Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Waterkwaliteit zonder toxiciteit
Posthuma, Leo ; Grinten, E. van der; Verweij, W. ; Dingemans, M. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2019
Bilthoven : RIVM - 9 p.
Effects of long-term chlorpyrifos exposure on mortality and reproductive tissues of Banded Gourami (Trichogaster fasciata)
Sumon, Kizar Ahmed ; Yesmin, Most Farzana ; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Bosma, Roel H. ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Rashid, Harunur - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B, Pesticides Food Contaminants, and agricultural wastes (2019). - ISSN 0360-1234
Aquatic environment - fish - histopathology - organophosphate pesticide - reproductive toxicity

This study assessed the long-term toxicity of chlorpyrifos on survival and reproduction of Banded Gourami by using mortality, gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histopathological observations as endpoints. Adult fish were exposed to five different concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0, 15, 50, 150, 500 µg/L) in 15 PVC tanks for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days. Results showed that all male and female fish died after 15 days of 500 µg/L chlorpyrifos exposure. No consistent significant effect was observed for both male and female GSI. Furthermore, results showed dose- and time-dependent histopathological alterations for both ovary and testes. The 60-d No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) for most histopathological alterations of Banded Gourami ovary and testes was 50 μg/L, while 60-d NOEC for mortality of both male and female fish was < 15 μg/L. The results show that the long-term exposure to chlorpyrifos not only affect the reproductive tissues of Banded Gourami at exposure concentrations but also cause their mortality. Future studies should evaluate effects at lower concentrations.

Horizontal and vertical diversity jointly shape food web stability against small and large perturbations
Zhao, Qinghua ; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Carpentier, Camille ; Wang, Yingying X.G. ; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Pablo ; Xu, Chi ; Vollbrecht, Silke ; Gillissen, Frits ; Vollebregt, Marlies ; Wang, Shaopeng ; Laender, Frederik De - \ 2019
Ecology Letters (2019). - ISSN 1461-023X
Equilibrium - horizontal diversity - large perturbations - small perturbations - stability - vertical diversity

The biodiversity of food webs is composed of horizontal (i.e. within trophic levels) and vertical diversity (i.e. the number of trophic levels). Understanding their joint effect on stability is a key challenge. Theory mostly considers their individual effects and focuses on small perturbations near equilibrium in hypothetical food webs. Here, we study the joint effects of horizontal and vertical diversity on the stability of hypothetical (modelled) and empirical food webs. In modelled food webs, horizontal and vertical diversity increased and decreased stability, respectively, with a stronger positive effect of producer diversity on stability at higher consumer diversity. Experiments with an empirical plankton food web, where we manipulated horizontal and vertical diversity and measured stability from species interactions and from resilience against large perturbations, confirmed these predictions. Taken together, our findings highlight the need to conserve horizontal biodiversity at different trophic levels to ensure stability.

Bioturbation of Ag2S-NPs in soil columns by earthworms
Baccaro, Marta ; Harrison, Samuel ; Berg, Hans van den; Sloot, Laura ; Hermans, Davy ; Cornelis, Geert ; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Brink, Nico W. van den - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 252 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 155 - 162.
Bioturbation - Earthworms - Nanoparticles - Soil - Transport

Sewage sludge contains Ag2S-NPs causing NP exposure of soil fauna when sludge is applied as soil amendment. Earthworm bioturbation is an important process affecting many soil functions. Bioturbation may be affected by the presence of Ag2S-NPs, but the earthworm activity itself may also influence the displacement of these NPs that otherwise show little transport in the soil. The aim of this study was to determine effects of Ag2S-NPs on earthworm bioturbation and effect of this bioturbation on the vertical distribution of Ag2S-NPs. Columns (12 cm) of a sandy loamy soil with and without Lumbricus rubellus were prepared with and without 10 mg Ag kg−1, applied as Ag2S-NPs in the top 2 cm of the soil, while artificial rainwater was applied at ∼1.2 mm day−1. The soil columns were sampled at three depths weekly for 28 days and leachate collected from the bottom. Total Ag measurements showed more displacement of Ag to deeper soil layers in the columns with earthworms. The application of rain only did not significantly affect Ag transport in the soil. No Ag was detected in column leachates. X-ray tomography showed that changes in macro porosity and pore size distribution as a result of bioturbation were not different between columns with and without Ag2S-NPs. Earthworm activity was therefore not affected by Ag2S-NPs at the used exposure concentration. Ag concentrations along the columns and the earthworm density allowed the calculation of the bioturbation rate. The effect on the Ag transport in the soil shows that earthworm burrowing activity is a relevant process that must be taken into account when studying the fate of nanoparticles in soils. Earthworm bioturbation plays a more important role than rainfall in the vertical transport of Ag2S-NPs in soil.

