Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Validation of biomarkers of food intake-critical assessment of candidate biomarkers
Dragsted, Lars O. ; Gao, Qinfeng ; Scalbert, Augustin ; Vergères, Guy ; Kolehmainen, Marjukka ; Manach, Claudine ; Brennan, Lorraine ; Afman, L.A. ; Wishart, David S. ; Lacueva, Cristina Andres ; Garcia-Aloy, Mar ; Verhagen, H. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Praticò, Giulia - \ 2018
Genes & Nutrition 13 (2018). - ISSN 1555-8932
Biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) are a promising tool for limiting misclassification in nutrition research where more subjective dietary assessment instruments are used. They may also be used to assess compliance to dietary guidelines or to a dietary intervention. Biomarkers therefore hold promise for direct and objective measurement of food intake. However, the number of comprehensively validated biomarkers of food intake is limited to just a few. Many new candidate biomarkers emerge from metabolic profiling studies and from advances in food chemistry. Furthermore, candidate food intake biomarkers may also be identified based on extensive literature reviews such as described in the guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev). To systematically and critically assess the validity of candidate biomarkers of food intake, it is necessary to outline and streamline an optimal and reproducible validation process. A consensus-based procedure was used to provide and evaluate a set of the most important criteria for systematic validation of BFIs. As a result, a validation procedure was developed including eight criteria, plausibility, dose-response, time-response, robustness, reliability, stability, analytical performance, and inter-laboratory reproducibility. The validation has a dual purpose: (1) to estimate the current level of validation of candidate biomarkers of food intake based on an objective and systematic approach and (2) to pinpoint which additional studies are needed to provide full validation of each candidate biomarker of food intake. This position paper on biomarker of food intake validation outlines the second step of the BFIRev procedure but may also be used as such for validation of new candidate biomarkers identified, e.g., in food metabolomic studies.
Assessing the impact of care farms on quality of life and offending : A pilot study among probation service users in England
Elsey, Helen ; Farragher, Tracey ; Tubeuf, Sandy ; Bragg, Rachel ; Elings, Marjolein ; Brennan, Cathy ; Gold, Rochelle ; Shickle, Darren ; Wickramasekera, Nyantara ; Richardson, Zoe ; Cade, Janet ; Murray, Jenni - \ 2018
BMJ Open 8 (2018)3. - ISSN 2044-6055
mental health - public health - social medicine - substance misuse
Objectives To assess the feasibility of conducting a cost-effectiveness study of using care farms (CFS) to improve quality of life and reduce reoffending among offenders undertaking community orders (COs). To pilot questionnaires to assess quality of life, connection to nature, lifestyle behaviours, health and social-care use. To assess recruitment and retention at 6 months and feasibility of data linkage to Police National Computer (PNC) reconvictions data and data held by probation services. Design Pilot study using questionnaires to assess quality of life, individually linked to police and probation data. Setting The pilot study was conducted in three probation service regions in England. Each site included a CF and at least one comparator CO project. CFS are working farms used with a range of clients, including offenders, for therapeutic purposes. The three CFS included one aquaponics and horticulture social enterprise, a religious charity focusing on horticulture and a family-run cattle farm. Comparator projects included sorting secondhand clothes and activities to address alcohol misuse and anger management. Participants We recruited 134 adults (over 18) serving COs in England, 29% female. Results 52% of participants completed follow-up questionnaires. Privatisation of UK probation trusts in 2014 negatively impacted on recruitment and retention. Linkage to PNC data was a more successful means of follow-up, with 90% consenting to access their probation and PNC data. Collection of health and social-care costs and quality-Adjusted life year derivation were feasible. Propensity score adjustment provided a viable comparison method despite differences between comparators. We found worse health and higher reoffending risk among CF participants due to allocation of challenging offenders to CFS, making risk of reoffending a confounder. Conclusions Recruitment would be feasible in a more stable probation environment. Follow-up was challenging; however, assessing reconvictions from PNC data is feasible and a potential primary outcome for future studies.
Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev) : How to conduct an extensive literature search for biomarker of food intake discovery
Praticò, Giulia ; Gao, Qian ; Scalbert, Augustin ; Vergères, Guy ; Kolehmainen, Marjukka ; Manach, Claudine ; Brennan, Lorraine ; Pedapati, Sri Harsha ; Afman, Lydia A. ; Wishart, David S. ; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa ; Lacueva, Cristina Andres ; Garcia-Aloy, Mar ; Verhagen, Hans ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Dragsted, Lars O. - \ 2018
Genes & Nutrition 13 (2018)1. - ISSN 1555-8932
Biomarkers - Food exposure markers - Literature search methodology - Metabolomics - Systematic review
Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important role in identifying a large number of putative biomarkers of food intake (BFIs). However, the large body of scientific literature on potential BFIs outside the metabolomics area should also be taken into account. In particular, we believe that extensive literature reviews should be conducted and that the quality of all suggested biomarkers should be systematically evaluated. In order to cover the literature on BFIs in the most appropriate and consistent manner, there is a need for appropriate guidelines on this topic. These guidelines should build upon guidelines in related areas of science while targeting the special needs of biomarker methodology. This document provides a guideline for conducting an extensive literature search on BFIs, which will provide the basis to systematically validate BFIs. This procedure will help to prioritize future work on the identification of new potential biomarkers and on validating these as well as other biomarker candidates, thereby providing better tools for future studies in nutrition and health.
Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques: present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance
Brouwer, E.M. ; Brennan, L. ; Drevon, C.A. ; Kranen, H. van; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2017
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 76 (2017)4. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 619 - 627.
FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently validated. This review provides an overview of food intake biomarker research and highlights present research efforts of the Joint Programming Initiative ‘A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life’ (JPI-HDHL) Food Biomarkers Alliance (FoodBAll). In order to identify novel food intake biomarkers, the focus is on new food metabolomics techniques that allow the quantification of up to thousands of metabolites simultaneously, which may be applied in intervention and observational studies. As biomarkers are often influenced by various other factors than the food under investigation, FoodBAll developed a food intake biomarker quality and validity score aiming to assist the systematic evaluation of novel biomarkers. Moreover, to evaluate the applicability of nutritional biomarkers, studies are presently also focusing on associations between food intake biomarkers and diet-related disease risk. In order to be successful in these metabolomics studies, knowledge about available electronic metabolomics resources is necessary and further developments of these resources are essential. Ultimately, present efforts in this research area aim to advance quality control of traditional dietary assessment methods, advance compliance evaluation in nutritional intervention studies, and increase the significance of observational studies by investigating associations between nutrition and health.
A scheme for a flexible classification of dietary and health biomarkers
Gao, Qian ; Praticò, G. ; Scalbert, A. ; Vergères, Guy ; Kolehmainen, M. ; Manach, Claudine ; Brennan, L. ; Afman, L.A. ; Wishart, D.S. ; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina ; Garcia-Aloy, M. ; Verhagen, H. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Dragsted, L.O. - \ 2017
Genes & Nutrition 12 (2017). - ISSN 1555-8932
Biomarkers are an efficient means to examine intakes or exposures and their biological effects and to assess system susceptibility. Aided by novel profiling technologies, the biomarker research field is undergoing rapid development and new putative biomarkers are continuously emerging in the scientific literature. However, the existing concepts for classification of biomarkers in the dietary and health area may be ambiguous, leading to uncertainty about their application. In order to better understand the potential of biomarkers and to communicate their use and application, it is imperative to have a solid scheme for biomarker classification that will provide a well-defined ontology for the field. In this manuscript, we provide an improved scheme for biomarker classification based on their intended use rather than the technology or outcomes (six subclasses are suggested: food compound intake biomarkers (FCIBs), food or food component intake biomarkers (FIBs), dietary pattern biomarkers (DPBs), food compound status biomarkers (FCSBs), effect biomarkers, physiological or health state biomarkers). The application of this scheme is described in detail for the dietary and health area and is compared with previous biomarker classification for this field of research.
Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures : A review of European studies
Hegetschweiler, K.T. ; Vries, Sjerp de; Arnberger, Arne ; Bell, Simon ; Brennan, Michael ; Siter, Nathan ; Olafsson, Anton Stahl ; Voigt, Annette ; Hunziker, Marcel - \ 2017
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 21 (2017). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 48 - 59.
