Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Combining QTL mapping with transcriptome and metabolome profiling reveals a possible role for ABA signaling in resistance against the cabbage whitefly in cabbage
Broekgaarden, Colette ; Pelgrom, Koen T.B. ; Bucher, Johan ; Dam, Nicole M. van; Grosser, Katharine ; Pieterse, Corné M.J. ; Kaauwen, Martijn van; Steenhuis, Greet ; Voorrips, Roeland E. ; Vos, Martin de; Vosman, Ben ; Worrich, Anja ; Wees, Saskia C.M. van - \ 2018
PLoS One 13 (2018)11. - ISSN 1932-6203

Whiteflies are among the world's most significant agricultural pests and chemical insecticides are extensively used to reduce crop damage to acceptable levels. However, nearly all insecticides pose a threat to the environment and alternative control methods, such as breeding of crop varieties that are inherently insect-resistant, are needed. Previously, a strong source of plant-age dependent resistance to the cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) has been identified in the modern white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) variety Rivera. However, nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms or the genes involved in this resistance. In the present study, a multidisciplinary approach combining transcriptome and metabolome profiling with genetic mapping was used to identify the molecular players of whitefly resistance in cabbage. Transcriptome profiles of young (susceptible) and older (resistant) Rivera plants were analyzed using RNA sequencing. While many genes involved in general processes were differentially expressed between both ages, several defense-related processes were overrepresented in the transcriptome profile of older plants. Hormone measurements revealed that jasmonic acid (JA) levels decreased upon whitefly infestation at both plant ages. Interestingly, abscisic acid (ABA) levels showed contrasting effects in response to whitefly infestation: ABA levels were reduced in young plants but induced in older plants upon whitefly feeding. Auxin levels were significantly lower in older plants compared with young plants, independent of whitefly presence, while glucosinolate levels were higher. Additionally, whitefly performance was monitored in an F2 population derived from a cross between Rivera and the susceptible white cabbage variety Christmas Drumhead. Significant QTL intervals were mapped on chromosome 2 and 9 for oviposition rate and whitefly adult survival, respectively. Several genes that were higher expressed in older plants and located in the identified QTL intervals were orthologous to Arabidopsis genes that have been related to ABA signaling, suggesting a role for ABA in the regulation of resistance towards whiteflies. Our results show that combining different omics approaches is a useful strategy to identify candidate genes underlying insect resistance.

Thrips advisor : Exploiting thrips-induced defences to combat pests on crops
Steenbergen, Merel ; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed ; Bleeker, Petra ; Dicke, Marcel ; Escobar-Bravo, Rocio ; Cheng, Gang ; Haring, Michel A. ; Kant, Merijn R. ; Kappers, Iris ; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L. ; Leiss, Kirsten A. ; Legarrea, Saioa ; Macel, Mirka ; Mouden, Sanae ; Pieterse, Corné M.J. ; Sarde, Sandeep J. ; Schuurink, Robert C. ; Vos, Martin De; Wees, Saskia C.M. Van; Broekgaarden, Colette - \ 2018
Journal of Experimental Botany 69 (2018)8. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 1837 - 1848.
Cell-content feeder - effectors - herbivorous insect - phytohormone signalling - plant defence - specialized metabolites - thrips - virus - volatiles

Plants have developed diverse defence mechanisms to ward off herbivorous pests. However, agriculture still faces estimated crop yield losses ranging from 25% to 40% annually. These losses arise not only because of direct feeding damage, but also because many pests serve as vectors of plant viruses. Herbivorous thrips (Thysanoptera) are important pests of vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide, and encompass virtually all general problems of pests: they are highly polyphagous, hard to control because of their complex lifestyle, and they are vectors of destructive viruses. Currently, control management of thrips mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides. However, thrips rapidly develop resistance to these pesticides. With the rising demand for more sustainable, safer, and healthier food production systems, we urgently need to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge of plant defences against thrips to enable the future development of novel control methods. In this review, we summarize the current, rather scarce, knowledge of thrips-induced plant responses and the role of phytohormonal signalling and chemical defences in these responses. We describe concrete opportunities for breeding resistance against pests such as thrips as a prototype approach for next-generation resistance breeding.