Qualifying the effects of single and multiple stressors on the food web structure of Dutch drainage ditches using a literature review and conceptual models
Bracewell, S.A. ; Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Schafer, R.B. ; Bush, A. ; Lapen, D.R. ; Brink, Paul van den - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697
In September 2017, a workshop was held at Wageningen University and Research to determine the current state of knowledge of multiple stressor effects on aquatic ecosystems and to assess how to improve prediction of these effects. We developed a theoretical framework that integrates species-level responses to stressors to predict how these effects propagate through higher levels of biological organisation. Here, we present the application of the framework for drainage ditch ecosystems in the Netherlands. We used food webs to assess single and multiple stressor effects of common stressors on ditch communities. We reviewed the literature for the effects of targeted stressors (nutrients, pesticides, dredging and mowing, salinization, and siltation) on each functional group present in the food web and qualitatively assessed the relative sensitivity of groups. Using this information, we created a stressor-response matrix of positive and negative direct effects of each stressor-functional group combination. Fungicides, salinization, and sedimentation were identified as particularly detrimental to most groups, although destructive management practices, such as dredging with almost complete community removal, would take precedence depending on frequency. Using the stressor-response matrix we built, first, a series of conceptual null models of single stressor effects on food web structure and, second, a series of additive null models to illustrate potential paired-stressor effects. We compared these additive null models with published studies of the same pairs of combined single stressors to explore more complex interactions. Our approach serves as a first-step to considering multiple stressor scenarios in systems that are understudied or data-poor and as a baseline from which more complex models that include indirect effects and quantitative data may be developed. We make specific suggestions for appropriate management strategies that could be taken to support the biodiversity of these systems for individual stressors and their combined impacts.
Modeling the Sensitivity of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Chemicals Using Traits
Berg, Sanne J.P. Van Den; Baveco, Hans ; Butler, Emma ; Laender, Frederik De; Focks, Andreas ; Franco, Antonio ; Rendal, Cecilie ; Brink, Paul J. Van Den - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)10. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 6025 - 6034.

In this study, a trait-based macroinvertebrate sensitivity modeling tool is presented that provides two main outcomes: (1) it constructs a macroinvertebrate sensitivity ranking and, subsequently, a predictive trait model for each one of a diverse set of predefined Modes of Action (MOAs) and (2) it reveals data gaps and restrictions, helping with the direction of future research. Besides revealing taxonomic patterns of species sensitivity, we find that there was not one genus, family, or class which was most sensitive to all MOAs and that common test taxa were often not the most sensitive at all. Traits like life cycle duration and feeding mode were identified as important in explaining species sensitivity. For 71% of the species, no or incomplete trait data were available, making the lack of trait data the main obstacle in model construction. Research focus should therefore be on completing trait databases and enhancing them with finer morphological traits, focusing on the toxicodynamics of the chemical (e.g., target site distribution). Further improved sensitivity models can help with the creation of ecological scenarios by predicting the sensitivity of untested species. Through this development, our approach can help reduce animal testing and contribute toward a new predictive ecotoxicology framework.

