Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Analysis of the methodologies used to derive groundwater characteristics for a specific area
Ritzema, H.P. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Heinen, M. ; Bogaart, P.W. ; Bolt, F.J.E. van der; Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D. ; Hoogland, T. ; Knotters, M. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Vroon, H.R.J. ; Bosch, H. van den - \ 2018
Geoderma Regional (2018). - ISSN 2352-0094
Evidence of Vitamin D synthesis in insects exposed to UVb light
Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Keulen, P. van; Finke, M.D. ; Baines, F.M. ; Vermeulen, M. ; Bosch, G. - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Vertebrates obtain the prohormone vitamin D primarily by endogenous cutaneous synthesis under ultraviolet b (UVb) exposure. To date, endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in insects has never been investigated. In an initial experiment, we exposed four insect species which differ in ecology and morphology (migratory locusts, house crickets, yellow mealworms and black soldier fly larvae (BSFL)) to a low irradiance UVb source. In a second experiment we exposed these species to a higher UV irradiance, and in a third we tested the effect of exposure duration on vitamin D concentrations in yellow mealworms. Low irradiance UVb tended to increase vitamin D3 levels in house crickets, vitamin D2 levels in BSFL and vitamin D2 and D3 in yellow mealworms. Higher UVb irradiance increased vitamin D3 levels in all species but BSFL. Both BSFL and migratory locusts had increased vitamin D2 levels. Longer UVb exposure of yellow mealworms increased vitamin D2 and increased vitamin D3 until a plateau was reached at 6400 IU/kg. This study shows that insects can synthesize vitamin D de novo and that the amounts depend on UVb irradiance and exposure duration.

Review of the methodologies used to derive groundwater characteristics for a specific area in The Netherlands
Ritzema, H.P. ; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Heinen, M. ; Bogaart, P.W. ; Bolt, F.J.E. van der; Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D. ; Hoogland, T. ; Knotters, M. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Vroon, H.R.J. ; Bosch, H. van den - \ 2018
Geoderma Regional 14 (2018). - ISSN 2352-0094
Hydropedology - In-situ measurements - Phreatic groundwater table - Spatial interpolation - Temporal aggregation

In this paper, we analyze the methods that are used in The Netherlands to upscale in-situ groundwater measurements in time and in space, and how the selected combinations of upscaling methods affect the resulting groundwater characteristic. In The Netherlands, a three-step approach is used to obtain groundwater characteristics for a specific area: (1) in-situ monitoring of the water table depth; (2) temporal upscaling; and (3) spatial interpolation and aggregation. The three-step approach is, however, not standardized, but a combination of the following methods is used: (i) four methods to measure/monitor the phreatic water table; (ii) four methods for temporal aggregation; and (iii) four methods for spatial interpolation and/or aggregation. Over the past sixty years, several combinations of these methods have been used. Our review shows that the use of these different combinations in the approach to measure and interpret water table depths has resulted in significant systematic differences in the corresponding groundwater characteristics and that there are many sources of potential error. Error in the in-situ measurement of the water table depth can be as high as 1 m. Errors in the temporal aggregation are in the range of 10 to 20 cm and for the spatial interpolation between 20 and 50 cm. We show that there has been no systematic assessment of how these errors influence the resulting groundwater characterization. Thus, we cannot answer the question of whether drought stress in The Netherlands is under- or overestimated. Based on these findings we give recommendations for a systematic approach to groundwater characterizations studies that can minimize the impact of errors.

Gapless genome assembly of the potato and tomato early blight pathogen alternaria solani
Wolters, Pieter J. ; Faino, Luigi ; Bosch, Trudy B.M. Van Den; Evenhuis, Bert ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Seidl, Michael F. ; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A. - \ 2018
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 31 (2018)7. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 692 - 694.

The Alternaria genus consists of saprophytic fungi as well as plant-pathogenic species that have significant economic impact. To date, the genomes of multiple Alternaria species have been sequenced. These studies have yielded valuable data for molecular studies on Alternaria fungi. However, most of the current Alternaria genome assemblies are highly fragmented, thereby hampering the identification of genes that are involved in causing disease. Here, we report a gapless genome assembly of A. solani, the causal agent of early blight in tomato and potato. The genome assembly is a significant step toward a better understanding of pathogenicity of A. solani.

