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- J.S. Salt (1)
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Understanding isoprene photooxidation using observations and modeling over a subtropical forest in the southeastern US
Su, Luping ; Patton, Edward G. ; Vilà-guerau De Arellano, Jordi ; Guenther, Alex B. ; Kaser, Lisa ; Yuan, Bin ; Xiong, Fulizi ; Shepson, Paul B. ; Zhang, Li ; Miller, David O. ; Brune, William H. ; Baumann, Karsten ; Edgerton, Eric ; Weinheimer, Andrew ; Misztal, Pawel K. ; Park, Jeong-Hoo ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Skog, Kate M. ; Keutsch, Frank N. ; Mak, John E. - \ 2016
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 (2016)12. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 7725 - 7741.
The emission, dispersion, and photochemistry of isoprene (C5H8) and related chemical species in the convective boundary layer (CBL) during sunlit daytime were studied over a mixed forest in the southeastern United States by combining ground-based and aircraft observations. Fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were quantified at the top of the forest canopy using a high-resolution proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). Snapshot (∼ 2 min sampling duration) vertical profiles of isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) + methacrolein (MACR), and monoterpenes were collected from aircraft every hour in the CBL (100–1000 m). Both ground-based and airborne collected volatile organic compound (VOC) data are used to constrain the initial conditions of a mixed-layer chemistry model (MXLCH), which is applied to examine the chemical evolution of the O3–NOx–HOx–VOC system and how it is affected by boundary layer dynamics in the CBL. The chemical loss rate of isoprene (∼ 1 h) is similar to the turbulent mixing timescale (0.1–0.5 h), which indicates that isoprene concentrations are equally dependent on both photooxidation and boundary layer dynamics. Analysis of a model-derived concentration budget suggests that diurnal evolution of isoprene inside the CBL is mainly controlled by surface emissions and chemical loss; the diurnal evolution of O3 is dominated by entrainment. The NO to HO2 ratio (NO : HO2) is used as an indicator of anthropogenic impact on the CBL chemical composition and spans a wide range (1–163). The fate of hydroxyl-substituted isoprene peroxyl radical (HOC5H8OO·; ISOPOO) is strongly affected by NO : HO2, shifting from NO-dominant to NO–HO2-balanced conditions from early morning to noontime. This chemical regime change is reflected in the diurnal evolution of isoprene hydroxynitrates (ISOPN) and isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH).
Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites
Otani, S. ; Mikaelyan, A. ; Nobre, T. ; Hansen, L.H. ; Kone, N.A. ; Sorensen, S.J. ; Aanen, D.K. ; Boomsma, J.J. ; Brune, A. ; Poulsen, M. - \ 2014
Molecular Ecology 23 (2014)18. - ISSN 0962-1083 - p. 4631 - 4644.
feeding higher termite - bacterial community - phylogenetic analysis - functional-analysis - macrotermes-gilvus - lignin degradation - nasutitermes spp. - sp-nov. - diversity - hindgut
Gut microbes play a crucial role in decomposing lignocellulose to fuel termite societies, with protists in the lower termites and prokaryotes in the higher termites providing these services. However, a single basal subfamily of the higher termites, the Macrotermitinae, also domesticated a plant biomass-degrading fungus (Termitomyces), and how this symbiont acquisition has affected the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota has remained unclear. The objective of our study was to compare the intestinal bacterial communities of five genera (nine species) of fungus-growing termites to establish whether or not an ancestral core microbiota has been maintained and characterizes extant lineages. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we show that gut communities have representatives of 26 bacterial phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria and Synergistetes. A set of 42 genus-level taxa was present in all termite species and accounted for 56–68% of the species-specific reads. Gut communities of termites from the same genus were more similar than distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic ancestry matters, possibly in connection with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite and higher nonfungus-growing termites. These results suggest that the obligate association with Termitomyces has forced the bacterial gut communities of the fungus-growing termites towards a relatively uniform composition with higher similarity to their omnivorous relatives than to more closely related termites
Structure and topology of microbial communities in the major gut compartments of Melolontha melolontha larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)
Egert, M.G.G. ; Stingl, U. ; Dyhrberg Bruun, L. ; Pommerenke, B. ; Brune, A. ; Friedrich, M.W. - \ 2005
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71 (2005)8. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 4556 - 4566.