Dynamics of archaeal community in soil with application of composted tannery sludge
Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima ; Mendes, Lucas William ; Lemos, Leandro Nascimento ; Antunes, Jadson Emanuel Lopes ; Amorim, Marineide Rodrigues ; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel ; Melo, Wanderley Jose de; Brink, Paul J. van den; Araujo, Ademir Sergio Ferreira - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

Application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) could promote a shift in the structure of soil microbial communities. Although the effect of CTS on bacterial community has been studied, it is unclear how the composition and diversity of archaeal community respond to CTS amendment and which environmental factors drive the community over time. Here, we hypothesize that the Archaea structure and composition respond to CTS amendment over the time. CTS had been previously applied annually along 6 years and this assessment occurred for 180 days following the application in the 7 th year by using different rates (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 ton ha −1 ). We used amplicon 16S rRNA sequencing to assess the changes in the structure of the archaeal community. Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were the most abundant phyla found in soils with application of CTS, with Thaumarchaeota dominating the sequences in all samples with relative abundances of >98%. We observed a decreasing trend on the archaeal diversity over the time with increasing CTS application rate, together with an increase in the community similarity. The redundancy analyses (RDA) explained 43% of the total variation in operational taxonomic units and identified Na, pH, Cr and P as the main drivers of the archaeal community over time after application of highest CTS rates. CTS application changes the structure of Archaea community, with significant increase of Thaumarchaeota and Aenigmarchaeota groups, which can be further explored for its biotechnological use in contaminated soils.

Corrigendum: Sialyllactose and Galactooligosaccharides Promote Epithelial Barrier Functioning and Distinctly Modulate Microbiota Composition and Short Chain Fatty Acid Production In Vitro
Perdijk, Olaf ; Baarlen, Peter van; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Marcela M. ; Brink, Erik van den; Schuren, Frank H.J. ; Brugman, Sylvia ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Neerven, R.J.J. van - \ 2019
Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 1 p.
epithelium - galactooligosaccharides - microbiota - short chain fatty acids - sialyllactose

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00094.].

Exposure pattern-specific species sensitivity distributions for the ecological risk assessments of insecticides.
Brink, Paul J. van den; Buijert-de Gelder, Daphne M. ; Brock, Theo C.M. ; Roessink, Ivo ; Focks, Andreas - \ 2019
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 180 (2019). - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 252 - 258.
Aquatic ecosystem - Hazardous concentration 5% - Insecticides - Single-species toxicity tests - Time variable exposure

In the higher tiers of pesticide risk assessment, the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD)concept is often used to establish the effect threshold defined as the concentration protecting 95% of the species (Hazardous Concentration 5%, HC5). The toxicity data included in SSDs are normally established using a constant exposure regime. However, the exposure of pesticides in the field is often characterised by a variable exposure regime. Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD)models can be used to extrapolate the toxic effects of a chemical to a specific, time-variable exposure regime. The aim of this paper was to develop Exposure Pattern Specific SSDs (EPS-SSDs)for three insecticides using TKTD models and to compare the HC5 of different exposure patterns with the same time-weighted average concentration to evaluate whether the use of EPS-SSDs would change the outcome of the ecological risk assessment. The EPS-SSDs were developed by estimating TKTD parameters for the compounds chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin using results from standard, 96 h, single species tests. These parameter estimates were used for TKTD modelling to determine toxicity thresholds (e.g. LC10 and LC50)for contrasting exposure patterns after certain evaluation times (4, 10 or 100 days). HC5 values were constructed with TKTD-predicted LC10- and LC50- values for different exposure patterns characterised by similar time-weighted average concentrations. Differences between those HC5 values ranged from a factor 1 to a factor 2.3 for the short evaluation period (4 d). This difference was smaller when using an evaluation period of 10 days instead of 4 days and selecting the TKTD-predicted LC10 instead of TKTD-predicted LC50 based HC5s. For the long term evaluation period (100 d), a maximum difference of a factor of 30 was found.

Dealing with uncertainty in collaborative planning: developing adaptive strategies for the IJsselmeer
Zandvoort, Mark ; Brugge, Rutger van der; Vlist, Maarten J. van der; Brink, Adri van den - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 62 (2019)2. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 248 - 265.
adaptive planning - collaborative water management - flexibility - responsibility - uncertainty

Adaptive strategies to deal with uncertainty in water management are often collaboratively developed. So far, however, little attention has been paid to the influence of collaboration on handling uncertainty through adaptive planning. In this paper, we study how collaboration has influenced the handling of uncertainty through adaptive planning for water management strategies for the IJsselmeer area in the Netherlands. We show how a fixation on certainty, different perspectives among actors and unclear responsibilities between arenas affect the handling of uncertainty, and found that it is adversely affected by collaboration. The use of adaptive planning challenged current water uses and system functions, creating resistance from actors. We conclude that developing a shared problem perception, creating a common understanding of uncertainties and ensuring a clear demarcation between the water system, its societal functions and water usage, are necessary to make adaptive planning successful in handling uncertainty.