Induced plant defences in biological control of arthropod pests : a double-edged sword
Pappas, Maria L. ; Broekgaarden, Colette ; Broufas, George D. ; Kant, Merijn R. ; Messelink, Gerben J. ; Steppuhn, Anke ; Wäckers, Felix ; Dam, Nicole M. van - \ 2017
Pest Management Science 73 (2017)9. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 1780 - 1788.
Biological control is an important ecosystem service delivered by natural enemies. Together with breeding for plant defence, it constitutes one of the most promising alternatives to pesticides for controlling herbivores in sustainable crop production. Especially induced plant defences may be promising targets in plant breeding for resistance against arthropod pests. Because they are activated upon herbivore damage, costs only incur when defence is needed. Moreover, they can be more specific than constitutive defences. Nevertheless, inducible defence traits that are harming plant pest organisms may interfere with biological control agents, such as predators and parasitoids. Despite the vast fundamental knowledge on plant defence mechanisms and their effects on natural enemies, our understanding on the feasibility of combining biological control with induced plant defence in practice is relatively poor. In this review, we focus on arthropod pest control and present the most important features of biological control with natural enemies and of induced plant defence. Furthermore, we show potential synergies and conflicts among them and finally, identify gaps and list opportunities for their combined use in crop protection. We suggest that breeders should focus on inducible resistance traits that are compatible with the natural enemies of arthropod pests, specifically traits that facilitate communities of natural enemies to build-up.
Genetic architecture of plant stress resistance: multi-trait genome-wide association mapping
Thoen, H.P.M. ; Davila Olivas, N.H. ; Kloth, K.J. ; Coolen, Silvia ; Huang, P. ; Aarts, M.G.M. ; Molenaar, J.A. ; Bakker, J. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Bucher, J. ; Busscher-Lange, J. ; Cheng, X. ; Dijk-Fradin, E.F. van; Jongsma, M.A. ; Julkowska, Magdalena M. ; Keurentjes, J.J.B. ; Ligterink, W. ; Pieterse, Corné M.J. ; Ruyter-Spira, C.P. ; Smant, G. ; Schaik, C.C. van; Wees, Saskia C.M. van; Visser, R.G.F. ; Voorrips, R.E. ; Vosman, B. ; Vreugdenhil, D. ; Warmerdam, S. ; Wiegers, G.L. ; Heerwaarden, J. van; Kruijer, W.T. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2017
New Phytologist 213 (2017)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1346 - 1362.
Plants are exposed to combinations of various biotic and abiotic stresses, but stress responses are usually investigated for single stresses only. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture underlying plant responses to 11 single stresses and several of their combinations by phenotyping 350 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. A set of 214 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was screened for marker-trait associations in genome-wide association (GWA) analyses using tailored multi-trait mixed models. Stress responses that share phytohormonal signaling pathways also share genetic architecture underlying these responses. After removing the effects of general robustness, for the 30 most significant SNPs, average quantitative trait locus (QTL) effect sizes were larger for dual stresses than for single stresses. Plants appear to deploy broad-spectrum defensive mechanisms influencing multiple traits in response to combined stresses. Association analyses identified QTLs with contrasting and with similar responses to biotic vs abiotic stresses, and below-ground vs above-ground stresses. Our approach allowed for an unprecedented comprehensive genetic analysis of how plants deal with a wide spectrum of stress conditions.
Brevicoryne brassicae aphids interfere with transcriptome responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to feeding by Plutella xylostella caterpillars in a density-dependent manner
Kroes, Anneke ; Broekgaarden, Colette ; Castellanos Uribe, Marcos ; May, Sean ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel - \ 2017
Oecologia 183 (2017). - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 107 - 120.
