Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Clastic Dikes as a Possible Paleo-Earthquake Indicator in the Bengal Basin
Chamberlain, Elizabeth ; Goodbred, Steven L. ; Bain, R.L. ; Reimann, T. ; Wallinga, J. ; Steckler, Michael S. ; Hagke, C. Von - \ 2018
Historical earthquakes around the northeast Indian subcontinent have induced significant and widespread damage across the Bengal Basin. Recent work has also shown that the Indian-Burman plate boundary along the basin's eastern margin has built sufficient strain to cause a large magnitude earthquake, but little is known about the style and frequency of rupture. In all, the potential impact of large earthquakes within the region is well recognized, but neither well constrained nor well understood. Here, we report the discovery of large clastic dikes in the central Bengal Basin that appear to record a major paleo-seismic event. The site contains numerous laterally extensive sand dikes that intrude overbank river mud deposits, often reaching the ground surface. The dikes vary in width and comprise a set of at least two main intrusions, ˜10 m apart, largely parallel, and oriented east-west. The surface features have been reworked and are not well preserved. The age of the dikes is not yet known, but the breach appears to have occurred relatively contemporaneously with deposition of the intruded muds. In this case, the muds do not show signs of brittle fracture suggest that they were not yet well consolidated. Furthermore, the complete distortion of laminated bedding in a 30-cm thick layer of very fine sand within the mud section also indicates that the mud unit was relatively young and unconsolidated at the time of sand-dike emplacement. The location of the clastic dikes lies adjacent to a section of large, abandoned river channel that is ˜1.5 km wide and only partially filled with fine-grained muds. The size of the channel suggests that it may be a paleo-Ganges course, and the lack of sandy infill typical of this braided river suggest that it may have been abruptly abandoned. It is not yet known whether there is any correlation between the sand dikes and the channel abandonment. Our team is actively exploring this possibility.
Reconstructing the Fluvial History of the Paleo-Ganges Delta Plain
Chamberlain, Elizabeth ; Goodbred, Steven L. ; Reimann, T. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2018
The surface and shallow stratigraphy the western Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) delta provides an extensive yet complex archive of river channel activity and its role in delta plain construction. This region is characterized by abandoned channels that formed a scrollplain of pointbar deposits in the upper reaches and appear to have decreased in lateral mobility toward the tidal zone of the delta. Inferences about the behavior (e.g., migration rates, timing of activity) of these channels may be drawn from their planform morphology and from historical documents. Yet, there is presently no quantitative data to describe how the relict meandering channels operated during their activity, their role in constructing the delta plain, and their relationship to the predominantly-braided big rivers of the Ganges and Brahmaputra. For example, do the meandering channels represent the waning phase of paleo-Ganges distributaries? Or are they offtakes, siphoning fractions of suspended water and sediment from the main channel in a similar fashion to crevasse splays?
Here, we present the first quantitative assessment of relict channels of the western Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, informed by hand-drilled boreholes and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) geochronology. We assess paired point-bar and outerbank deposits upstream and downstream along selected major channels, and also test the age of the abandoned landscape at sites far from the primary channels. The application of OSL dating to pointbar deposits provides the timing of channel activity and migration rates. Dating of the outerbanks that were cannibalized by the channels, and of sand within the distal floodplain, provides the timescale of landscape reoccupation by these channels- a first step toward defining avulsion frequencies within the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta.
Poor bleaching of OSL signals : a novel tool to reconstruct fluvial sediment pathways
Wallinga, J. ; Bonnet, S. ; Candel, J.H.J. ; Chamberlain, Elizabeth ; Cunningham, A. ; Quik, C. ; Reimann, T. ; Steijsiger, E. - \ 2018
Luminescence age modeling of variably-bleached sediment : Model selection and input
Chamberlain, Elizabeth L. ; Wallinga, Jakob ; Shen, Zhixiong - \ 2018
Radiation Measurements 120 (2018). - ISSN 1350-4487 - p. 221 - 227.