Fate and effects of triclosan in subtropical river biofilms
Zhang, Naisheng S. ; Peng, Feng-Jiao ; Ying, G.G. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2019
Aquatic Toxicology 212 (2019). - ISSN 0166-445X - p. 11 - 19.
Triclosan (TCS, 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound. Owing to its wide use, TCS has been frequently detected in river systems, especially in the (sub-)tropics. However, little information on its interaction with river biofilm in the (sub)tropics is currently available. In the present study, subtropical river biofilms were chronically exposed to TCS for 14 d at concentrations of 0.1–100 μg/L in artificial river water, which was followed by a 7 d recovery period. The results show that 100 μg/L TCS inhibited the growth of river biofilms and the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of TCS on river biofilms was 10 μg/L. The affected biofilms did not completely recover within the 7 d of recovery period due to the adsorbed TCS which was not removed together with dissolved TCS. Exposure to TCS caused significant changes in prokaryotic species composition of river biofilms but no significant effects on eukaryotic species composition. In particular, the relative abundance of several TCS-tolerant bacterial species (e.g., Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana, Sphingopyxis alaskensis and Sphingomonas wittichii) in river biofilms increased following exposure to 10 and 100 μg/L TCS. River biofilm efficiently removed TCS from the liquid phase and the pH values of the aquatic system significantly affected the removal efficiency of TCS (from 36% at pH 6.5 to 60% at pH 8.5). No degradation products were detected in the liquid phase after 5 days of exposure, possibly due to strong adsorption of the hydrophobic degradation products to river biofilms and through biodegradation by bacteria utilizing TCS and its degradation products as source of carbon and energy for growth, such as Methyloversalitis universalis and Methylobacterium aquaticum.
Sialyllactose and Galactooligosaccharides Promote Epithelial Barrier Functioning and Distinctly Modulate Microbiota Composition and Short Chain Fatty Acid Production In Vitro
Perdijk, Olaf ; Baarlen, Peter Van; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Marcela M. ; Brink, Erik Van Den; Schuren, Frank H.J. ; Brugman, Sylvia ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Neerven, R.J.J. Van - \ 2019
Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-3224

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) and prebiotic oligosaccharides are proposed to confer several health benefits to the infant. They shape the microbiota, have anti-inflammatory properties, and support epithelial barrier functioning. However, in order to select the best oligosaccharides for inclusion in infant formulas, there is a need to increase our understanding of the specific effects of HMO and prebiotics on the host immune system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the HMO sialyllactose (SL), and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on epithelial barrier functioning, microbiota composition, and SCFA production. The effect of GOS and SL on epithelial barrier functioning and microbiota composition was investigated using in vitro models. Epithelial barrier function was investigated by transcriptome analysis of fully polarized Caco-2 cells exposed for 6 h to SL or GOS. In addition, epithelial cell growth, alkaline phosphatase production, and re-epithelization was studied. Further, we investigated the effect of SL and GOS on microbiota composition and SCFA production using in vitro fecal batch cultures. Transcriptome analysis showed that SL and GOS both induced pathways that regulate cell cycle control. This gene-expression profile translated to a phenotype of halted proliferation and included the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of epithelial cell differentiation. SL and GOS also promoted re-epithelialization in an in vitro epithelial wound repair assay. SL and GOS did show distinct modulation of microbiota composition, promoting the outgrowth of Bacteroides and bifidobacteria, respectively, which resulted in distinct changes in SCFA production profiles. Our results show that SL and GOS can both modulate epithelial barrier function by inducing differentiation and epithelial wound repair, but differentially promote the growth of specific genera in the microbiota, which is associated with differential changes in SCFA profiles




Introduction
More than meets the eye : a critical semiotic analysis of landscape design visualizations
Raaphorst, Kevin - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adri van den Brink, co-promotor(en): Wim van der Knaap. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435987 - 245
Internationale overeenstemming nodig voor blijvende toegang tot “Digitale Sequentie Informatie”
Hiemstra, Sipke Joost ; Brink, Martin - \ 2019

Door de vooruitgang in techniek en lagere kosten worden steeds meer genomische data gegenereerd. Deze Digitale Sequentie Informatie (DSI) kan snel worden uitgewisseld tussen onderzoekers, organisaties, landen en databases. Nederlandse stakeholders vinden dat vrije toegang tot DSI niet moet worden beperkt.