Feeding guilds - Microarray - Multiple herbivory - Plant defense - Transcriptome

Plants are commonly attacked by multiple herbivorous species. Yet, little is known about transcriptional patterns underlying plant responses to multiple insect attackers feeding simultaneously. Here, we assessed transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to simultaneous feeding by Plutella xylostella caterpillars and Brevicoryne brassicae aphids in comparison to plants infested by P. xylostella caterpillars alone, using microarray analysis. We particularly investigated how aphid feeding interferes with the transcriptomic response to P. xylostella caterpillars and whether this interference is dependent on aphid density and time since aphid attack. Various JA-responsive genes were up-regulated in response to feeding by P. xylostella caterpillars. The additional presence of aphids, both at low and high densities, clearly affected the transcriptional plant response to caterpillars. Interestingly, some important modulators of plant defense signalling, including WRKY transcription factor genes and ABA-dependent genes, were differentially induced in response to simultaneous aphid feeding at low or high density compared with responses to P. xylostella caterpillars feeding alone. Furthermore, aphids affected the P. xylostella-induced transcriptomic response in a density-dependent manner, which caused an acceleration in plant response against dual insect attack at high aphid density compared to dual insect attack at low aphid density. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that aphids influence the caterpillar-induced transcriptional response of A. thaliana in a density-dependent manner. It highlights the importance of addressing insect density to understand how plant responses to single attackers interfere with responses to other attackers and thus underlines the importance of the dynamics of transcriptional plant responses to multiple herbivory.

Using phenomics and genomics to unlock landrace and wild relative diversity for crop improvement
Vosman, B. ; Pelgrom, K.T.B. ; Sharma, G. ; Voorrips, R.E. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Pritchard, J. ; May, S. ; Adobor, S. ; Castellanos-Uribe, M. ; Kaauwen, M.P.W. van; Finkers, H.J. ; Janssen, B. ; Workum, W. van; Ford-Lloyd, B. - \ 2016
In: Enhancing crop genepool use: capturing wild relative and landrace diversity for crop improvement / Maxted, N., Dulloo, M.E., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., CABI - ISBN 9781780646138 - p. 1 - 9.
This chapter discusses some of the activities and achievements of the Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) Secure project, which aims to: (i) identify host plant resistance to the cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) and cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) via a germplasm screen where both are specialist phloem-feeding insects that feed only on members of the Brassicaceae family; (ii) elucidate the resistance mechanism; and (iii) provide tools to breeders that will facilitate resistance breeding. It is shown that the PGR Secure project has delivered valuable information on the extent of whitefly and aphid resistance in landrace accessions of Brassica oleracea var. capitata, as well as in wild relatives of B. oleracea. The whitefly resistance present in Brassica villosa, B. incana and B. montana is expressed both in 6- and 12-week-old plants, which indicates that this form of resistance is probably different from that already present in B. oleracea. These sources can be used in breeding resistant varieties. By combining novel phenomics, genomics and transcriptomics technologies, resistance breeding can be speeded up significantly. The developed and publicly available 90 k Affymetrix Axiom Brassica array can play an important role in this. The single nucleotide polymorphism markers linked to the resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) will facilitate an efficient introgression of the QTLs into high-yielding varieties.
Quantitative resistance against Bemisia tabaci in Solanum pennellii: Genetics and metabolomics
Elsen, F.H.W. van den; Lucatti, A.F. ; Heusden, A.W. van; Broekgaarden, C. ; Mumm, R. ; Dicke, M. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2016
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 58 (2016)4. - ISSN 1672-9072 - p. 397 - 412.
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious threat in tomato cultivation worldwide as all varieties grown today are highly susceptible to this devastating herbivorous insect. Many accessions of the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii show a high resistance towards B. tabaci. A mapping approach was used to elucidate the genetic background of whitefly-resistance related traits and associated biochemical traits in this species. Minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for whitefly adult survival (AS) and oviposition rate (OR) were identified and some were confirmed in an F2BC1 population, where they showed increased percentages of explained variance (more than 30%). Bulked segregant analyses on pools of whitefly-resistant and -susceptible F2 plants enabled the identification of metabolites that correlate either with resistance or susceptibility. Genetic mapping of these metabolites showed that a large number of them co-localize with whitefly-resistance QTLs. Some of these whitefly-resistance QTLs are hotspots for metabolite QTLs. Although a large number of metabolite QTLs correlated to whitefly resistance or susceptibility, most of them are yet unknown compounds and further studies are needed to identify the metabolic pathways and genes involved. The results indicate a direct genetic correlation between biochemical-based resistance characteristics and reduced whitefly incidence in S. pennellii.