Bleaching - Luminescence dating - Overdispersion - Quartz sand - Residual dose

Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of heterogeneously-bleached sediment by means of a minimum age model requires the input of a ‘sigma_b’ (σb) value describing the overdispersion of the single-aliquot De distribution expected for a well-bleached sample. We propose that σb and associated uncertainty can be accurately determined if a large dataset of De distributions is available and includes well-bleached samples. Our approach applies the bootstrapped Minimum Age Model (bootMAM) to a dataset of overdispersions in De distributions, to obtain quantitative estimates of σb. Corrections are made for constant-diameter aliquots of different grain sizes, based on the published dependency of overdispersion on the number of grains per aliquot. These adapted σb values are then input to bootMAM to obtain robust paleodoses for the samples. We test the sensitivity of paleodose to σb and we demonstrate that with correct σb, identical paleodoses are obtained using bootMAM and the Central Age Model on samples judged to be well-bleached. We conclude that for large datasets consisting of well- and heterogeneously-bleached samples, appropriate σb values can be obtained from the data, and that bootMAM can be applied to all samples within this dataset.

Meta-analysis of genome wide association studies for the stature of cattle reveals numerous common genes that regulate size in mammals
Hayes, B. ; Bouwman, A.C. ; Daetwyler, H.D. ; Chamberlain, Amanda - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. -
Anatomy of Mississippi Delta growth and its implications for coastal restoration
Chamberlain, Elizabeth ; Tornqvist, H. ; Shen, Zhixiong ; Mauz, Barbara ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2018
Science Advances 4 (2018)4. - ISSN 2375-2548
The decline of several of the world’s largest deltas has spurred interest in expensive coastal restoration projects to make these economically and ecologically vital regions more sustainable. The success of these projects depends, in part, on our understanding of how delta plains evolve over time scales longer than the instrumental record. Building on a new set of optically stimulated luminescence ages, we demonstrate that a large portion (~10,000 km2) of the late Holocene river–dominated Mississippi Delta grew in a radially symmetric fashion for almost a millennium before abandonment. Sediment was dispersed by deltaic distributaries that formed by means of bifurcations at the coeval shoreline and remained active throughout the life span of this landform. Progradation rates (100 to 150 m/year) were surprisingly constant, producing 6 to 8 km2 of new land per year. This shows that robust rates of land building were sustained under preindustrial conditions. However, these rates are several times lower than rates of land loss over the past century, indicating that only a small portion of the Mississippi Delta may be sustainable in a future world with accelerated sea-level rise.
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for cattle stature identifies common genes that regulate body size in mammals
Bouwman, Aniek C. ; Daetwyler, Hans D. ; Chamberlain, Amanda J. ; Ponce, Carla Hurtado ; Sargolzaei, Mehdi ; Schenkel, Flavio S. ; Sahana, Goutam ; Govignon-Gion, Armelle ; Boitard, Simon ; Dolezal, Marlies ; Pausch, Hubert ; Brøndum, Rasmus F. ; Bowman, Phil J. ; Thomsen, Bo ; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt ; Lund, Mogens S. ; Servin, Bertrand ; Garrick, Dorian J. ; Reecy, James ; Vilkki, Johanna ; Bagnato, Alessandro ; Wang, Min ; Hoff, Jesse L. ; Schnabel, Robert D. ; Taylor, Jeremy F. ; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E. ; Panitz, Frank ; Bendixen, Christian ; Holm, Lars Erik ; Gredler, Birgit ; Hozé, Chris ; Boussaha, Mekki ; Sanchez, Marie Pierre ; Rocha, Dominique ; Capitan, Aurelien ; Tribout, Thierry ; Barbat, Anne ; Croiseau, Pascal ; Drögemüller, Cord ; Jagannathan, Vidhya ; Vander Jagt, Christy ; Crowley, John J. ; Bieber, Anna ; Purfield, Deirdre C. ; Berry, Donagh P. ; Emmerling, Reiner ; Götz, Kay Uwe ; Frischknecht, Mirjam ; Russ, Ingolf ; Sölkner, Johann ; Tassell, Curtis P. van; Fries, Ruedi ; Stothard, Paul ; Veerkamp, Roel F. ; Boichard, Didier ; Goddard, Mike E. ; Hayes, Ben J. - \ 2018
Nature Genetics 50 (2018). - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 362 - 367.