Closing the phosphorus cycle in a food system : insights from a modelling exercise
Kernebeek, H.R.J. van; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Ripoll-Bosch, R. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
Animal 12 (2018)8. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1755 - 1765.
animal production - human diets - optimisation model - phosphorus recycling - phosphorus use

Mineral phosphorus (P) used to fertilise crops is derived from phosphate rock, which is a finite resource. Preventing and recycling mineral P waste in the food system, therefore, are essential to sustain future food security and long-term availability of mineral P. The aim of our modelling exercise was to assess the potential of preventing and recycling P waste in a food system, in order to reduce the dependency on phosphate rock. To this end, we modelled a hypothetical food system designed to produce sufficient food for a fixed population with a minimum input requirement of mineral P. This model included representative crop and animal production systems, and was parameterised using data from the Netherlands. We assumed no import or export of feed and food. We furthermore assumed small P soil losses and no net P accumulation in soils, which is typical for northwest European conditions. We first assessed the minimum P requirement in a baseline situation, that is 42% of crop waste is recycled, and humans derived 60% of their dietary protein from animals (PA). Results showed that about 60% of the P waste in this food system resulted from wasting P in human excreta. We subsequently evaluated P input for alternative situations to assess the (combined) effect of: (1) preventing waste of crop and animal products, (2) fully recycling waste of crop products, (3) fully recycling waste of animal products and (4) fully recycling human excreta and industrial processing water. Recycling of human excreta showed most potential to reduce P waste from the food system, followed by prevention and finally recycling of agricultural waste. Fully recycling P could reduce mineral P input by 90%. Finally, for each situation, we studied the impact of consumption of PA in the human diet from 0% to 80%. The optimal amount of animal protein in the diet depended on whether P waste from animal products was prevented or fully recycled: if it was, then a small amount of animal protein in the human diet resulted in the most sustainable use of P; but if it was not, then the most sustainable use of P would result from a complete absence of animal protein in the human diet. Our results apply to our hypothetical situation. The principles included in our model however, also hold for food systems with, for example, different climatic and soil conditions, farming practices, representative types of crops and animals and population densities.

