boer, W.J. de; Kruisselbrink, J. ; Lenthe, M. van; Biesebeek, J.D. te; Klaveren, J.D. van; Voet, H. van der - \ 2018
Bilthoven : National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM letter report 2018-0001) - 30
Short-term cooling increases serum angiopoietin-like 4 levels in healthy lean men
Nahon, Kimberly J. ; Hoeke, Geerte ; Bakker, Leontine E.H. ; Jazet, Ingrid M. ; Berbée, Jimmy F.P. ; Kersten, Sander ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Boon, Mariëtte R. - \ 2018
Journal of Clinical Lipidology 12 (2018)1. - ISSN 1933-2874 - p. 56 - 61.
Angiopoietin-like 4 - Brown adipose tissue - Cold exposure - South Asians - Sympathetic nervous system
Background: Cold exposure enhances sympathetic outflow to peripheral tissues, thereby stimulating intracellular lipolysis in white adipose tissue and increasing the lipoprotein lipase-dependent uptake and combustion of triglyceride-derived fatty acids (FAs) by brown adipose tissue. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits lipoprotein lipase and can be regulated by cold exposure, at least in mice. Objective: In the present study, we examined the effect of short-term mild cooling on serum ANGPTL4 levels in healthy lean men of White Caucasian and South Asian descent. Methods: Healthy, lean White Caucasian (n = 12) and South Asian (n = 12) men were exposed to an individualized cooling protocol for 2 hours. Serum ANGPTL4 levels were measured before and after cooling, and its relation with previously measured parameters (ie, free fatty acid [FFA] levels, body fat percentage, and resting energy expenditure) was determined. Results: Short-term cooling increased ANGPTL4 levels (+17%, P < .001). Thermoneutral ANGPTL4 levels positively correlated with FFA levels (R 2 = 0.250, P < .05) and body fat percentage (R 2 = 0.338, P < .05). Furthermore, ANGPTL4 negatively correlated with resting energy expenditure (R 2 = 0.235, P < .05). The relative increase in ANGPTL4 levels was higher in White Caucasians compared with South Asians (25 ± 4 vs 9 ± 4%, P < .05). Conclusion: Short-term cooling increases ANGPTL4 levels in healthy lean men. We anticipate that FFA liberated from white adipose tissue during cooling increases ANGPTL4 to limit uptake of triglyceride-derived FA by this tissue.
RECON: Reef effect structures in the North Sea, islands or connections? : Summary report
Coolen, J.W.P. ; Jak, R.G. ; Weide, B.E. van der; Cuperus, J. ; Luttikhuizen, P. ; Schutter, M. ; Dorenbosch, M. ; Driessen, F. ; Lengkeek, W. ; Blomberg, M. ; Moorsel, G. van; Faasse, M.A. ; Bos, O.G. ; Dias, I.M. ; Spierings, M. ; Glorius, S.G. ; Becking, L.E. ; Schol, T. ; Crooijmans, R. ; Boon, A.R. ; Pelt, H. van; Kleissen, F. ; Gerla, D. ; Degraer, S. ; Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2018
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C074/17A) - 33
Chemical amd physical hazards in the egg production chain in the Netherlands
Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Asselt, E.D. van; Pikkemaat, M. ; Hoogenboom, R. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Horne, P. van; Boon, P.E. ; Razenberg, L. ; Mengelers, M. ; Leenstra, F. - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT-rapport 2016.005) - 57
Marine and coastal ecosystem services on the science-policy-practice nexus : Challenges and opportunities from 11 European case studies
Drakou, Evangelia G. ; Kermagoret, Charlène ; Liquete, Camino ; Ruiz-Frau, Ana ; Burkhard, Kremena ; Lillebø, Ana I. ; Oudenhoven, Alexander P.E. van; Ballé-Béganton, Johanna ; Rodrigues, João Garcia ; Nieminen, Emmi ; Oinonen, Soile ; Ziemba, Alex ; Gissi, Elena ; Depellegrin, Daniel ; Veidemane, Kristina ; Ruskule, Anda ; Delangue, Justine ; Böhnke-Henrichs, Anne ; Boon, Arjen ; Wenning, Richard ; Martino, Simone ; Hasler, Berit ; Termansen, Mette ; Rockel, Mark ; Hummel, Herman ; Serafy, Ghada El; Peev, Plamen - \ 2017
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 13 (2017)3. - ISSN 2151-3732 - p. 51 - 67.
