- P. Chilibroste (1)
- M.I. Cutrignelli (1)
- M.S. Dhanoa (1)
- J. Dijkstra (1)
- M. Domenis (1)
- J. France (1)
- E. Gralka (1)
- A. Guglielmelli (1)
- F. Infascelli (2)
- C. Luchinat (1)
- S. López (1)
- A. Passaro (1)
- W.F. Pellikaan (2)
- O. Perez (1)
- V. Piccolo (2)
- E. Saccenti (1)
- H.S. Smidt (1)
- S. Tamminga (2)
- L. Tenori (1)
- F. Tiemessen (1)
- R. Tudisco (1)
- B.A. Williams(older publications) (1)
- B.A. Williams (1)
A Metabolomic Perspective on Coeliac Disease
Calabrò, A. ; Gralka, E. ; Luchinat, C. ; Saccenti, E. ; Tenori, L. - \ 2014
Autoimmune Diseases 2014 (2014). - ISSN 2090-0422 - 13 p.
Metabolomics is an “omic” science that is now emerging with the purpose of elaborating a comprehensive analysis of the metabolome, which is the complete set of metabolites (i.e., small molecules intermediates) in an organism, tissue, cell, or biofluid. In the past decade, metabolomics has already proved to be useful for the characterization of several pathological conditions and offers promises as a clinical tool. A metabolomics investigation of coeliac disease (CD) revealed that a metabolic fingerprint for CD can be defined, which accounts for three different but complementary components: malabsorption, energy metabolism, and alterations in gut microflora and/or intestinal permeability. In this review, we will discuss the major advancements in metabolomics of CD, in particular with respect to the role of gut microbiome and energy metabolism
|Effect of prolonged feeding of a sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) based diet on methanogenic community in the rumen of dairy cows
Guglielmelli, A. ; Perez, O. ; Tiemessen, F. ; Domenis, M. ; Albanese, S. ; Calabrò, S. ; Smidt, H.S. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2010
In: Listing of Abstracts to be presented at Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture conference, 3-8 October 2010, Banff, Canada. - Banff, Canada : Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture Conference - p. 140 - 141.
An in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of sainfoin tannins on methanogen numbers and rumen fermentation, and to assess adaptive behaviour of rumen microbiota while cows were maintained on sainfoin for an 8-wk period. Three ruminally fistulated dairy cows were placed on a lucerne-based ‘uniformity’ diet for a 2-wk period to allow animals to adapt to a tannin-free legume-based diet. After two weeks, the lucerne was exchanged for sainfoin. During the first 5 d of sainfoin feeding, animals received polyethylene glycol (PEG4000) intraruminally. Thereafter, the animals remained on their sainfoin-based diet for seven more weeks. Samples of rumen fluid were analysed for volatile fatty acids (VFA), ammonia (NH3), the number of protozoa and methanogenic Archaea. There was a significant (P=0.05) decrease in the number of protozoa in the first week after changing to the sainfoin diet. During the subsequent weeks of sainfoin feeding, the number of protozoa showed an increase at days 12, 15 and 37 after PEG treatment, however, their numbers remained numerically lower than during the sainfoin+PEG treatment (6.00 log10/mL). The Archaea followed a similar tendency but animal variation was considerably higher and the decreases were non-significant. Interestingly, this decrease began during PEG administration. Total VFA and NH3 follow a pattern similar to the protozoa numbers during the first week. Total VFA did not differ between the uniformity (124.5 mmol/L) and sainfoin+PEG diet (122.5 mmol/L), but a distinct decrease was observed after PEG treatment was stopped, with greatest effects on day 1 and day 4 (P=0.082). Ammonia showed a numerical decrease when animals changed from uniformity diet (138 mg/L) to the sainfoin+PEG diet (85.4 mg/L; P=0.267), followed by a further decrease during the first five days after stopping PEG treatment (54.4 mg/L; P=0.088). Results suggest that PEG may not have been fully successful in completely blocking the effect of tannins, which is reflected in the numerical decline in protozoa and Archaea during PEG administration. Sainfoin tannins resulted in a partial inhibition of protozoa and methanogens. The initial decrease and successive increase in total VFA suggests that fermentation activity is not negatively affected by sainfoin. The consistent lower ruminal NH3 with sainfoin compared to lucerne suggests a protective effect of tannins on dietary protein. The tendencies of the different parameters suggest that the microbial population (protozoa, Archaea, other bacteria) respond in different ways to the sainfoin diet over time, suggesting adaptation to the dietary conditions
|Influence of fermentable carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs on intestinal microbial activity of adult pigs
Calabrò, S. ; Tudisco, R. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Passaro, A. ; Cutrignelli, M.I. ; Bovera, F. ; Infascelli, F. - \ 2007
Comparative analysis of gas production profiles obtained with buffalo and sheep ruminal fluid as the source of inoculum
Calabrò, S. ; López, S. ; Piccolo, V. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Dhanoa, M.S. ; France, J. - \ 2005
Animal Feed Science and Technology 123-124 (2005)1. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 51 - 65.