International agreement needed for continued access to “Digital Sequence Information”
Hiemstra, Sipke Joost ; Brink, Martin - \ 2019

With the ‘genomic revolution’, organisms, genetic material or genes can be sequenced relatively cheaply, and data can be exchanged rapidly between researchers, institutions, countries and databases. The amount of so-called “Digital Sequence Information” (DSI) in international, public or dedicated databases is exponentially increasing, as is the use of that type of data.

Response of sediment bacterial community to triclosan in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms
Peng, Feng Jiao ; Diepens, Noël J. ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Salvito, Daniel ; Selck, Henriette ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 248 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 676 - 683.
Benthic macroinvertebrates - Microcosm - Sediment bacterial community - Toxicity - Triclosan

The response of sediment bacterial communities in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms to sediment-associated triclosan (TCS; 28 d exposure) was analysed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. This study highlights the interactive effects of TCS and the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Viviparidae bellamya) on sediment bacterial communities. Our results show that TCS alone significantly altered the taxonomic composition and decreased alpha diversity of sediment bacterial communities at concentrations ≥80 μg TCS/g dry weight (dw) sediment (sed). Regarding dominant phyla, TCS significantly reduced the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes at these concentrations, whereas the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria increased. In the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates, the sediment bacterial community was affected by 8 μg TCS/g dw sed as well. However, the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates did not cause measurable changes to bacterial community in unspiked (i.e., control) sediment. These results indicate that TCS alone would not alter the sediment bacterial community at environmentally relevant concentrations (up till 8 μg/g dw sed), but may have an effect in combination with the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, we recommend to include benthic macroinvertebrates when assessing the response of sediment bacterial communities during exposure to environmental stress such as organic contaminants.

Cell-specific immune-modulation of cadmium on murine macrophages and mast cell lines in vitro
García-Mendoza, Diego ; Han, Biyao ; Berg, Hans J.H.J. van den; Brink, Nico W. van den - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Toxicology (2019). - ISSN 0260-437X
cadmium - glutathione (GSH) - histamine - innate immunity - nitrite - oxidative stress - TNFα

Toxic trace metals are widespread contaminants that are potentially immunotoxic even at environmentally low exposure levels. They can modulate the immunity to infections, e.g., in wildlife species living in contaminated areas. The diverse immune cell types can be differentially affected by the exposure leading to the modulation of specific protective mechanisms. Macrophages and mast cells, part of the innate immune system, trigger immune responses and perform particular effector functions. The present study compared toxicological and functional effects of cadmium in two models of murine macrophages (RAW264.7 and NR8383 cell lines) and two models of murine mast cells (MC/9 and RBL-2H3 cell lines). Cadmium was selected as a model compound because its known potential to induce reactive oxygen species and its relevance as an environmental contaminant. Mechanisms of toxicity, such as redox imbalance and apoptosis induction were measured in stationary cells, while functional outcome effects were measured in activated cells. Cadmium-depleted glutathione antioxidant in all four cell lines tested although reactive oxygen species was not significantly increased. Mast cells had full dose-response depletion of glutathione below cytotoxic levels while in macrophages the depletion was not complete. Functional endpoints tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages were increased by cadmium exposure. In contrast, mast cell lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IgE-mediated histamine release were reduced by cadmium. These data indicate potentially differential effects of cadmium among murine innate immune cell types, where mast cells would be more susceptible to oxidative stress and their function might be at a higher risk to be modulated compared to macrophages.