Bottom-up approach - Data gaps - Ocean literacy - Pan-European approach - Policy relevance - Uncertainty
We compared and contrasted 11 European case studies to identify challenges and opportunities toward the operationalization of marine and coastal ecosystem service (MCES) assessments in Europe. This work is the output of a panel convened by the Marine Working Group of the Ecosystem Services Partnership in September 2016. The MCES assessments were used to (1) address multiple policy objectives simultaneously, (2) interpret EU-wide policies to smaller scales and (3) inform local decision-making. Most of the studies did inform decision makers, but only in a few cases, the outputs were applied or informed decision-making. Significant limitations among the 11 assessments were the absence of shared understanding of the ES concept, data and knowledge gaps, difficulties in accounting for marine social-ecological systems complexity and partial stakeholder involvement. The findings of the expert panel call for continuous involvement of MCES ‘end users’, integrated knowledge on marine social-ecological systems, defining thresholds to MCES use and raising awareness to the general public. Such improvements at the intersection of science, policy and practice are essential starting points toward building a stronger science foundation supporting management of European marine ecosystems.
Chemical and physical hazards in the Dutch poultry meat chain
Banach, J.L. ; Asselt, E.D. van; Hoogenboom, R. ; Razenberg, L. ; Boon, P.E. ; Horne, P. van; Mengelers, M.J.B. ; Fels-Klerkx, H.J. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2017.001) - 69
Socio-enonomic Analysis of a Selected Multi-use Offshore Site in the North Sea
Söderqvist, Tore ; Bas, Bilge ; Bel, Mark de; Boon, Arjen ; Elginoz, Nilay ; Garcao, Rita ; Giannakis, Elias ; Giannouli, Amerissa ; Koundouri, Phoebe ; Moussoulides, Aris ; Norrman, Jenny ; Rosén, Lars ; Schouten, Jan-Joost ; Stuiver, Marian ; Tsani, Stella ; Xepapedeas, Petros - \ 2017
In: The Ocean of Tomorrow / Koundouri, Phoebe, Cham, Switzerland : Springer - ISBN 9783319557700 - p. 43 - 67.
A 600 MW offshore wind farm is under construction in the Netherlands Exclusive Economic Zone at a site called Gemini situated 55 km north of the Wadden Sea island of Schiermonnikoog and 85 km from the nearest Dutch port of Eemshaven. This chapter investigates the option of introducing a multi-use design for the Gemini site by adding mussel cultivation (48 kt wet weight per year) and seaweed cultivation (480 kt wet weight per year) to the wind farm. An institutional analysis indicates a political will in the Netherlands to support the development of adding uses to offshore wind farms, but a number of implementation obstacles are also identified. Those obstacles include an absence of licences for multi-use production and legal restrictions against third-party access to wind farms. There is therefore a need for a regulatory framework for multi-use and trust-building among actors involved in multi-use installations. A financial and economic assessment, and a cost-benefit analysis also taking into account monetized changes in CO2 emissions, indicate that adding mussel cultivation to the wind farm is likely to be both financially and socio-economically viable. Including a seaweed cultivation function is probably not financially and socio-economically viable under current technical and economic conditions. Knowledge gaps and uncertainties in these assessments with respect to, for example, missing site-specific data and non-monetized externalities suggest further research, also including pilot cultivations of mussels and seaweed in planned single-use or multi-use installations.
Introduction of the MERMAID Project
Koundouri, Phoebe ; Airoldi, Laura ; Boon, Arjen ; Giannouli, Amerissa ; Levantis, Eleftherios ; Moussoulides, Aris ; Stuiver, M. ; Tsani, Stella - \ 2017
In: The Ocean of Tomorrow / Koundouri, Phoebe, Cham, Switzerland : Springer (Environment &amp; Policy ) - ISBN 9783319557700 - p. 1 - 8.
This chapter provides an introduction to the MERMAID project. MERMAID focused on developing concepts for offshore platforms which can be used for multiple purposes, such as energy and aquaculture production. These concepts were developed with input from experts as well as societal stakeholders. MERMAID consortium comprised of 28 partner institutes, including Universities, Research institutes, Industries and Small and Medium Enterprises from several EU countries. Consortium members brought a range of expertise in hydraulics, wind engineering, aquaculture, renewable energy, marine environment, project management, as well as socioeconomics and governance. Within the scope of MERMAID it has been developed and applied an Integrated Socio-Economic Assessment of the sustainability of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms, using the results from the natural and engineering sciences as inputs, boundaries and constraints to the analysis.
Rapid screening of IgG quality attributes - effects on Fc receptor binding
Geuijen, Karin P.M. ; Oppers-Tiemissen, Cindy ; Egging, David F. ; Simons, Peter J. ; Boon, Louis ; Schasfoort, Richard B.M. ; Eppink, Michel H.M. - \ 2017
FEBS Open Bio 7 (2017)10. - ISSN 2211-5463 - p. 1557 - 1574.