Development and validation of IPM strategies for the cultivation of cisgenically modified late blight resistant potato
Kessel, Geert J.T. ; Mullins, Ewen ; Evenhuis, Albartus ; Stellingwerf, Jeroen ; Cortes, Vilma Ortiz ; Phelan, Sinead ; Bosch, Trudy van den; Förch, Marieke G. ; Goedhart, Paul ; Voet, Hilko van der; Lotz, Lambertus A.P. - \ 2018
European Journal of Agronomy 96 (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 146 - 155.
Cisgenic modification - GM potato - Host resistance - Integrated pest management - Phytophthora infestans
Potato late blight disease remains the primary stressor of commercial potato production across the EU, typically requiring >10 fungicide applications per growing season to offset crop losses. In response, the goal of this study was to test and validate a novel, more durable, control strategy for potato late blight. This IPM2.0 strategy is based on the principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) which sees the deployment of a late blight resistant potato genotype, a cisgenically modified, Desiree based resistant potato line here, in conjunction with pathogen population monitoring for virulence to the resistance genes (R genes) deployed and a “do not spray unless”, low input fungicide spray strategy. Field evaluations were completed in the Netherlands and in Ireland in 2013, 2014 and in Ireland in 2015. Comparators used in this study included the original but susceptible potato variety Desiree and the conventional but highly resistant variety Sarpo Mira. The novel IPM2.0 strategy was compared to local common practice (fungicide applications on a near weekly basis) and an untreated control. Overall, the IPM2.0 control strategy validated here reduced the average fungicide input by 80–90% without compromising control efficacy. Corresponding environmental side-effects were reduced proportionally. The results underline the pragmatic role host resistance can provide to commercial potato production systems and to society at large if employed as part of an integrated late blight control system.
Associations of omega-3 fatty acid supplement use with cardiovascular disease risks meta-analysis of 10 trials involving 77 917 individuals
Aung, Theingi ; Halsey, Jim ; Kromhout, Daan ; Gerstein, Hertzel C. ; Marchioli, Roberto ; Tavazzi, Luigi ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Rauch, Bernhard ; Ness, Andrew ; Galan, Pilar ; Chew, Emily Y. ; Bosch, Jackie ; Collins, Rory ; Lewington, Sarah ; Armitage, Jane ; Clarke, Robert - \ 2018
JAMA Cardiology 3 (2018)3. - ISSN 2380-6583 - p. 225 - 234.
IMPORTANCE Current guidelines advocate the use of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids supplements for the prevention of coronary heart disease and major vascular events in people with prior coronary heart disease, but large trials of omega-3 fatty acids have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVE To conduct ameta-analysis of all large trials assessing the associations of omega-3 fatty acid supplements with the risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease and major vascular events in the full study population and prespecified subgroups. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION This meta-analysis included randomized trials that involved at least 500 participants and a treatment duration of at least 1 year and that assessed associations of omega-3 fatty acids with the risk of vascular events. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Aggregated study-level datawere obtained from 10 large randomized clinical trials. Rate ratios for each trial were synthesized using observed minus expected statistics and variances. Summary rate ratios were estimated by a fixed-effects meta-analysis using 95%confidence intervals for major diseases and 99%confidence intervals for all subgroups. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcomes included fatal coronary heart disease, nonfatalmyocardial infarction, stroke, major vascular events, and all-cause mortality, as well as major vascular events in study population subgroups. RESULTS Of the 77 917 high-risk individuals participating in the 10 trials, 47 803 (61.4%) were men, and the mean age at entry was 64.0 years; the trials lasted a mean of 4.4 years. The associations of treatment with outcomes were assessed on 6273 coronary heart disease events (2695 coronary heart disease deaths and 2276 nonfatalmyocardial infarctions) and 12 001 major vascular events. Randomization to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (eicosapentaenoic acid dose range, 226-1800mg/d) had no significant associations with coronary heart disease death (rate ratio [RR], 0.93; 99%CI, 0.83-1.03; P = .05), nonfatal myocardial infarction (RR, 0.97; 99%CI, 0.87-1.08; P = .43) or any coronary heart disease events (RR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.90-1.01; P = .12). Neither did randomization to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation have any significant associations with major vascular events (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.93-1.01; P = .10), overall or in any subgroups, including subgroups composed of persons with prior coronary heart disease, diabetes, lipid levels greater than a given cutoff level, or statin use. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This meta-analysis demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids had no significant association with fatal or nonfatal coronary heart disease or any major vascular events. It provides no support for current recommendations for the use of such supplements in people with a history of coronary heart disease.
Efficiency of organic stream conversion by black soldier fly larvae: a review of the scientific literature
Bosch, G. ; Veenenbos, M.E. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Meijer, N.P. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2018
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 4 (2018)supplement 1. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. S44 - S44.
Can insects synthesize vitamin D after exposure to ultraviolet light?
Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Keulen, P. van; Finke, M.D. ; Baines, F.M. ; Vermeulen, M. ; Bosch, G. - \ 2018