Factors influencing well-being benefits - Linkage of social and physical data - Spatially explicit - Urban forestry - Urban green space

Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical characteristics of the ecosystem. We conducted a review of publications dealing with demand or social factors such as user needs, preferences and values as well as spatially explicit supply or physical factors such as amount of green space, (bio)diversity, recreational infrastructure, etc. and linking demand and supply factors together. The aim was to provide an overview of this highly interdisciplinary research, to describe how these linkages are being made and to identify which factors significantly influence dependent variables such as levels of use, activities or health and well-being benefits. Commonly used methods were the combination of questionnaires with either on-site visual recording of elements or GIS data. Links between social and physical data were usually established either by using statistical tools or by overlaying different thematic maps. Compared to the large number of variables assessed in most studies, the significant effects in the end were relatively few, not consistent across the studies and largely dependent on the context they were seen in. Studies focused on aesthetic and recreational services, while spiritual, educational and inspirational services were not considered when creating links to spatially explicit ecological structures. We conclude that an improvement and harmonization of methodologies, cross-country studies and an expansion of this line of research to a wider range of services and more user groups could help clarify relationships and thereby increase applicability for urban management and planning.

Risk/Benefit Communication about Food—A Systematic Review of the Literature
Frewer, L.J. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Brennan, M. ; Bánáti, D. ; Lion, R. ; Meertens, R.M. ; Rowe, G. ; Siegrist, M. ; Verbeke, W. ; Vereijken, C.M.J.L. - \ 2016
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56 (2016)10. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 1728 - 1745.
benefit communication - food hazard - food safety - risk communication - Risk perception - trust

A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attitudes and behaviors. Fifty four papers were identified. The analysis revealed that (primarily European or US) research interest has been relatively recent. Certain food issues were of greater interest to researchers than others, perhaps reflecting the occurrence of a crisis, or policy concern. Three broad themes relevant to the development of best practice in risk (benefit) communication were identified: the characteristics of the target population; the contents of the information; and the characteristics of the information sources. Within these themes, independent and dependent variables differed considerably. Overall, acute risk (benefit) communication will require advances in communication process whereas chronic communication needs to identify audience requirements. Both citizen's risk/benefit perceptions and (if relevant) related behaviors need to be taken into account, and recommendations for behavioral change need to be concrete and actionable. The application of theoretical frameworks to the study of risk (benefit) communication was infrequent, and developing predictive models of effective risk (benefit) communication may be contingent on improved theoretical perspectives.

In memoriam--Richard M. Elliott (1954-2015)
Brennan, Benjamin ; Weber, Friedemann ; Kormelink, Richard ; Schnettler, Esther - \ 2015
Journal of General Virology 96 (2015)8. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 1975 - 1978.
Understanding the impacts of care farms on health and well-being of disadvantaged populations: a protocol of the Evaluating Community Orders (ECO) pilot study
Elsey, H. ; Bragg, R. ; Elings, M. ; Cade, J.E. ; Brennan, C. ; Farragher, T. ; Tubeuf, S. ; Gold, R. ; Shickle, D. ; Wickramasekera, N. ; Richardson, Z. ; Murray, J. - \ 2014
BMJ Open 4 (2014)10. - ISSN 2044-6055
animal-assisted therapy - illness - program
Introduction: Care farms, where all or part of the farm is used for therapeutic purposes, show much potential for improving the health and well-being of a range of disadvantaged groups. Studies to date have been qualitative or observational, with limited empirical evidence of the effectiveness of care farms in improving health and well-being. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to improvements for different disadvantaged groups is a further gap in the evidence. Participants in this study are offenders serving community orders. Their low socioeconomic status and poor health outcomes relative to the general population exemplifies disadvantage. Methods and analysis: This paper describes the protocol of a study to understand the impacts of care farms and to pilot the design and tools for a study to assess cost-effectiveness of care farms in improving the quality of life of offenders. As a pilot study, no power calculation has been conducted. However, 150 offenders serving community sentences on care farms and 150 on other probation locations (eg, litter picking, painting) will be recruited over a 1-year period. Changes in quality of life, measured by Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure, health and reconvictions of offenders at care farms compared to other probation locations will be analysed to inform the sample size calculation for the follow on study. The feasibility of recruitment, retention, collecting cost data and modelling cost-effectiveness will also be assessed. The study will use qualitative methods to explore the experiences of offenders attending care farms and perceptions of probation and care farm staff on the processes and impacts of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination: Findings will be published and inform development of a natural experiment and will be disseminated to probation services, care farms and academics. University of Leeds Ethical Review Board approved: SoMREC/13/014. National Offender Management Service (NOMS) approved: 2013-257.
Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context
Frewer, L.J. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Brennan, M. ; Coles, D.G. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Houdebine, L.M. ; Mora, C. ; Millar, K. ; Salter, B. - \ 2013
New Biotechnology 30 (2013)5. - ISSN 1871-6784 - p. 447 - 460.
consumer acceptance - human health - gm animals - food - biotechnology - engagement - crops - milk - pigs - xenotransplantation
The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Nort-South gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study
Eussen, S.J.P.M. ; Nilsen, R.M. ; Midttun, O. ; Hustad, S. ; IJssenagger, N. ; Meyer, K. ; Fredriksen, A. ; Ulvik, A. ; Ueland, P.M. ; Brennan, P. ; Johansson, M. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B. ; Vineis, P. ; Chuang, S.C. ; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. ; Dossus, L. ; Perquier, F. ; Overvad, K. ; Teucher, B. ; Grote, V.A. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Adarakis, G. ; Plada, M. ; Sieri, S. ; Tumino, R. ; Santucci de Magistris, M. ; Ros, M.M. ; Peeters, P.H.M. ; Redondo, M.L. ; Zamora-Ros, R. ; Chirlaque, M.D. ; Ardanaz, E. ; Sonestedt, E. ; Ericson, U. ; Schneede, J. ; Guelpen, B. ; Wark, P.A. ; Gallo, V. ; Norat, T. ; Riboli, E. ; Vollset, S.E. - \ 2013
British Journal of Nutrition 110 (2013)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 363 - 374.
tandem mass-spectrometry - 24-hour dietary recalls - colorectal-cancer - homocysteine metabolism - microbiological assay - alcohol-consumption - nutrient intake - dairy-products - folate intake - 10 countries
Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north–south gradient. Vitamin B2 concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (P trend <0·001). Vitamin B6 concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (P trend <0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle.
A risk model for lung cancer incidence
Hoggart, C. ; Brennan, P. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Vogel, U. ; Overvad, K. ; Ostergaard, J.N. ; Kaaks, R. ; Canzian, F. ; Boeing, H. ; Steffen, A. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Bamia, C. ; Trichopoulos, D. ; Johansson, M. ; Palli, D. ; Krogh, V. ; Tumino, R. ; Sacerdote, C. ; Panico, S. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. ; Peeters, P.H. ; Lund, E. ; Gram, I.T. ; Braaten, T. ; Rodrígues, L. ; Agudo, A. ; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E. ; Arriola, L. ; Chirlaque, M.D. ; Barricarte, A. ; Rasmuson, T. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N. ; Allen, N.E. ; Riboli, E. ; Vineis, P. - \ 2012
Cancer Prevention Research / American Association for Cancer Research 5 (2012)6. - ISSN 1940-6207 - p. 834 - 846.
body-mass index - susceptibility locus - smoking-cessation - cigarette-smoking - prediction model - smokers - mortality - women - association - 5p15.33
Risk models for lung cancer incidence would be useful for prioritizing individuals for screening and participation in clinical trials of chemoprevention. We present a risk model for lung cancer built using prospective cohort data from a general population which predicts individual incidence in a given time period. We build separate risk models for current and former smokers using 169,035 ever smokers from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and considered a model for never smokers. The data set was split into independent training and test sets. Lung cancer incidence was modeled using survival analysis, stratifying by age started smoking, and for former smokers, also smoking duration. Other risk factors considered were smoking intensity, 10 occupational/environmental exposures previously implicated with lung cancer, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at two loci identified by genome-wide association studies of lung cancer. Individual risk in the test set was measured by the predicted probability of lung cancer incidence in the year preceding last follow-up time, predictive accuracy was measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Using smoking information alone gave good predictive accuracy: the AUC and 95% confidence interval in ever smokers was 0.843 (0.810-0.875), the Bach model applied to the same data gave an AUC of 0.775 (0.737-0.813). Other risk factors had negligible effect on the AUC, including never smokers for whom prediction was poor. Our model is generalizable and straightforward to implement. Its accuracy can be attributed to its modeling of lifetime exposure to smoking.
Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
Linseisen, J. ; Rohrmann, S. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B. ; Büchner, F.L. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Agudo, A. ; Gram, I.T. ; Dahm, C.C. ; Overvad, K. ; Egeberg, R. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Boeing, H. ; Steffen, A. ; Kaaks, R. ; Lukanova, A. ; Berrino, F. ; Palli, D. ; Panico, S. ; Tumino, R. ; Ardanaz, E. ; Dorronsoro, M. ; Huerta, J.M. ; Rodríguez, L. ; Sánchez, M.J. ; Rasmuson, T. ; Hallmans, G. ; Manjer, J. ; Wirfält, E. ; Engeset, D. ; Skeie, G. ; Katsoulis, M. ; Oikonomou, E. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Peeters, P.H. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N. ; Allen, N. ; Key, T. ; Brennan, P. ; Romieu, I. ; Slimani, N. ; Vergnaud, A.C. ; Xun, W.W. ; Vineis, P. ; Riboli, E. - \ 2011
Cancer Causes and Control 22 (2011)6. - ISSN 0957-5243 - p. 909 - 918.
