Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests
Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Bongers, Frans ; Aide, T.M. ; Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; Calvo-Rodriguez, Sofia ; Chave, Jerome ; César, Ricardo G. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Condit, Richard ; Dallinga, Jorn S. ; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. De; Jong, Ben de; Oliveira, Alexandre De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Dutrieux, Loïc P. ; Espírito-Santo, Mario M. ; Fandino, María C. ; Fernandes, G.W. ; Finegan, Bryan ; García, Hernando ; Gonzalez, Noel ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Hubbell, Stephen ; Jakovac, Catarina C. ; Hernández, Alma Johanna ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Larpin, Denis ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Licona, Juan-Carlos ; Lebrija-trejos, Edwin ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita C.G. ; Mora, Francisco ; Müller, Sandra C. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Oliveira Neto, Silvio Nolasco De; Norden, Natalia ; Nunes, Yule R.F. ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Caros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Aguilar-Cano, José ; Rodriguez-Buritica, Susana ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Romero, Marco Antonio ; Ruíz, Jorge ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Silver, Whendee L. ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Thomas, William Wayt ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Sá Sampaio, Everardo Valadares De; Breugel, Michiel van; Wal, Hans van der; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio ; Veloso, Maria D.M. ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima C.G. ; Villa, Pedro ; Williamson, G.B. ; Zanini, Kátia J. ; Zimmerman, Jess ; Poorter, Lourens - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)3. - ISSN 2375-2548 - 10 p.
Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during secondary succession across gradients in environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbance in an unprecedented multisite analysis for the Neotropics. Secondary forests recover remarkably fast in species richness but slowly in species composition. Secondary forests take a median time of five decades to recover the species richness of old-growth forest (80% recovery after 20 years) based on rarefaction analysis. Full recovery of species composition takes centuries (only 34% recovery after 20 years). A dual strategy that maintains both old-growth forests and species-rich secondary forests is therefore crucial for biodiversity conservation in human-modified tropical landscapes.
Compositional response of Amazon forests to climate change
Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lloyd, Jon ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Higuchi, Niro ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Silveira, Marcos ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Chave, Jerôme ; Barlow, Jos ; Bonal, Damien ; Davila Cardozo, Nallaret ; Erwin, Terry ; Fauset, Sophie ; Hérault, Bruno ; Laurance, Susan ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qie, Lan ; Stahl, Clement ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Steege, Hans ter; Vos, Vincent Antoine ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Almeida, Everton ; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barroso, Jorcely G. ; Bongers, Frans ; Boot, Rene ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Chama Moscoso, Victor ; Comiskey, James ; Peña-Claros, Marielos - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 39 - 56.
bioclimatic niches - climate change - compositional shifts - functional traits - temporal trends - tropical forests

Most of the planet's diversity is concentrated in the tropics, which includes many regions undergoing rapid climate change. Yet, while climate-induced biodiversity changes are widely documented elsewhere, few studies have addressed this issue for lowland tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate whether the floristic and functional composition of intact lowland Amazonian forests have been changing by evaluating records from 106 long-term inventory plots spanning 30 years. We analyse three traits that have been hypothesized to respond to different environmental drivers (increase in moisture stress and atmospheric CO2 concentrations): maximum tree size, biogeographic water-deficit affiliation and wood density. Tree communities have become increasingly dominated by large-statured taxa, but to date there has been no detectable change in mean wood density or water deficit affiliation at the community level, despite most forest plots having experienced an intensification of the dry season. However, among newly recruited trees, dry-affiliated genera have become more abundant, while the mortality of wet-affiliated genera has increased in those plots where the dry season has intensified most. Thus, a slow shift to a more dry-affiliated Amazonia is underway, with changes in compositional dynamics (recruits and mortality) consistent with climate-change drivers, but yet to significantly impact whole-community composition. The Amazon observational record suggests that the increase in atmospheric CO2 is driving a shift within tree communities to large-statured species and that climate changes to date will impact forest composition, but long generation times of tropical trees mean that biodiversity change is lagging behind climate change.