Stature is affected by many polymorphisms of small effect in humans1. In contrast, variation in dogs, even within breeds, has been suggested to be largely due to variants in a small number of genes2,3. Here we use data from cattle to compare the genetic architecture of stature to those in humans and dogs. We conducted a meta-analysis for stature using 58,265 cattle from 17 populations with 25.4 million imputed whole-genome sequence variants. Results showed that the genetic architecture of stature in cattle is similar to that in humans, as the lead variants in 163 significantly associated genomic regions (P < 5 × 10−8) explained at most 13.8% of the phenotypic variance. Most of these variants were noncoding, including variants that were also expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and in ChIP–seq peaks. There was significant overlap in loci for stature with humans and dogs, suggesting that a set of common genes regulates body size in mammals.
Luminescence dating of delta sediments : Novel approaches explored for the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta
Chamberlain, Elizabeth L. ; Wallinga, Jakob ; Reimann, Tony ; Goodbred, Steven L. ; Steckler, Michael S. ; Shen, Zhixiong ; Sincavage, Ryan - \ 2017
Quaternary Geochronology 41 (2017). - ISSN 1871-1014 - p. 97 - 111.
Bleaching index - Deltaic sediments - Multiple signal approach - OSL dating - Polymineral - Quartz silt

Deltas where luminescence dating is most essential due to organic-poor geologic records are also those where it is often most challenging due to unsuitable luminescence properties of quartz grains, associated with rapid production of young clastic sediment. One example is the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD), where Himalaya uplift drives erosion, production, and delivery to the delta plain of poorly sensitized quartz sand. Luminescence dating of fluvial deposits may be further complicated by partial bleaching prior to deposition. Here, we use GBMD quartz and polymineral sediment, including sand and silt fractions, with constrained depositional ages between a few years and a few centuries to test novel approaches to luminescence dating of fluvial deposits in an otherwise challenging setting. This produces the first delta-wide assessment of GBMD sediment luminescence dateability. We use a new multiple-signal SAR (MS-SAR) bleaching index (BI) to explore zeroing of the luminescence signals of sediment prior to deposition and to quantify the IR, pIRIR, and TL residual doses of GBMD polymineral silt with well-reset BSL signals. This test establishes BI values that can be used to identify sufficient bleaching of Holocene sediment with unknown depositional ages, thereby improving confidence in quartz silt dating. We find that GBMD quartz sand is unsuitable for luminescence dating in most localities. By contrast, GBMD silt is sufficiently bleached and has universally suitable luminescence characteristics, enabling dating of GBMD deposits up to the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings in the GBMD establish methodology for obtaining and validating luminescence ages for fluvial deposits in challenging settings with unsuitable quartz sand.

Fulbright Arctic Initiative: An Innovative Model for Policy Relevant Research & Public Outreach
Virgina, Ross A. ; Sfraga, Michael ; Arnbom, Tom ; Chamberlain, Linda ; Chatwood, Susan ; Tepecik Dis, Asli ; Hoogensen Gjorv, Gunhild ; Harms, Tamara K. ; Hansen, Anne ; Holdmann, Gwen ; Johnson, Noor ; Lantz, Trevor ; Magnússon, Bjarni ; Neuhaus, Itty S. ; Poelzer, Gregory ; Sokka, Laura ; Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Varpe, Oystein ; Vestergaard, Niels - \ 2016
Arctic Yearbook 2016 (2016). - ISSN 2298-2418 - p. 212 - 224.
Profiteren broedende akkervogels ook van hamsterbeheer?
Buij, R. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2016
Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 105 (2016)4. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 80 - 86.
Akkervogels zijn de afgelopen decennia in West-Europa sterk in aantal afgenomen. Een van de belangrijkste oorzaken is de intensivering van de landbouw. Toegenomen gebruik van pesticiden en meststoffen, verandering van gewasrotaties, efficiëntere oogstmethoden en schaalvergroting leiden tot gebrek aan voedsel en nestgelegenheid, en als gevolg daarvan tot een afname van overleving en reproductie (Chamberlain et al., 2000: Donald et., 2001: Newton, 2004). Vooral zaad etende akkervogels, zoals Ringmus (Passer montanus), Kneu (Carduelis cannabina), Veldleeuwerik (Alauda arvensis) en Grauwe gors (Emberiza calandra), die grotendeels afhankelijk zijn van het boerenland voor voedsel en dekking (Bijlsma et al., 2001) hebben het zwaar.