in-vitro fermentation - rumen fluid - production kinetics - concentrate ratios - different forage - fed diets - cattle - feeds - digestion - degradation
An in vitro study was conducted to investigate effects of inoculum source (i.e., sheep versus buffalo rumen fluid) on gas production profiles, and to evaluate the suitability of various mathematical equations to fit the profiles and provide accurate values of degradation attributes. Incubations were completed using ruminal fluid obtained from sheep or buffalos fed the same diet (600 g/kg grass hay and 400 g/kg concentrate). Kinetics of fermentation of five feeds commonly fed to ruminants, being maize silage, grass silage, wheat straw, barley grain and a mixed hay, were studied with a gas production technique using an automated pressure evaluation system (APES). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (i.e., substrate disappearance, pH and VFA production) were determined after 120 h of incubation. Five mathematical functions (i.e., exponential, France, Gompertz, logistic, Morgan) were fitted to the experimental data to estimate rate and extent of feed degradation. Model comparison was based on goodness-of-fit assessed from analysis of residual variance and Akaike's information criterion. The logistic and Morgan functions were best overall, although the goodness-of-fit attained with all models was considered acceptable. Except for the Morgan, there were small differences among models in values derived for extent of degradation. There were differences between sources of inoculum in gas production measured at intermediate times (i.e., gas volumes with buffalo rumen fluid of 133 and 164 ml/g organic matter (OM) at 24 h for grass hay and silage, respectively, were smaller than those with sheep rumen fluid of 182 and 208 ml/g OM), but not at earlier or later incubation times. As a result of this trend, shorter half times, faster fermentation rates and higher extents of degradation occurred when feeds were incubated in sheep (estimated OM degradability was 0.308 and 0.402 g/g OM for grass hay and silage, respectively) compared with buffalo rumen fluid (0.246 and 0.330 g/g OM). Differences were larger for more fibrous substrates (i.e., grass silage, straw and hay) and negligible for barley grain.
A comparison between buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cow (Bos taurus) rumen fluids in terms of the in vitro fermentation characteristics of three fibrous feedstuffs
Calabrò, S. ; Williams, B.A. ; Piccolo, V. ; Infascelli, F. ; Tamminga, S. - \ 2004
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84 (2004)7. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 645 - 652.
gas-production - ruminant feeds - cattle - kinetics - acid
Rumen fluids from fistulated buffalos (Italy-BRF) and cows (Netherlands-CRF) were used as inocula to determine the fermentation kinetics of three forages. These were corn silage (CS), grass silage (GS) and wheat straw (WS) which had originated from both regions, giving six substrates in total. Fermentation kinetics was assessed by the measurement of cumulative gas production. Organic matter (OM) loss and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration at the end of the fermentation period were also determined. Both BRF and CRF ranked the substrates in the same order for total VFA, total gas production and the maximum rate of substrate degradation (CS > GS > WS). However, while the ranking of substrates was the same for both species, the absolute values differed significantly between the two inocula. Gas production, expressed as cumulative volume per unit mass of incubated (OMCV, ml g-1) and as cumulative volume per unit mass of OM degraded (OM ml g-1) for CRF was consistently higher than that for BRF for all substrates (p <0.0001). VFA production, particularly of acetic and butyric acids, was significantly (p <0.0001) lower for BRF than for CRF, though the digestibility of OM was the same for both inocula. VFA production predicted by the use of stoichiometric equations was generally higher than the observed gas production. These equations also predicted that the calculated amount of OM utilised for microbial growth was higher for BRF than for CRF. This may explain why diets having the same energy content but less protein can be fed to buffalo since they seem to have a lower requirement for protein compared with cattle. This possibility will need to be investigated in vivo. Given the similar ranking of feedstuffs between the two sources of inocula, these results suggest that either inoculum would be suitable for use in the cumulative gas production test as a measure of feedstuff evaluation. However, given the differences in absolute values, it is recommended that inocula from the species which will receive the feedstuff should be used.
|The use of cumulative gas production technique to characterize changes in fermentation characteristics of rumen contents following variable periods of starvation and grazing in dairy cows
Chilibroste, P. ; Williams, B.A. ; Tamminga, S. ; Calabro, S. - \ 1999
Animal Science 69 (1999)3. - ISSN 1357-7298 - p. 647 - 655.