sulfate-reducing bacteria - pachnoda-ephippiata coleoptera - termite mastotermes-darwiniensis - targeted oligonucleotide probes - humus-feeding larva - reticulitermes-flavipes - sp-nov - hindgut - oxygen - hybridization
Physicochemical gut conditions and the composition and topology of the intestinal microbiota in the major gut compartments of the root-feeding larva of the European cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) were studied. Axial and radial profiles of pH, O2, H2, and redox potential were measured with microsensors. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in midgut samples of individual larvae revealed a simple but variable and probably nonspecific community structure. In contrast, the T-RFLP profiles of the hindgut samples were more diverse but highly similar, especially in the wall fraction, indicating the presence of a gut-specific community involved in digestion. While high acetate concentrations in the midgut and hindgut (34 and 15 mM) corroborated the presence of microbial fermentation in both compartments, methanogenesis was confined to the hindgut. Methanobrevibacter spp. were the only methanogens detected and were restricted to this compartment. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of the hindgut were dominated by clones related to the Clostridiales. Clones related to the Actinobacteria, Bacillales, Lactobacillales, and -Proteobacteria were restricted to the lumen, whereas clones related to the ß- and -Proteobacteria were found only on the hindgut wall. Results of PCR-based analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization of whole cells with group-specific oligonucleotide probes documented that Desulfovibrio-related bacteria comprise 10 to 15% of the bacterial community at the hindgut wall. The restriction of the sulfate-reducer-specific adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase gene apsA to DNA extracts of the hindgut wall in larvae from four other populations in Europe suggested that sulfate reducers generally colonize this habitat.
A new BVDV type I inactivated vaccine (PregSure((R)) BVD): Broad cross neutralisation of type I and type IIBVDV strains and significant improvement of pregnancy rates
Salt, J.S. ; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Peters, A.R. ; Brune, A. ; Jahnecke, S. ; Traeder, W. ; Harmeyer, S.S. - \ 2004
Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe Grosstiere Nutztiere. Ausgabe G: Großtiere, Nutztiere 32 (2004)4. - ISSN 1434-1220 - p. 191 - 195.
viral-diarrhea-virus - infection - genotype-1 - challenge - disease - impact
Objective: Aim of the present study was to demonstrate the relevance of the vaccine strain of a new BVD vaccine, PregSure® BVD, for its use in Europe. Furthermore the vaccine¿s ability to protect from pregnancy losses due to an early infection with BVDV after artificial insemination was determined. Material and methods: The immune sera used in the in-vitro cross neutralisation were collected from 20 heifers three weeks after the completion of the primary vaccination schedule with PregSure® BVD (two vaccinations given 21 days apart). The BVDV cross-neutralising activity of these postvaccinal sera was tested by virus neutralisation employing a panel of different predominantly European BVDV type I and II strains. Furthermore, two fertility studies were carried out, where heifers between 14 and 39 months of age were primovaccinated with PregSure® BVD or left untreated as control, respectively. All animals had their oestrus cycles synchronised and were artificially inseminated. Four days after the initial artificial insemination and again three days later, all animals of experimental group 1 were challenged intranasally with two heterologous noncytopathic BVDV type I strains, whereas animals from group 2 received a type I and a type II BVDV strain. Sixty-nine to 72 days after the challenge, all dams were slaughtered and their foetuses collected. Differences in pregnancy rates between the vaccinated and the control group were assessed and then analysed using Fisher¿s Exact Test. Results: Heifers vaccinated with a novel inactivated BVDV vaccine containing a cytopathic BVDV type I strain 5960, were shown to have serum neutralising antibody titres between 5.5 to 12.3 log2 against all BVDV strains tested, three weeks after the completion of their primary vaccination course. In the first fertility experiment, pregnancy rates assessed 69-72 days after a double challenge with two different BVDV type I strains were 95.5% in the vaccinated group versus only 40.9% in the control group. A level of cross-protection against a severe BVDV type II challenge was shown in the second experiment with pregnancy rates of 47.6% in the vaccinated group and only 4.4% in the control group. Conclusions and clinical relevance: The broad cross neutralising activity shown in this study demonstrates the relevance of the vaccine strain 5960 for use in Europe. Furthermore as shown with significantly improved pregnancy in the two fertility experiments, PregSure® BVD vaccinated heifers are protected against fertility losses caused by acute BVDV infections.
|Fetal protection against BVDV fetal infection six months after vaccination with a novel inactivated BVDV vaccine
Harmeyer, S. ; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Gadd, T. ; Salt, J. ; Jahnecke, S. ; Brune, A. - \ 2004
Tierärztliche Umschau: Zeitschrift fuer alle Gebiete der Veterinaermedizin 59 (2004)11. - ISSN 0049-3864 - p. 663 - +.
viral diarrhea virus
Two studies including a total of 59 heifers were conducted to determine the extent and duration of either the protection against a fetal BVDV infection or the presence of BVDV neutralising antibodies after vaccination with PregSure((R)) BVD, an inactivated BVDV type I vaccine. Following the primary vaccination schedule consisting of two injections at a 3 week interval the fetal protection rate was 100% using a challenge model that caused fetal infection in 100% in the control heifers. The duration of the protection was demonstrated at 6 months. Furthermore, vaccination also clearly reduced signs associated with BVDV infections, such as BVDV viraemia and nasal excretion. A single booster injection given 12 months after the primary vaccination course stimulated a strong memory response in BVDV neutralising antibodies even exceeding the response seen after the initial vaccination regime.