Data from: Parasitism overrides herbivore identity allowing hyperparasitoids to locate their parasitoid host by using herbivore-induced plant volatiles
Zhu, F. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Harvey, J.A. ; Vosman, B. ; Dicke, M. ; Poelman, E.H. - \ 2015
Foraging success of predators profoundly depends on reliable and detectable cues indicating the presence of their often inconspicuous prey. Carnivorous insects rely on chemical cues to optimize foraging efficiency. Hyperparasitoids that lay their eggs in the larvae or pupae of parasitic wasps may find their parasitoid hosts developing in different herbivores. They can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to locate parasitized caterpillars. Because different herbivore species induce different HIPV emission from plants, hyperparasitoids may have to deal with large variation in volatile information that indicates host presence. In this study, we used an ecogenomics approach to first address whether parasitized caterpillars of two herbivore species (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) induce similar transcriptional and metabolomic responses in wild Brassica oleracea plants and, second, whether hyperparasitoids Lysibia nana are able to discriminate between these induced plant responses to locate their parasitoid host in different herbivores under both laboratory and field conditions. Our study revealed that both herbivore identity and parasitism affect plant transcriptional and metabolic responses to herbivory. We also found that hyperparasitoids are able to respond to HIPVs released by wild B. oleracea under both laboratory and field conditions. In addition, we observed stronger attraction of hyperparasitoids to HIPVs when plants were infested with parasitized caterpillars. However, hyperparasitoids were equally attracted to plants infested by either herbivore species. Our results indicate that parasitism plays a major role in HIPV-mediated plant–hyperparasitoid interactions. Furthermore, these findings also indicate that plant trait-mediated indirect interaction networks play important roles in community-wide species interactions.
Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping
Broekgaarden, Colette ; Bucher, Johan ; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna ; Keurentjes, Joost J.B. ; Kruijer, Willem ; Voorrips, Roeland E. ; Vosman, Ben - \ 2015
PLoS One 10 (2015)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects
Parasitism overrides herbivore identity allowing hyperparasitoids to locate their parasitoid host using herbivore-induced plant volatiles
Zhu, F. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Harvey, J.A. ; Vosman, B. ; Dicke, M. ; Poelman, E.H. - \ 2015
Molecular Ecology 24 (2015)1. - ISSN 0962-1083 - p. 2886 - 2899.
cabbage brassica-oleracea - time rt-pcr - nicotiana-attenuata - insect herbivores - gene-expression - trophic levels - defense - responses - specialist - generalist
Foraging success of predators profoundly depends on reliable and detectable cues indicating the presence of their often inconspicuous prey. Carnivorous insects rely on chemical cues to optimize foraging efficiency. Hyperparasitoids that lay their eggs in the larvae or pupae of parasitic wasps may find their parasitoid hosts developing in different herbivores. They can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to locate parasitized caterpillars. Because different herbivore species induce different HIPV emission from plants, hyperparasitoids may have to deal with large variation in volatile information that indicates host presence. In this study, we used an ecogenomics approach to first address whether parasitized caterpillars of two herbivore species (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) induce similar transcriptional and metabolomic responses in wild Brassica oleracea plants and, second, whether hyperparasitoids Lysibia nana are able to discriminate between these induced plant responses to locate their parasitoid host in different herbivores under both laboratory and field conditions. Our study revealed that both herbivore identity and parasitism affect plant transcriptional and metabolic responses to herbivory. We also found that hyperparasitoids are able to respond to HIPVs released by wild B. oleracea under both laboratory and field conditions. In addition, we observed stronger attraction of hyperparasitoids to HIPVs when plants were infested with parasitized caterpillars. However, hyperparasitoids were equally attracted to plants infested by either herbivore species. Our results indicate that parasitism plays a major role in HIPV-mediated plant-hyperparasitoid interactions. Furthermore, these findings also indicate that plant trait-mediated indirect interaction networks play important roles in community-wide species interactions.