Biolayer interferometry - Fcγ receptor - High-throughput screening - In-process control - Neonatal Fc receptor - Surface plasmon resonance imaging
The interactions of therapeutic antibodies with fragment crystallizable γ (Fcγ) receptors and neonatal Fc receptors (FcRn) are measured in vitro as indicators of antibody functional performance. Antibodies are anchored to immune cells through the Fc tail, and these interactions are important for the efficacy and safety of therapeutic antibodies. High-throughput binding studies on each of the human Fcγ receptor classes (FcγRI, FcγRIIa, FcγRIIb, FcγRIIIa, and FcγRIIIb) as well as FcRn have been developed and performed with human IgG after stress-induced modifications to identify potential impact in vivo. Interestingly, we found that asparagine deamidation (D-N) reduced the binding of IgG to the low-affinity Fcγ receptors (FcγRIIa, FcγRIIb, FcγRIIIa, and FcγRIIIb), while FcγRI and FcRn binding was not impacted. Deglycosylation completely inhibited binding to all Fcγ receptors, but showed no impact on binding to FcRn. On the other hand, afucosylation only impacted binding to FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb. Methionine oxidation at levels below 7%, multiple freeze/thaw cycles and short-term thermal/shake stress did not influence binding to any of the Fc receptors. The presence of high molecular weight species, or aggregates, disturbed measurements in these binding assays; up to 5% of aggregates in IgG samples changed the binding and kinetics to each of the Fc receptors. Overall, the screening assays described in this manuscript prove that rapid and multiplexed binding assays may be a valuable tool for lead optimization, process development, in-process controls, and biosimilarity assessment of IgGs during development and manufacturing of therapeutic IgGs.
Schistosome egg antigens, including the glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, trigger the development of regulatory B cells
Haeberlein, Simone ; Obieglo, Katja ; Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Arifa ; Chayé, Mathilde A.M. ; Veninga, Henrike ; Vlugt, Luciën E.P.M. van der; Voskamp, Astrid ; Boon, Louis ; Haan, Joke M.M. den; Westerhof, Lotte B. ; Wilbers, Ruud H.P. ; Schots, Arjen ; Schramm, Gabriele ; Hokke, Cornelis H. ; Smits, Hermelijn H. - \ 2017
PLoS Pathogens 13 (2017)7. - ISSN 1553-7366
Infection with the helminth Schistosoma (S.) mansoni drives the development of interleukin (IL)-10-producing regulatory B (Breg) cells in mice and man, which have the capacity to reduce experimental allergic airway inflammation and are thus of high therapeutic interest. However, both the involved antigen and cellular mechanisms that drive Breg cell development remain to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated whether S. mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA) directly interact with B cells to enhance their regulatory potential, or act indirectly on B cells via SEA-modulated macrophage subsets. Intraperitoneal injections of S. mansoni eggs or SEA significantly upregulated IL-10 and CD86 expression by marginal zone B cells. Both B cells as well as macrophages of the splenic marginal zone efficiently bound SEA in vivo, but macrophages were dispensable for Breg cell induction as shown by macrophage depletion with clodronate liposomes. SEA was internalized into acidic cell compartments of B cells and induced a 3-fold increase of IL-10, which was dependent on endosomal acidification and further enhanced by CD40 ligation. IPSE/alpha-1, one of the major antigens in SEA, was also capable of inducing IL-10 in naïve B cells, which was reproduced by tobacco plant-derived recombinant IPSE. Other major schistosomal antigens, omega-1 and kappa-5, had no effect. SEA depleted of IPSE/alpha-1 was still able to induce Breg cells indicating that SEA contains more Breg cell-inducing components. Importantly, SEA- and IPSE-induced Breg cells triggered regulatory T cell development in vitro. SEA and recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 also induced IL-10 production in human CD1d+B cells. In conclusion, the mechanism of S. mansoni-induced Breg cell development involves a direct targeting of B cells by SEA components such as the secretory glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1.