Towards a general framework for the assessment of interactive effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems : Results from the Making Aquatic Ecosystems Great Again (MAEGA) workshop
Brink, Paul J. Van den; Bracewell, Sally A. ; Bush, Alex ; Chariton, Anthony ; Choung, Catherine B. ; Compson, Zacchaeus G. ; Dafforn, Katherine A. ; Korbel, Kathryn ; Lapen, David R. ; Mayer-Pinto, Mariana ; Monk, Wendy A. ; O'Brien, Allyson L. ; Rideout, Natalie K. ; Schäfer, Ralf B. ; Sumon, Kizar A. ; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M. ; Baird, Donald J. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697
Aquatic ecosystems - Ecological models - Ecological risk assessment framework - Multiple stressors - Workshop

A workshop was held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, in September 2017 to collate data and literature on three aquatic ecosystem types (agricultural drainage ditches, urban floodplains, and urban estuaries), and develop a general framework for the assessment of multiple stressors on the structure and functioning of these systems. An assessment framework considering multiple stressors is crucial for our understanding of ecosystem responses within a multiply stressed environment, and to inform appropriate environmental management strategies. The framework consists of two components: (i) problem identification and (ii) impact assessment. Both assessments together proceed through the following steps: 1) ecosystem selection; 2) identification of stressors and quantification of their intensity; 3) identification of receptors or sensitive groups for each stressor; 4) identification of stressor-response relationships and their potential interactions; 5) construction of an ecological model that includes relevant functional groups and endpoints; 6) prediction of impacts of multiple stressors, 7) confirmation of these predictions with experimental and monitoring data, and 8) potential adjustment of the ecological model. Steps 7 and 8 allow the assessment to be adaptive and can be repeated until a satisfactory match between model predictions and experimental and monitoring data has been obtained. This paper is the preface of the MAEGA (Making Aquatic Ecosystems Great Again) special section that includes three associated papers which are also published in this volume, which present applications of the framework for each of the three aquatic systems.

Digital Sequence Information (DSI) : Options and impact of regulating access and benefit sharing - stakeholder perspectives
Hiemstra, Sipke Joost ; Brink, Martin ; Hintum, Theo van - \ 2019
Wageningen : Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands (CGN), Wageningen University & Research (Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands (CGN), Wageningen University &amp; Research report 42) - 19
With the ‘genomic revolution’ a continuously increasing amount of data is being generated. The Convention on Biological Diversity refers to this type of data as “Digital Sequence Information (DSI)”. Innovation in different domains and subsectors, ranging from agriculture and biodiversity conservation, to biotechnology and human health, depends on the use of DSI. Access to DSI and related technologies is crucial for any stakeholder and country, in order to reach long term food security objectives, to be able to adapt to climate change, to deal with human health issues, and to contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Stakeholder consultations in the Netherlands indicate that fair and equitable benefit sharing arrangements - related to the use of DSI - should possibly only be dealt with in a multilateral context.
To draw or to cross the line? The landscape architect as boundary spanner in Dutch river management
Brink, Margo van den; Edelenbos, Jurian ; Brink, A. van den; Verweij, S. ; Etteger, R. van; Busscher, Tim - \ 2019
Landscape and Urban Planning 186 (2019). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 13 - 23.
Integrated flood risk management - Landscape architects - Boundary spanning - Cognitive capacities - Social capacities - Dutch river management
In many Western countries, flood policy is transitioning from a focus on technical flood defence measures towardsmore holistic and integrated flood risk management approaches. In this article, we explore the boundaryspanning role of landscape architects in integrated flood risk management projects. The central research questionis: what are the boundary spanning activities and roles that landscape architects perform and which factorsare conditional to these activities? We have studied the boundary spanning behaviour of landscape architects inthe Dutch ‘Room for the River’ programme. This programme had a dual objective of improving simultaneouslythe water safety and the spatial quality of the Dutch riverine areas. We conducted a comparative, in-depth casestudy of three ‘Room for the River’ projects, and investigated conditions that stimulated or frustrated the work oflandscape architects in establishing safe solutions with spatial quality. We found that the landscape architectsinvolved in these projects played various boundary spanning roles. We conclude that, depending on the conditionalfactors, their roles ranged from more traditional content-oriented domain expert/scout to the moreinnovative organisational expert/task coordinator. For successful boundary spanning, although cognitive capacities(e.g., knowledge about landscape) are important, landscape architects also need to have the appropriatesocial capacities (e.g., social-emotional competences, networking skills). That is, the work of the landscapearchitects essentially includes drawing lines that sketch the contours of future landscapes; but to do so, they mustalso cross the lines between the various actors, organizations, and disciplines involved.
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