Inhibition of NF-kB in tumor cells exacerbates immune celll activation following photodynamic therapy
Broekgaarden, M. ; Kos, M. ; Jurg, F.A. ; Beek, A.A. van; Gulik, M. van; Heger, M. - \ 2015
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16 (2015)8. - ISSN 1661-6596 - p. 19960 - 19977.
Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) yields very good outcomes in numerous types of superficial solid cancers, some tumors respond suboptimally to PDT. Novel treatment strategies are therefore needed to enhance the efficacy in these therapy-resistant tumors. One of these strategies is to combine PDT with inhibitors of PDT-induced survival pathways. In this respect, the transcription factor nuclear factor ¿B (NF-¿B) has been identified as a potential pharmacological target, albeit inhibition of NF-¿B may concurrently dampen the subsequent anti-tumor immune response required for complete tumor eradication and abscopal effects. In contrast to these postulations, this study demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of NF-¿B in murine breast carcinoma (EMT-6) cells increased survival signaling in these cells and exacerbated the inflammatory response in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggest a pro-death and immunosuppressive role of NF-¿B in PDT-treated cells that concurs with a hyperstimulated immune response in innate immune cells.
Successful use of crop wild relatives in breeding: easier said than done
Pelgrom, K.T.B. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Voorrips, R.E. ; Vosman, B.J. - \ 2015
Crop Wild Relative 10 (2015). - ISSN 1742-3627 - p. 15 - 16.
Phenomics and genomics tools for facilitating brassica crop improvement
Vosman, B.J. ; Pelgrom, K.T.B. ; Sharma, G. ; Voorrips, R.E. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Pritchard, J. ; May, S. ; Adobor, S. ; Castellanos-Uribe, M. ; Kaauwen, M.P.W. van; Janssen, B. ; Workum, W. van; Ford-Lloyd, B. - \ 2015
Crop Wild Relative 10 (2015). - ISSN 1742-3627 - p. 12 - 14.
Host plant resistance towards the cabbage whitefly in Brassica oleracea and its wild relatives
Pelgrom, K.T.B. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Voorrips, R.E. ; Bas, N. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Vosman, B.J. - \ 2015
Euphytica 202 (2015)2. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 297 - 306.
aleyrodes-proletella homoptera - glucosinolate polymorphism - insect-resistance - cultivars - populations - fruticulosa - tomato - tabaci
The cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) is a phloem-feeding insect that is a serious problem in Brassica oleracea crops like Brussels sprouts, kale and savoy cabbage. In order to develop whitefly-resistant varieties it is essential to identify effective sources of resistance. In this study, we screened a large collection of 432 accessions, including wild material and landraces of Brassica oleracea as well as crop wild relatives, to determine whitefly performance in a no-choice field experiment. Putatively resistant accessions were further tested under greenhouse conditions. Resistant accessions were identified among B. oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) landraces and in the species B. villosa, B. incana and B. montana. Whereas resistance in cabbage is only expressed in plants of at least 12 weeks old, some wild relatives were already starting to express resistance at 6 weeks. This could open up possibilities for breeding cabbages that are resistant at a young(er) plant age. Our research also shows again the importance of crop wild relatives for finding pest resistances.