GO-FAANG meeting : a Gathering On Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes
Tuggle, Christopher K. ; Giuffra, Elisabetta ; White, Stephen N. ; Clarke, Laura ; Zhou, Huaijun ; Ross, Pablo J. ; Acloque, Hervé ; Reecy, James M. ; Archibald, Alan ; Bellone, Rebecca R. ; Boichard, Michèle ; Chamberlain, Amanda ; Cheng, Hans ; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A. ; Delany, Mary E. ; Finno, Carrie J. ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Hayes, Ben ; Lunney, Joan K. ; Petersen, Jessica L. ; Plastow, Graham S. ; Schmidt, Carl J. ; Song, Jiuzhou ; Watson, Mick - \ 2016
Animal Genetics 47 (2016)5. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 528 - 533.
data coordination centre (DCC) - data sharing - Genomics - metanalysis

The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) Consortium recently held a Gathering On FAANG (GO-FAANG) Workshop in Washington, DC on October 7–8, 2015. This consortium is a grass-roots organization formed to advance the annotation of newly assembled genomes of domesticated and non-model organisms (www.faang.org). The workshop gathered together from around the world a group of 100+ genome scientists, administrators, representatives of funding agencies and commodity groups to discuss the latest advancements of the consortium, new perspectives, next steps and implementation plans. The workshop was streamed live and recorded, and all talks, along with speaker slide presentations, are available at www.faang.org. In this report, we describe the major activities and outcomes of this meeting. We also provide updates on ongoing efforts to implement discussions and decisions taken at GO-FAANG to guide future FAANG activities. In summary, reference datasets are being established under pilot projects; plans for tissue sets, morphological classification and methods of sample collection for different tissues were organized; and core assays and data and meta-data analysis standards were established.

Bos taurus strain:dairy beef (cattle): 1000 Bull Genomes Run 2, Bovine Whole Genome Sequence
Bouwman, A.C. ; Daetwyler, H.D. ; Chamberlain, Amanda J. ; Ponce, Carla Hurtado ; Sargolzaei, Mehdi ; Schenkel, Flavio S. ; Sahana, Goutam ; Govignon-Gion, Armelle ; Boitard, Simon ; Dolezal, Marlies ; Pausch, Hubert ; Brøndum, Rasmus F. ; Bowman, Phil J. ; Thomsen, Bo ; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt ; Lund, Mogens S. ; Servin, Bertrand ; Garrick, Dorian J. ; Reecy, James M. ; Vilkki, Johanna ; Bagnato, Alessandro ; Wang, Min ; Hoff, Jesse L. ; Schnabel, Robert D. ; Taylor, Jeremy F. ; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E. ; Panitz, Frank ; Bendixen, Christian ; Holm, Lars-Erik ; Gredler, Birgit ; Hozé, Chris ; Boussaha, Mekki ; Sanchez, Marie Pierre ; Rocha, Dominique ; Capitan, Aurelien ; Tribout, Thierry ; Barbat, Anne ; Croiseau, Pascal ; Drögemüller, Cord ; Jagannathan, Vidhya ; Vander Jagt, Christy ; Crowley, John J. ; Bieber, Anna ; Purfield, Deirdre C. ; Berry, Donagh P. ; Emmerling, Reiner ; Götz, Kay Uwe ; Frischknecht, Mirjam ; Russ, Ingolf ; Sölkner, Johann ; Tassell, Curtis P. van; Fries, Ruedi ; Stothard, Paul ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Boichard, Didier ; Goddard, Mike E. ; Hayes, Ben J. - \ 2014
Bos taurus - PRJNA238491
Whole genome sequence data (BAM format) of 234 bovine individuals aligned to UMD3.1. The aim of the study was to identify genetic variants (SNPs and indels) for downstream analysis such as imputation, GWAS, and detection of lethal recessives. Additional sequences for later 1000 bull genomes runs can be found at partners individual projects including PRJEB9343, PRJNA176557, PRJEB18113, PRNJA343262, PRJNA324822, PRJNA324270, PRJNA277147, PRJEB5462.
Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle
Daetwyler, H.D. ; Capitan, A. ; Pausch, H. ; Stothard, P. ; Binsbergen, R. van; Brondum, R.F. ; Liao, X. ; Djari, A. ; Rodriguez, S.C. ; Grohs, C. ; Esquerré, D. ; Bouchez, O. ; Rossignol, M.N. ; Klopp, C. ; Rocha, D. ; Fritz, S. ; Eggen, A. ; Bowman, P.J. ; Coote, D. ; Chamberlain, A.J. ; Anderson, C.L. ; Tassel, C.P. ; Hulsegge, B. ; Goddard, M.E. ; Guldbrandsten, B. ; Lund, M.S. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Boichard, D.A. ; Fries, R. ; Hayes, B.J. - \ 2014
Nature Genetics 46 (2014). - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 858 - 865.
boophilus-microplus resistance - mitotic chromosomes - genotype imputation - holstein calves - dairy-cattle - milk-yield - bos-taurus - condensin - mutations - gene
The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes project, we sequenced the whole genomes of 234 cattle to an average of 8.3-fold coverage. This sequencing includes data for 129 individuals from the global Holstein-Friesian population, 43 individuals from the Fleckvieh breed and 15 individuals from the Jersey breed. We identified a total of 28.3 million variants, with an average of 1.44 heterozygous sites per kilobase for each individual. We demonstrate the use of this database in identifying a recessive mutation underlying embryonic death and a dominant mutation underlying lethal chrondrodysplasia. We also performed genome-wide association studies for milk production and curly coat, using imputed sequence variants, and identified variants associated with these traits in cattle.
1000 Bull Genomes - Toward genomic Selectionf from whole genome sequence Data in Dairy and Beef Cattle
Hayes, B. ; Daetwyler, H.D. ; Fries, R. ; Guldbrandtsen, B. ; Mogens Sando Lund, M. ; Didier A. Boichard, D.A. ; Stothard, P. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Hulsegge, B. ; Rocha, D. ; Tassell, C. ; Mullaart, E. ; Gredler, B. ; Druet, T. ; Bagnato, A. ; Goddard, M.E. ; Chamberlain, H.L. - \ 2013
Genomic prediction of breeding values is now used as the basis for selection of dairy cattle, and in some cases beef cattle, in a number of countries. When genomic prediction was introduced most of the information was to thought to be derived from linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative variants. It has become clear that much of the predictive power, based on 50,000 DNA markers, in fact derives from prediction of the effect of large chromosome segments that segregate within fairly closely related animals. This has lead to problems with across breed prediction, rapid decay of predictive power over generations and insufficient accuracy in some situations. Using full genome sequence data in genomic prediction should overcome these problems. If linkage disequilibrium between SNP on standard arrays and causative mutations affecting the quantitative trait is incomplete, accuracy of prediction should be improved as a result of including the actual causative mutations affecting the trait of interest in the data set. Secondly, persistence of accuracy of genomic predictions across generations will be improved with full sequence data, as the genomic predictions no longer depend on associations between SNP and causative mutations which currently erode quite rapidly with recombination. Thirdly, if genomic predictions are made across breeds, using full sequence data is likely to be particularly advantageous, as there is no longer a need to rely on marker- associations which may not persist across breeds. However, the cost of sequencing is such that the very large numbers of animals required for genomic prediction will not be sequenced An alternative strategy is to sequence key ancestors of the population, then impute the genotypes for the sequence variants into much larger reference sets with phenotypes and SNP panel genotypes. The 1000 Bull Genomes Project aims at building such a resource of sequenced key ancestor bulls for the bovine research community. The most recent run of the project included 238 full genome sequences of 130 Holstein, 43 Fleckvieh, 48 Angus and 15 Jersey bulls, sequenced at an average of 10.5 fold coverage. There were 25.2 million filtered sequence variants detected in the sequences, including 23.5 million SNP and 1.7 million insertion-deletions. Agreement of sequence genotypes to genotypes from an 800K SNP array in the sequenced Holstein bulls, where there was most data, was excellent at 98.8%. This increased to 99.7% when the genotypes were imputed based on all sequences. Concordance was slightly lower in other breeds. This project will provide an excellent opportunity to identify the most important causative variants, leading to greater understanding of biology underlying quantitative traits. Examples are given of genomic predictions for fertility, health and production traits using imputed sequence data.