heterocyclic amines - dietary habits - heme iron - women - calibration - cohort - recalls - mortality - mutagens - fat
Evidence from case–control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992–2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89–1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95–1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer
Alterations in hepatic one-carbon metabolism and related pathways following a high-fat dietary intervention
Rubio-Aliaga, I. ; Roos, B. ; Sailer, M. ; McLoughlin, G. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Erk, M.J. van; Keijer, J. ; Müller, M.R. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Bachmair, E.M. ; Coort, S.L. ; Evelo, C. ; Gibney, M.J. ; Daniel, H. ; Muller, M. ; Kleemann, R. ; Brennan, L. - \ 2011
Physiological genomics 43 (2011)8. - ISSN 1094-8341 - p. 408 - 416.
homocysteine s-methyltransferase - induced insulin-resistance - oxidative stress - deficient mice - ikk-beta - plasma - choline - liver - disease - obesity
Obesity frequently leads to insulin resistance and the development of hepatic steatosis. To characterize the molecular changes that promote hepatic steatosis, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics technologies were applied to liver samples from C57BL/6J mice obtained from two independent intervention trials. After 12 wk of high-fat feeding the animals became obese, hyperglycemic, and insulin resistant, had elevated levels of blood cholesterol and VLDL, and developed hepatic steatosis. Nutrigenomic analysis revealed alterations of key metabolites and enzyme transcript levels of hepatic one-carbon metabolism and related pathways. The hepatic oxidative capacity and the lipid milieu were significantly altered, which may play a key role in the development of insulin resistance. Additionally, high choline levels were observed after the high-fat diet. Previous studies have linked choline levels with insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in conjunction with changes of certain metabolites and enzyme levels of one-carbon metabolism. The present results suggest that the coupling of high levels of choline and low levels of methionine plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance and liver steatosis. In conclusion, the complexities of the alterations induced by high-fat feeding are multifactorial, indicating that the interplay between several metabolic pathways is responsible for the pathological consequences.
Consumer response to novel agri-food technologies: Implications for predicting consumer acceptance of emerging food technologies
Frewer, L.J. ; Bergmann, K. ; Brennan, M. ; Lion, R. ; Meertens, R. ; Rowe, G. ; Siegrist, M. ; Vereijken, C. - \ 2011
Trends in Food Science and Technology 22 (2011)8. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 442 - 456.
genetically-modified food - pulsed electric-fields - high-pressure - public acceptance - gm foods - nanotechnology - risk - perception - attitudes - irradiation
The issue of consumer acceptance of food technologies, and their applications, needs to be addressed early in technology development. However, whether extensive assessment of consumer acceptance is necessary for all food-related technologies a priori is uncertain. A review of studies of seven foodrelated technologies associated with different levels of public acceptance suggests that those characterised as being ‘bioactive’ raise particular concerns - related to unpredictable effects, uncontrolled use, and ethical concerns. Perceptions of ‘unnaturalness’ alone are unlikely to raise a food technology to high levels of public rejection. Trust in regulation and effective labelling are also important considerations
The new Pest Risk Analysis for Tilletia indica, the cause of Karnal bunt of wheat, continues to support the quarantine status of the pathogen in Europe
Sansford, C.E. ; Baker, R.H.A. ; Brennan, J. ; Ewert, F. ; Gioli, B. ; Inman, A. ; Kinsella, A. ; Magnus, H. ; Miglietta, F. ; Murray, G. ; Porta-Puglia, A. ; Porter, J.R. ; Rafoss, T. ; Riccioni, L. ; Thorne, F. - \ 2008
Plant Pathology 57 (2008)4. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 603 - 611.