Cumulative effects assessment: proof of concept marine mammals
Piet, Gerjan ; Boon, Arjen ; Jongbloed, Ruud ; Meulen, Myra van der; Tamis, Jacqueline ; Teal, Lorna ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C002/17) - 107
marine mammals - marine ecology - environmental impact - environmental assessment - ecological risk assessment - zeezoogdieren - mariene ecologie - milieueffect - milieutoets - ecologische risicoschatting
This development of the framework and approach for a Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is based on a literature review. The literature identified some key challenges that need to be addressed for CEA to evolve into a consistent, appropriate tool to assist decision-making. These challenges included • A clear distinction of the receptor-led CEA from the dominating stressor-led Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) approaches and • Enabling CEA to provide ecosystem-relevant information at an appropriate regional scale. Therefore this CEA is explicitly developed to be a receptor-led and fully integrated framework, i.e. involving multiple occurrences of multiple pressures (from single and/or different sources) on multiple receptors, as opposed to other existing approaches dealing with only a subset of those pressures or receptors, hence our use of the phrase iCEA for integrated CEA. As a proof of concept for this iCEA we selected one receptor, the ecosystem component marine mammals. The main conclusions of this exercise (see Chapter 6) are that the iCEA framework and approach presented in this study appear suitable to fulfil its main purpose and ultimately inform the policy process as described in the conception phase. However it should be acknowledged this is only the very first step in a process where through many iterations new information can be introduced and assessed (relative to existing information) based on the criteria provided resulting in an improved iCEA with increasing confidence levels. As more information becomes available the relative importance of impact chains and its corresponding information modules may change giving direction to new areas for research. For further development of this iCEA towards its intended applications we can distinguish between the first purpose, i.e. identification of the main impact chains contributing to the risk that a specific ecosystem component is impacted, which can be achieved with the approach presented here focussing on one specific ecosystem component and the second purpose, i.e. an evaluation of the performance of possible management strategies, which would require all ecosystem components to be included as would be required for ecosystem-based management. Thus to further the development and application of this iCEA towards its (two) purpose(s) the recommendation is to: • Include the available information presented in this report into the iCEA and develop the Bayesian Belief Network such that it can process this information and its associated confidence into an assessment that identifies the main impact chains for the marine mammals. • Extend the framework and approach to (all) the other ecosystem components so that a truly integrated CEA is possible. Note that this is likely to affect the identification of what should be considered the main pressures to guide management. • Improve the information modules that emerged from the evaluation as the most promising to increase the confidence in the outcome of the iCEA. Note that the previous two steps may result in a different prioritisation of the information modules as the importance of pressures and hence impact chains changes.
Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software : maintenance and management 2016
Boon, P.E. ; Voet, H. van der; Boer, W.J. de; Kruisselbrink, J.W. ; Lenthe, M.S. van; Klaveren, J.D. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIVM (RIVM Letter report 2017-0014) - 37 p.
The counterintuitive role of extra-column volume in the determination of column efficiency and scaling of chromatographic processes
Schultze-Jena, A. ; Boon, M.A. ; Bussmann, P.J.Th. ; Janssen, A.E.M. ; Padt, A. van der - \ 2017
Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1493 (2017). - ISSN 0021-9673 - p. 49 - 56.
Dead volume - Extra-column contribution - Industrial chromatography - Separation performance

In industrial liquid separation processes chromatography often has a key function in the optimization of yield and purity. For the design of an industrial system, chromatographic processes are generally simulated using mathematical models, tested and optimized at laboratory level, and then scaled up to pilot and subsequently industrial scale. To describe the system, experimental data and model data need to be fitted and extra column contribution must be determined. This paper describes the influence of extra-column volume on overall separation efficiency for lab scale and its impact on the design of large scale systems.Measurement of extra-column contribution was investigated in terms of mean retention time and variance using two different methods the commonly used zero dead volume connector and as an alternative the zero length column. Further a technique is presented to estimate extra-column contribution to band broadening for different injection volumes, velocities, and tracers based on representative measurements.When scaling up, often contribution of extra-column volume from laboratory equipment is neglected assuming to be on the safe side, however column efficiency is often lower than efficiency measured for the entire chromatographic system. Relation between system efficiency and column efficiency was investigated using laboratory data and the lumped kinetic model. Depending on the ratio of extra-column volume to retention volume in the system, deduced column efficiency was up to 20% smaller than overall system efficiency. This ratio revealed the misleading nature of the term efficiency loss, when describing influence of extra-column volume on column efficiency. A scheme, which relates the relative variance of the system to the relative extra-column volume, provided an assessment of under- or overestimation of column efficiency. In this article it is shown how scaling up a system based on laboratory data, where extra-column volume contribution is not accounted for, may severely overestimate column efficiency. This overestimation results in underestimated column dimensions at pilot and industrial scale, and hence underperformance of the industrial system.

Chemical and physical hazards in the dairy chain
Asselt, E.D. van; Marvin, H.J.P. ; Boon, P.E. ; Swanenburg, M. ; Zeilmaker, M. ; Mengelers, M.J.B. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2016.003) - 43
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