Carbon storage potential in degraded forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia
Ferraz, António ; Saatchi, Sassan ; Xu, Liang ; Hagen, Stephen ; Chave, Jerome ; Yu, Yifan ; Meyer, Victoria ; Garcia, Mariano ; Silva, Carlos ; Roswintiart, Orbita ; Samboko, Ari ; Sist, Plinio ; Walker, Sarah ; Pearson, Timothy R.H. ; Wijaya, Arief ; Sullivan, Franklin B. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Hoekman, Dirk ; Ganguly, Sangram - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)9. - ISSN 1748-9318
aboveground biomass mapping - airborne lidar - carbon - forest degradation - Indonesia - Kalimantan - peat swamp forests

The forests of Kalimantan are under severe pressure from extensive land use activities dominated by logging, palm oil plantations, and peatland fires. To implement the forest moratorium for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, Indonesia's government requires information on the carbon stored in forests, including intact, degraded, secondary, and peat swamp forests. We developed a hybrid approach of producing a wall-to-wall map of the aboveground biomass (AGB) of intact and degraded forests of Kalimantan at 1 ha grid cells by combining field inventory plots, airborne lidar samples, and satellite radar and optical imagery. More than 110 000 ha of lidar data were acquired to systematically capture variations of forest structure and more than 104 field plots to develop lidar-biomass models. The lidar measurements were converted into biomass using models developed for 66 439 ha of drylands and 44 250 ha of wetland forests. By combining the AGB map with the national land cover map, we found that 22.3 Mha (106 ha) of forest remain on drylands ranging in biomass from 357.2 ±12.3 Mgha-1 in relatively intact forests to 134.2 ±6.1 Mgha-1 in severely degraded forests. The remaining peat swamp forests are heterogeneous in coverage and degradation level, extending over 3.62 Mha and having an average AGB of 211.8 ±12.7 Mgha-1. Emission factors calculated from aboveground biomass only suggest that the carbon storage potential of more than 15 Mha of degraded and secondary dryland forests will be about 1.1 PgC.

Field methods for sampling tree height for tropical forest biomass estimation
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Qie, Lan ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Chave, Jerôme ; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Arets, Eric ; Ashton, Peter ; Bastin, Jean François ; Berry, Nicholas J. ; Bogaert, Jan ; Boot, Rene ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brienen, Roel ; Burslem, David F.R.P. ; Canniere, Charles de; Chudomelová, Markéta ; Dančák, Martin ; Ewango, Corneille ; Hédl, Radim ; Lloyd, Jon ; Makana, Jean Remy ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon ; Metali, Faizah ; Moore, Sam ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Vargas, Percy Nuñez ; Pendry, Colin A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Salim, Kamariah Abu ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Sukri, Rahayu S. ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Umunay, Peter M. ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vernimmen, Ronald R.E. ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2018
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9 (2018)5. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 1179 - 1189.
Above-ground biomass estimation - Allometry - Carbon stocks - Forest inventory - Forest structure - Sample size
Quantifying the relationship between tree diameter and height is a key component of efforts to estimate biomass and carbon stocks in tropical forests. Although substantial site-to-site variation in height-diameter allometries has been documented, the time consuming nature of measuring all tree heights in an inventory plot means that most studies do not include height, or else use generic pan-tropical or regional allometric equations to estimate height. Using a pan-tropical dataset of 73 plots where at least 150 trees had in-field ground-based height measurements, we examined how the number of trees sampled affects the performance of locally derived height-diameter allometries, and evaluated the performance of different methods for sampling trees for height measurement. Using cross-validation, we found that allometries constructed with just 20 locally measured values could often predict tree height with lower error than regional or climate-based allometries (mean reduction in prediction error = 0.46 m). The predictive performance of locally derived allometries improved with sample size, but with diminishing returns in performance gains when more than 40 trees were sampled. Estimates of stand-level biomass produced using local allometries to estimate tree height show no over- or under-estimation bias when compared with biomass estimates using field measured heights. We evaluated five strategies to sample trees for height measurement, and found that sampling strategies that included measuring the heights of the ten largest diameter trees in a plot outperformed (in terms of resulting in local height-diameter models with low height prediction error) entirely random or diameter size-class stratified approaches. Our results indicate that even limited sampling of heights can be used to refine height-diameter allometries. We recommend aiming for a conservative threshold of sampling 50 trees per location for height measurement, and including the ten trees with the largest diameter in this sample.
Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Talbot, Joey ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Qie, Lan ; Begne, Serge K. ; Chave, Jerôme ; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida ; Hubau, Wannes ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Bongers, Frans ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Sheil, Douglas - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322

Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-Tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

Estimating the aboveground biomass in an old secondary forest on limestone in the Moluccas, Indonesia : Comparing locally developed versus existing allometric models
Stas, Suzanne M. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Chave, Jérôme ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Laumonier, Yves - \ 2017
Forest Ecology and Management 389 (2017). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 27 - 34.
Aboveground biomass - Allometric model - Destructive sampling - Indonesia - Limestone - Secondary forest

Deforestation and forest degradation are widespread in Indonesia and pose serious threats to biodiversity and other ecosystem services. The Indonesian government is implementing several Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives to help support the conservation of tropical forests, but the eastern part of Indonesia has yet to be included in this effort. Tropical forests growing on limestone are a prominent feature of that region, but little is known about their ecology and management, and only limited research has been conducted on biomass and the associated carbon storage capacity of these secondary forests. Here, we estimate the aboveground tree biomass (AGB) in an old secondary forest on limestone in Seram, the Moluccas, East Indonesia. We destructively sampled all aboveground vegetation in 0.04 ha forest and developed a local allometric model (n = 25; diameter-range of 10.4–41.7 cm). We tested and compared the performance of our locally developed model with existing local models and a recent pantropical model (Chave et al., 2014) at our site. Total AGB in the 1-ha forest plot was estimated at 177 Mg ha−1, of which 141 Mg ha−1 (80%) was allocated in trees ⩾10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh), 33 Mg ha−1 (19%) in trees −1 (1%) in lianas and non-woody vegetation. Both our locally developed and the pantropical model estimated the biomass of harvested trees accurately (local model: bias = 0.1%, CV = 15.5%; pantropical model: bias = −7.7%, CV = 17.7%), while other local models had much lower performance (bias = −57.1 to −7.3%, CV = 59.2 to 75.8%). At plot-level, the AGB estimate of the pantropical model approached the estimate of our local model, while other local models considerably underestimated actual AGB. Together, our findings confirm that trees