Correspondence: Uncertainty in thermal tolerances and climatic debt
Devictor, V. ; Swaay, C. van; Brereton, T. ; Brotons, L. ; Chamberlain, D. ; Heliölä, J. ; Herrando, S. ; Julliard, R. ; Kuussaari, M. ; Lindström, A. ; Reif, J. ; Roy, D.B. ; Schweiger, O. ; Settele, J. ; Stefanescu, C. ; Strien, A. van; Turnhout, C. van; Vermouzek, Z. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Wynhoff, I. ; Jiguet, F. - \ 2012
Nature Climate Change 2 (2012). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 638 - 639.
Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butterflies at a continental scale
Devictor, V. ; Swaay, C. van; Brereton, T. ; Brotons, L. ; Chamberlain, D. ; Heliölä, J. ; Herrando, S. ; Julliard, R. ; Kuussaari, M. ; Lindström, A. ; Reif, J. ; Roy, D.B. ; Schweiger, O. ; Settele, J. ; Stefanescu, C. ; Strien, A. van; Turnhout, C. van; Vermouzek, Z. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Wynhoff, I. ; Jiguet, F. - \ 2012
Nature Climate Change 2 (2012). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 121 - 124.
evolutionary responses - global change - extinction - adaptation
Climate changes have profound effects on the distribution of numerous plant and animal species(1-3). However, whether and how different taxonomic groups are able to track climate changes at large spatial scales is still unclear. Here, we measure and compare the climatic debt accumulated by bird and butterfly communities at a European scale over two decades (1990-2008). We quantified the yearly change in community composition in response to climate change for 9,490 bird and 2,130 butterfly communities distributed across Europe(4). We show that changes in community composition are rapid but different between birds and butterflies and equivalent to a 37 and 114 km northward shift in bird and butterfly communities, respectively. We further found that, during the same period, the northward shift in temperature in Europe was even faster, so that the climatic debts of birds and butterflies correspond to a 212 and 135 km lag behind climate. Our results indicate both that birds and butterflies do not keep up with temperature increase and the accumulation of different climatic debts for these groups at national and continental scales.
Declining Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes and the Effectiveness of Agri-environment Schemes
Berendse, F. ; Chamberlain, D. ; Kleijn, D. ; Schekkerman, H. - \ 2004
Ambio 33 (2004)8. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 499 - 502.
birds - england - intensification - countryside - grasslands - britain
Agricultural intensification, greatly accelerated as a result of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), has led to rastic reductions in the populations of many wild plant and animal species that used to be characteristic of farmland. In 1992, the EU provided the member states with its Agri-environment Regulation 2078/92 to help member states reverse these developments by means of agri-environment schemes. The question is: will the implementation of these schemes be sufficient to restore the biological diversity on farmland? Most studies that have examined the effectiveness of agri-environment schemes have focussed on farmland birds in Great Britain and The Netherlands. So far, the positive effects appear to be limited. Continuous evaluation and adaptation of these schemes is needed to enable the biodiversity on farmland to recover from the EU's former policy.
The seperate and interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and welfare of growing pigs
Day, J.E.L. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. ; Burfoot, A. ; Chamberlain, H.L. ; Edwards, S.A. - \ 2002
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 75 (2002)3. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 177 - 192.
weanling pigs - early contact - humans - growth - corticosteroids - productivity - unpleasant - provision - pleasant - toys
The aim of this experiment was to determine the interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour, performance and welfare of the growing/finishing pig. Groups of pigs were exposed to one of eight treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial design with two levels of handling (M: minimal and P: pleasant), and four levels of environmental enrichment (13: barren, C: chain, S: chopped straw, or T: destructible toy). Daily food intake was significantly affected by handling during 1-6 weeks with the P groups eating slightly more food than the M groups (1.88 kg per day versus 1.75 kg, per day; S.E.D. = 0.077; P <0.05), however, this increased intake was not reflected in daily live-weight gain or food conversion ratio during the same period. The time taken for a roup of pigs to exit their pen during a routine handling test was significantly affected by the handling treatments (46.2 s versus 37.8 s for P and M groups to exit their pen respectively; S.E.D. = 3.38; P <0.05). Behavioural time budgets, and postmortem muscle pH and stomach lesion scores were unaffected by treatment. These results suggest that pleasantly handled pigs are more difficult to move during routine husbandry tasks which may be mediated through their reduced fear of humans. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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