Synergistic effects of direct and indirect defences on herbivore egg survival in a wild crucifer
Fatouros, N.E. ; Pineda, A. ; Huigens, M.E. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Shimwela, M.M. ; Figueroa Candia, I.A. ; Verbaarschot, P. ; Bukovinszki, T. - \ 2014
oviposition-induced plant volatileshypersensitive response - defence trade-offs - PR1
Evolutionary theory of plant defences against herbivores predicts a trade-off between direct (anti-herbivore traits) and indirect defences (attraction of carnivores) when carnivore fitness is reduced. Such a trade-off is expected in plant species that kill herbivore eggs by exhibiting a hypersensitive response (HR)-like necrosis, which should then negatively affect carnivores. We used the black mustard (Brassica nigra) to investigate how this potentially lethal direct trait affects preferences and/or performances of specialist cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.), and their natural enemies, tiny egg parasitoid wasps (Trichogramma spp.). Both within and between black mustard populations, we observed variation in the expression of Pieris egg-induced HR. Butterfly eggs on plants with HR-like necrosis suffered lower hatching rates and higher parasitism than eggs that did not induce the trait. In addition, Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles of egg-induced plants that also expressed HR, and this attraction depended on the Trichogramma strain used. Consequently, HR did not have a negative effect on egg parasitoid survival. We conclude that even within a system where plants deploy lethal direct defences, such defences may still act with indirect defences in a synergistic manner to reduce herbivore pressure.
Constitutive overexpression of the pollen specific gene SKS13 in leaves reduces aphid performance on Arabidopsis thaliana
Chen, X. ; Zhang, Z. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Vosman, B.J. ; Broekgaarden, C. - \ 2014
BMC Plant Biology 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2229
russian wheat aphid - green peach aphid - plant defense - transcriptome changes - resistance responses - peroxidase-activity - insect herbivores - myzus-persicae - watery saliva - activation
Background: Plants have developed a variety of mechanisms to counteract aphid attacks. They activate their defences by changing the expression of specific genes. Previously we identified an activation tag mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana on which Myzus persicae population development was reduced. Activation tag mutants are gain-of-function in which the expression of a gene is increased by the insertion of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S enhancer that acts on the natural promoter. By further characterizing this previously identified mutant we identified a gene that reduces performance of M. persicae and also provided clues about the mechanism involved. Results: We show that SKU5 SIMILAR 13 (SKS13), a gene whose expression in wild type plants is restricted to pollen and non-responsive to M. persicae attack, is overexpressed in the A. thaliana mutant showing reduced performance of M. persicae. Monitoring M. persicae feeding behaviour on SKS13 overexpressing plants indicated that M. persicae have difficulties feeding from the phloem. The constitutive expression of SKS13 results in accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which is possibly regulated through the jasmonic acid pathway. The enhanced resistance is not aphid species specific as also the population development of Brevicoryne brassicae was affected. Conclusions: We demonstrate that constitutive expression in leaves of the pollen-specific gene SKS13 can enhance plant defence, resulting in a reduction of M. persicae population development and also decreases the transmission of persistent viruses. Overexpression of SKS13 in A. thaliana also affects B. brassicae and possibly other phloem feeding insects as well. Identifying genes that can enhance plant defence against insects will be important to open up new avenues for the development of insect resistant crop plants.
Synergistic effects of direct and indirect defences on herbivore egg survival in a wild crucifer
Fatouros, N.E. ; Pineda, A. ; Huigens, M.E. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Shimwela, M.M. ; Figueroa Candia, I.A. ; Verbaarschot, P. ; Bukovinszky, T. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 281 (2014)1789. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 9 p.
furcifera horvath homoptera - plant defense - trade-offs - antiherbivore defenses - natural enemies - fitness costs - brassica-rapa - resistance - oviposition - butterflies
Evolutionary theory of plant defences against herbivores predicts a trade-off between direct (anti-herbivore traits) and indirect defences (attraction of carnivores) when carnivore fitness is reduced. Such a trade-off is expected in plant species that kill herbivore eggs by exhibiting a hypersensitive response (HR)-like necrosis, which should then negatively affect carnivores. We used the black mustard (Brassica nigra) to investigate how this potentially lethal direct trait affects preferences and/or performances of specialist cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.), and their natural enemies, tiny egg parasitoid wasps (Trichogramma spp.). Both within and between black mustard populations, we observed variation in the expression of Pieris egg-induced HR. Butterfly eggs on plants with HR-like necrosis suffered lower hatching rates and higher parasitism than eggs that did not induce the trait. In addition, Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles of egg-induced plants that also expressed HR, and this attraction depended on the Trichogramma strain used. Consequently, HR did not have a negative effect on egg parasitoid survival. We conclude that even within a system where plants deploy lethal direct defences, such defences may still act with indirect defences in a synergistic manner to reduce herbivore pressure.
