Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Tracing ancestor rice of Suriname Maroons back to its African origin
Andel, Tinde R. Van; Meyer, Rachel S. ; Aflitos, Saulo A. ; Carney, Judith A. ; Veltman, Margaretha A. ; Copetti, Dario ; Flowers, Jonathan M. ; Havinga, Reinout M. ; Maat, Harro ; Purugganan, Michael D. ; Wing, Rod A. ; Schranz, Eric - \ 2016
Nature Plants 2 (2016). - ISSN 2055-026X

African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and African cultivation practices are said to have influenced emerging colonial plantation economies in the Americas 1,2. However, the level of impact of African rice practices is difficult to establish because of limited written or botanical records 2,3. Recent findings of O. glaberrima in rice fields of Suriname Maroons bear evidence of the high level of knowledge about rice among African slaves and their descendants, who consecrate it in ancestor rituals 4,5. Here we establish the strong similarity, and hence likely origin, of the first extant New World landrace of O. glaberrima to landraces from the Upper Guinean forests in West Africa. We collected African rice from a Maroon market in Paramaribo, Suriname, propagated it, sequenced its genome 6 and compared it with genomes of 109 accessions representing O. glaberrima diversity across West Africa. By analysing 1,649,769 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in clustering analyses, the Suriname sample appears sister to an Ivory Coast landrace, and shows no evidence of introgression from Asian rice. Whereas the Dutch took most slaves from Ghana, Benin and Central Africa 7, the diaries of slave ship captains record the purchase of food for provisions when sailing along the West African Coast 8, offering one possible explanation for the patterns of genetic similarity. This study demonstrates the utility of genomics in understanding the largely unwritten histories of crop cultures of diaspora communities.

The effectiveness of bacteriophages against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 nasal colonization in pigs
Verstappen, Koen M. ; Tulinski, Pawel ; Duim, Birgitta ; Fluit, Ad C. ; Carney, Jennifer ; Nes, Arie Van; Wagenaar, Jaap A. - \ 2016
PLoS One 11 (2016)8. - ISSN 1932-6203

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important colonizer in animals and an opportunistic pathogen in humans. In humans, MRSA can cause infections that might be difficult to treat because of antimicrobial resistance. The use of bacteriophages has been suggested as a potential approach for the control of MRSA colonization to minimize the - often occupational - exposure of humans. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of bacteriophage treatment on porcine nasal colonization with MRSA in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. The effectiveness of a bacteriophage combination of phage K∗710 and P68 was assessed in vitro by incubating them with MRSA V0608892/1 (ST398) measuring the OD600 hourly. To study the in vivo effect, bacteriophages were administered in a gel developed for human application, which contain 109 plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL (K and P68 in a 19.25:1 ratio) for 5 days to piglets (N = 8) that were experimentally colonized with the MRSA strain. Eight piglets experimentally colonized were used as a negative control. The MRSA strain was also used to colonize porcine nasal mucosa explants and bacteriophages were applied to assess the ex vivo efficacy of treatment. Bacteriophages were effective in vitro. In vivo, sixteen piglets were colonized with MRSA but the number of CFU recovered after the application of the bacteriophages in 8 piglets was not reduced compared to the control animals (approx. 105 CFU/swab). In the ex vivo model, 108 CFU were used to establish colonization with MRSA; a reduction of colonization was not observed after application of bacteriophages. However, application of mupirocin both in vivo and ex vivo resulted in a near eradication of MRSA. In conclusion: i) The MRSA strain was killed in the presence of the bacteriophages phage K∗710 and P68 in vitro. ii) Bacteriophages did not reduce porcine nasal colonization in vivo or ex vivo. Physiological in vivo and ex vivo conditions may explain these observations. Efficacy in the ex vivo model matched that of the in vivo system.

Sex-determination in the monoecius species cucumber is confined to specific floral whorls
Kater, M.M. ; Franken, J. ; Carney, K.J. ; Colombo, L. ; Angenent, G.C. - \ 2001
The Plant Cell 13 (2001). - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 481 - 493.
In unisexual flowers, sex is determined by the selective repression of growth or the abortion of either male or female reproductive organs. The mechanism by which this process is controlled in plants is still poorly understood. Because it is known that the identity of reproductive organs in plants is controlled by homeotic genes belonging to the MADS box gene family, we analyzed floral homeotic mutants from cucumber, a species that bears both male and female flowers on the same individual. To study the characteristics of sex determination in more detail, we produced mutants similar to class A and C homeotic mutants from well-characterized hermaphrodite species such as Arabidopsis by ectopically expressing and suppressing the cucumber gene CUCUMBER MADS1 (CUM1). The cucumber mutant green petals (gp) corresponds to the previously characterized B mutants from several species and appeared to be caused by a deletion of 15 amino acid residues in the coding region of the class B MADS box gene CUM26. These homeotic mutants reveal two important concepts that govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the arrest of either male or female organ development is dependent on their positions in the flower and is not associated with their sexual identity. Second, the data presented here strongly suggest that the class C homeotic function is required for the position-dependent arrest of reproductive organs.
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