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 4 (2018)Supplement 1. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. S14 - S14.
Black soldier fly larvae to upcycle organic streams: a review of the scientific literature
Bosch, G. ; Veenenbos, M.E. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Meijer, N.P. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2018
Hoe ongezond is het om het voedsel van je huisdier zelf op te eten?
Bosch, Guido - \ 2018
The evolving protein landscape for pet foods
Bosch, G. - \ 2018
PETS International & Global Pets Community B.V.
Feed processing
Poel, A.F.B. van der; Vries, S. de; Bosch, G. - \ 2018
In: Feed evaluation science / Moughan, Paul J., Hendriks, Wouter H., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863099 - p. 295 - 336.
Aspects of comparative animal nutrition and the evaluation of pet foods
Hendriks, W.H. ; Bosch, G. - \ 2018
In: Feed evaluation science / Moughan, Paul J., Hendriks, Wouter H., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863099 - p. 491 - 524.
A systematic review of food-feed-fuel competition
Muscat, A. ; Ripoll Bosch, R. ; Olde, E.M. de; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Domestication and selection in livestock species tend to leave unique genomic imprints in the genome. Under intense selection pressure, these genomic regions show reduction in genetic diversity (runs of homozygosity, ROH). Analysis of ROH provides an informative indicator for inbreeding levels. Using genome-wide SNP data, we analysed six local goat breeds from Uganda to compare the distribution of ROH across different length categories within the breeds with a cut-off threshold of 2Mb. Genomic inbreeding was calculated using an ROH threshold of ≥2Mb for each individual and averaged across the breeds. We further investigated the variation in inbreeding at a higher ROH threshold of 4Mb and compared with the ROH threshold of ≥2Mb. A total of 1,437 ROH segments ≥ 2 Mb were detected with differing frequency and length distribution across the breeds. The Boer breed showed the highest overall frequency. Short ROH (< 8Mb) were generally more frequent than long ROH (> 20Mb). High ROH coverage within the short category may indicate a relatively high contribution of more distant inbreeding in the breeds. Indigenous breeds showed very low levels of genomic inbreeding (with the mean 퐹푅푂퐻 per breed ranging from 0.8% to 2.4%), as compared to higher inbreeding levels in Boer (mean 퐹푅푂퐻 = 13.9%).These findings are useful for providing insights into the demographic history and designing strategies for sustainable breeding programs and conservation strategies for the breeds.
Traditional ecological knowledge underlying herding decisions of pastoralists
Tamou, C. ; Boer, I.J.M. De; Ripoll-Bosch, R. ; Oosting, S.J. - \ 2018
Animal 12 (2018)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 831 - 843.
cattle - forage quality - grazing lands - pastoralism - soils
Pastoralists have traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), which is important for their livelihoods and for policies and interventions. Pastoralism is under pressure, however, which may result in a decline of pastoral lifestyle and its related TEK. We, therefore, addressed the following objectives (i) to inventorise and assess how pastoralists characterise and value soils and forages in their environment, (ii) to analyse how soil, forage and livestock (i.e. cattle) characteristics relate to herding decisions and (iii) to determine whether TEK underlying herding decisions differs across generations. Data were collected through focus groups and individual interviews with 72 pastoralists, belonging to three generations and to three agro-ecological zones. Using a three-point scale (high, medium, low), four grasses and three tree forages were assessed in terms of nutritional quality for milk, meat, health and strength. Using their own visual criteria, pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Pastoralists stated that Pokuri was the best soil because of its low moisture content, whereas Karaal was the worst because forage hardly grows on it. They stated that perennials, such as Andropogon gayanus and Loxoderra ledermannii, were of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals such as Andropogon pseudapricus and Hyparrhenia involucrata were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana was perceived of high quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest quality for meat, health and strength. Pastoralists first used soil, then forage and finally livestock characteristics in their herding decisions. Pastoralists' TEK was not associated with their generations, but with their agro-ecological zones. This study suggests that pastoralists had common and detailed TEK about soils, forages and livestock characteristics, underlying their herding decisions. To conclude, pastoralists use a holistic approach, combining soil, vegetation and livestock TEK in herding decisions. Such TEK can guide restoration or improvement of grazing lands, and land use planning.
Spotless strawberry plants: how to keep them free from Xanthomonas?
Wolf, J.M. van der - \ 2018
Xanthomonas fragariae (Xfr) is the causative agent of angular leaf spot of strawberry, a quarantine organism in Europe in plant propagation material (EPPO A2). Protected cultivation of strawberry plants in general resuIts in a pathogen free crop. However, if plants are grown in the field, infections occasionally occur which can result in high economic damage. Motile Xfr cells can enter the plants via wound or natural openings, in particular via stomata. The development of symptoms is favored by a high relative humidity and when temperatures are between 18-24 degrees Celsius. Under high-moisture conditions, bacteria can exude from lesions and provide secondary inoculum which can be dispersed in different ways.
Spotless strawberry plants: how to keep them free from Xanthomonas?
Wolf, Jan van der - \ 2018
Beheersing van suzuki-fruitvlieg in aardbeien
Helsen, Herman - \ 2018
Use of toxic baits for the control of Drosophila suzukii
Helsen, Herman - \ 2018
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