Effects of climate change on plant-insect interactions and prospects for resistance breeding using genetic resources
Pritchard, J. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2014
In: Plant genetic resources and climate change / Jackson, M., Ford-Lloyd, B., Parry, M., Wallingford, UK : CABI - ISBN 9781780641973 - p. 270 - 284.
This chapter describes the components (elevated CO2, temperature and drought) of climate change and their direct and indirect effects on plant-insect interactions. The genetic resources (such as wild relatives and traditional, locally adapted landraces) important for increasing pest/disease resistance in crop plants are described. Some strategies for introduction of pest and disease resistance are presented, which include traditional and biotechnological (genetic modification) approaches.
Overexpression of IRM1 Enhances Resistance to Aphids in Arabidopsis thaliana
Chen, X. ; Zhang, Z. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)8. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
green peach aphid - electrical penetration graph - phloem-feeding insects - myzus-persicae - plant defense - probing behavior - vascular plants - xylem ingestion - responses - activation
Aphids are insects that cause direct damage to crops by the removal of phloem sap, but more importantly they spread devastating viruses. Aphids use their sophisticated mouthpart (i.e. stylet) to feed from the phloem sieve elements of the host plant. To identify genes that affect host plant resistance to aphids, we previously screened an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag mutant collection. In such mutants, tagged genes are overexpressed by a strong 35S enhancer adjacent to the natural promoter, resulting in a dominant gain-of-function phenotype. We previously identified several of these mutants on which the aphid Myzus persicae showed a reduced population development compared with wild type. In the present study we show that the gene responsible for the phenotype of one of the mutants is At5g65040 and named this gene Increased Resistance to Myzus persicae 1 (IRM1). Overexpression of the cloned IRM1 gene conferred a phenotype identical to that of the original mutant. Conversely, an IRM1 knockout mutant promoted aphid population development compared to the wild type. We performed Electrical Penetration Graph analysis to investigate how probing and feeding behaviour of aphids was affected on plants that either overexpressed IRM1 or contained a knockout mutation in this gene. The EPG results indicated that the aphids encounter resistance factors while reaching for the phloem on the overexpressing line. This resistance mechanism also affected other aphid species and is suggested to be of mechanical nature. Interestingly, genetic variation for IRM1 expression in response to aphid attack was observed. Upon aphid attack the expression of IRM1 was initially (after 6 hours) induced in ecotype Wassilewskija followed by suppression. In Columbia-0, IRM1 expression was already suppressed six hours after the start of the infestation. The resistance conferred by the overexpression of IRM1 in A. thaliana trades off with plant growth.
Jasmonate and ethylene signaling mediate whitefly-induced interference with indirect plant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana
Zhang, P.J. ; Broekgaarden, C. ; Zheng, S.J. ; Snoeren, T.A.L. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Gols, R. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2013
New Phytologist 197 (2013)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1291 - 1299.
salicylic-acid - transcriptome changes - feeding guilds - tomato plants - herbivores - volatiles - insect - responses - gene - involvement
Upon herbivore attack, plants activate an indirect defense, that is, the release of a complex mixture of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. When plants are simultaneously exposed to two herbivore species belonging to different feeding guilds, one herbivore may interfere with the indirect plant defense induced by the other herbivore. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying such interference. Here, we address the effect of herbivory by the phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci on the induced indirect defense of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to Plutella xylostella caterpillars, that is, the attraction of the parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum. Assays with various Arabidopsis mutants reveal that B. tabaci infestation interferes with indirect plant defense induced by P. xylostella, and that intact jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling are required for such interference caused by B. tabaci. Chemical analysis of plant volatiles showed that the composition of the blend emitted in response to the caterpillars was significantly altered by co-infestation with whiteflies. Moreover, whitefly infestation also had a considerable effect on the transcriptomic response of the plant to the caterpillars. Understanding the mechanisms underlying a plant’s responses to multiple attackers will be important for the development of crop protection strategies in a multi-attacker context.
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