Allometric equations for integrating remote sensing imagery into forest monitoring programmes
Jucker, T. ; Caspersen, John ; Chave, J. ; Antin, C. ; Barbier, N. ; Bongers, F. ; Dalponte, M. ; Ewijk van, K.Y. ; Poorter, L. ; Sterck, F.J. - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 177 - 190.
Remote sensing is revolutionizing the way we study forests, and recent technological advances mean we are now able – for the first time – to identify and measure the crown dimensions of individual trees from airborne imagery. Yet to make full use of these data for quantifying forest carbon stocks and dynamics, a new generation of allometric tools which have tree height and crown size at their centre are needed. Here, we compile a global database of 108753 trees for which stem diameter, height and crown diameter have all been measured, including 2395 trees harvested to measure aboveground biomass. Using this database, we develop general allometric models for estimating both the diameter and aboveground biomass of trees from attributes which can be remotely sensed – specifically height and crown diameter. We show that tree height and crown diameter jointly quantify the aboveground biomass of individual trees and find that a single equation predicts stem diameter from these two variables across the world's forests. These new allometric models provide an intuitive way of integrating remote sensing imagery into large-scale forest monitoring programmes and will be of key importance for parameterizing the next generation of dynamic vegetation models
Using phenotypes and genotypes of three-breed cross to improve breeding value estimation of purebred animals
Sevillano Del Aguila, C.A. ; Mezencio Godinho, Rodrigo ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. ; Vandenplas, J. ; Bergsma, R. ; Calus, M.P.L. - \ 2016
In: Arquivos Latinoamericanos de Produção Animal. - - p. 662 - 663.
Palavras-chave: crossbred, genomic prediction, genetic correlation, finisher, pigs
Breeding programs for pigs and poultry are currently based on genomic prediction (GP) of breeding values that mainly use training populations of purebred animals (PB), while the aim is to improve performance of crossbred animals (CB), which are usually a three-breed cross. The success of such
an approach therefore depends on purebred-crossbred genetic correlation (rpc). In our studied pig population, estimates of rpc for daily gain (DG), back fat thickness (BF) and loin depth (LD), were 0.61, 0.75 and 0.82, respectively. The magnitudes of these rpc indicate that genetic progress is being realized in crossbreds kept under commercial conditions by selecting on performance of
purebreds at the nucleus level. However, including phenotypes and genotypes of CB in the training population, will lead to higher genetic progress for these traits in CB. When using CB for GP, effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be breed-specific because linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns between a SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) and allele frequencies and effects of a QTL may differ between parental breeds. Estimation of breed-specific effects of alleles in a CB population, requires knowing their breed-of-origin. We investigated the performance of assigning breed-of origin of alleles in real data of three-breed cross pigs (finishers). The approach consists of three steps : 1)
phase the haplotypes of PB and CB, 2) determine unique haplotypes among the PB, and 3) assign the breedof-origin for each allele carried on haplotypes of CB. Genotypic and phenotypic data was available for 14,187 PB from the three parental breeds, and 1,723 finishers. On average 93.0% of the alleles of a finisher were assigned a breed-of-origin without using pedigree, and 94.6% using pedigree information. Using these derived breed origin of alleles, we built three partial genomic relationship matrices, one for each breed.
These matrices are used to estimate three separate genetic values of a finisher, one from each breed origin. This model will be tested by predicting breed specific breeding values for DG, BF, and LD.
Evolutionary heritage influences amazon tree ecology
Souza, Fernanda Coelho De; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Chave, Jerome ; Galbraith, David R. ; Gonzalez, Gabriela Lopez ; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo ; Toby Pennington, R. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Boot, Rene G.A. ; Meer, Peter J. van der - \ 2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 283 (2016)1844. - ISSN 0962-8452
Convergent evolution - Divergent selection - Phylogenetic signal - Trait - Tropical tree

Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation. We used trait data related to the major axes of life-history variation among tropical trees (e.g. growth and mortality rates) from 577 inventory plots in closed-canopy forest, mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis spanning more than 300 genera including all major angiosperm clades to test for evolutionary constraints on traits. We found significant phylogenetic signal (PS) for all traits, consistent with evolutionarily related genera having more similar characteristics than expected by chance. Although there is also evidence for repeated evolution of pioneer and shade tolerant lifehistory strategies within independent lineages, the existence of significant PS allows clearer predictions of the links between evolutionary diversity, ecosystem function and the response of tropical forests to global change.