united-states - teliospores - disease
The NuGO proof of principle study package: a collaborative research effort of the European Nutrigenomics Oganisation
Baccini, M. ; Bachmaier, E.M. ; Biggeri, A. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Bouwman, F.G. ; Brennan, L. ; Caesar, R. ; Cinti, S. ; Coort, S.L. ; Crosley, K. ; Daniel, H. ; Drevon, C.A. ; Duthie, S. ; Eijssen, L. ; Elliott, R. ; Erk, M.J. van; Evelo, C. ; Gibney, M.J. ; Heim, C. ; Horgan, G. ; Johnson, I.T. ; Kelder, T. ; Kleemann, R. ; Kooistra, T. ; Iersel, M.P. van; Mariman, E.C.M. ; Mayer, C. ; McLoughlin, G. ; Müller, M.R. ; Mulholland, F. ; Ommen, B. van; Polley, A.C. ; Pujos-Guillot, E. ; Rubio-Aliaga, I. ; Roche, H. ; Roos, B. de; Sailer, M. ; Tonini, G. ; Williams, L.M. ; Wit, N.J.W. de - \ 2008
Genes & Nutrition 3 (2008)3. - ISSN 1555-8932 - p. 147 - 151.
immune-system
EC Fifth Framework Project QLK5-1999-01554: Risks associated with Tilletia indica, the newly-listed EU quarantine pathogen, the cause of Karnal bunt of wheat
Sansford, C. ; Baker, R. ; Brennan, J. ; Ewert, F. ; Gioli, B. ; Inman, A. ; Kelly, P. ; Kinsella, A. ; Leth, V. ; Magnus, H. ; Miglietta, F. ; Murray, G. ; Peterson, G. ; Porta-Puglia, A. ; Porter, J.R. ; Rafoss, T. ; Riccioni, L. ; Thorne, F. ; Valvassori, M. - \ 2007
United Kingdom : Plant Health Group (Final Project Report ) - 402 p.
New live mycobacterial vaccines: the Geneva consensus on essential steps towards clinical development
Kamath, A.T. ; Fruth, U. ; Brennan, M. ; Dobbelaer, R. ; Hubrechts, P. ; Ho, M.M. ; Mayner, R.E. ; Thole, J.E.R. ; Walker, K.B. ; Liu, C.M. ; Lambert, P.H. - \ 2005
Vaccine 23 (2005)29. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 3753 - 3761.
pantothenate auxotroph - published literature - enhanced protection - bcg vaccines - tuberculosis - vaccination - prevention - virulence - antigens - efficacy
As the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be a burden, which the world continues to suffer, there is a concerted effort to find new vaccines to combat this problem. Of the various vaccines strategies, one viable option is the development of live mycobacterial vaccines. A meeting with researchers, regulatory bodies, vaccines developers and manufactures was held to consider the challenges and progress, which has been achieved with live mycobacterial vaccines (either modified BCG or attenuated M. tuberculosis). Discussion led to the production of a consensus document of the proposed entry criteria for Phase I clinical trials of candidate live mycobacterial vaccines. The vaccine must be characterised thoroughly to prove identity and consistency, as clinical trial lots are prepared. In pre-clinical studies, greater protective efficacy as well as improved safety potential relative to BCG should be considered when assessing potential vaccine candidates. A standard way to measure the protective efficacy to facilitate comparison between vaccine candidates was suggested. Additional safety criteria and verification of attenuation must be considered for attenuated M. tuberculosis. Two non-reverting independent mutations are recommended for such vaccines. When entering Phase I trials, enrolment should be based upon an acceptable characterisation of the study population regarding mycobacterium status and exclude HIV+ individuals. BCG could be used as a comparator for blinding during the trials and to properly assess vaccine-specific adverse reactions, while assays are being developed to assess immunogenicity of vaccines. The proposed criteria suggested in this consensus document may facilitate the movement of the most promising vaccine candidates to the clinic and towards control of tuberculosis
Public worry about specific food safety issues
Miles, S. ; Brennan, M. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Ness, M. ; Ritson, C. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2004
British Food Journal 106 (2004)1. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 9 - 22.
Abstract: Consumers may encounter a number of potential food hazards through their food choice decisions and consumption behaviour. It is psychologically determined risk perceptions that drive acceptance of such potential food hazards, and define people's risk-taking or self-protective behaviours. As such, it is necessary to understand exactly what consumers are worried about. Food issues of concern to consumers were identified in a previous exploratory focus group study. A list of 18 food safety issues was developed for the purpose of the study reported here, with the aim of comparing worry about the different issues and investigating any demographic differences. Factor analysis indicated that attitudes to the 18 food safety issues reflected two underlying constructs, the first relating to technological food issues and the second to lifestyle food issues. In general, people were more worried about technological food hazards compared to lifestyle hazards. Demographic differences were observed for gender, age and social class, but not for geographical region, or having children; furthermore, experience of food allergy or intolerance increased worry about technological issues.
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