Variation in stem mortality rates determines patterns of above-ground biomass in Amazonian forests: implications for dynamic global vegetation models
Johnson, Michelle O. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Deurwaerder, Hannes De; Guimberteau, Matthieu ; Rammig, Anja ; Thonicke, Kirsten ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Randow, Celso Von; Monteagudo, Abel ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Fauset, Sophie ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Christoffersen, Bradley ; Ciais, Philippe ; Sampaio, Gilvan ; Kruijt, Bart ; Meir, Patrick ; Moorcroft, Paul ; Zhang, Ke ; Alvarez-Davila, Esteban ; Alves De Oliveira, Atila ; Amaral, Ieda ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Aymard, Gerardo A. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Barroso, Jocely ; Bonal, Damien ; Boot, Rene ; Camargo, Jose ; Chave, Jerome ; Cogollo, Alvaro ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Lola Da Costa, Antonio C. ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Ferreira, Leandro ; Higuchi, Niro ; Honorio, Euridice N. ; Killeen, Tim J. ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Licona, Juan ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Bia ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Matos, Darley C.L. ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Neill, David A. ; Pardo, Guido ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Prieto, Adriana ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustin ; Salomao, Rafael P. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Stropp, Juliana ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Toledo, Marisol ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Heijden, Geertje M.F. van der; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Guimarães Vieira, Ima Cèlia ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Vos, Vincent A. ; Baker, Timothy R. - \ 2016
Global Change Biology 22 (2016)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3996 - 4013.
Understanding the processes that determine aboveground biomass (AGB) in Amazonian forests is important for predicting the sensitivity of these ecosystems to environmental change and for designing and evaluating dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). AGB is determined by inputs from woody productivity (woody NPP) and the rate at which carbon is lost through tree mortality. Here, we test whether two direct metrics of tree mortality (the absolute rate of woody biomass loss and the rate of stem mortality) and/or woody NPP, control variation in AGB among 167 plots in intact forest across Amazonia. We then compare these relationships and the observed variation in AGB and woody NPP with the predictions of four DGVMs. The observations show that stem mortality rates, rather than absolute rates of woody biomass loss, are the most important predictor of AGB, which is consistent with the importance of stand size-structure for determining spatial variation in AGB. The relationship between stem mortality rates and AGB varies among different regions of Amazonia, indicating that variation in wood density and height/diameter relationships also influence AGB. In contrast to previous findings, we find that woody NPP is not correlated with stem mortality rates, and is weakly positively correlated with AGB. Across the four models, basin-wide average AGB is similar to the mean of the observations. However, the models consistently overestimate woody NPP, and poorly represent the spatial patterns of both AGB and woody NPP estimated using plot data. In marked contrast to the observations, DGVMs typically show strong positive relationships between woody NPP and AGB. Resolving these differences will require incorporating forest size structure, mechanistic models of stem mortality and variation in functional composition in DGVMs
Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests
Wagner, Fabien H. ; Hérault, Bruno ; Bonal, Damien ; Stahl, Clément ; Anderson, Liana O. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Becker, Gabriel Sebastian ; Beeckman, Hans ; Boanerges Souza, Danilo ; Botosso, Paulo Cesar ; Bowman, David M.J.S. ; Bräuning, Achim ; Brede, Benjamin ; Brown, Foster Irving ; Camarero, Jesus Julio ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Cardoso, Fernanda C.G. ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Castro, Wendeson ; Chagas, Rubens Koloski ; Chave, Jérome ; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N. ; Clark, Deborah A. ; Costa, Flavia Regina Capellotto ; Couralet, Camille ; Silva Mauricio, Paulo Henrique Da; Dalitz, Helmut ; Castro, Vinicius Resende De; Freitas Milani, Jaçanan Eloisa De; Oliveira, Edilson Consuelo De; Souza Arruda, Luciano De; Devineau, Jean-Louis ; Drew, David M. ; Dünisch, Oliver ; Durigan, Giselda ; Elifuraha, Elisha ; Fedele, Marcio ; Ferreira Fedele, Ligia ; Figueiredo Filho, Afonso ; Finger, César Augusto Guimarães ; Franco, Augusto César ; Freitas Júnior, João Lima ; Galvão, Franklin ; Gebrekirstos, Aster ; Gliniars, Robert ; Lima De Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício ; Griffiths, Anthony D. ; Grogan, James ; Guan, Kaiyu ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Kanieski, Maria Raquel ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Koenig, Jennifer ; Kohler, Sintia Valerio ; Krepkowski, Julia ; Lemos-filho, José Pires ; Lieberman, Diana ; Lieberman, Milton Eugene ; Lisi, Claudio Sergio ; Longhi Santos, Tomaz ; López Ayala, José Luis ; Maeda, Eduardo Eijji ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Maria, Vivian R.B. ; Marques, Marcia C.M. ; Marques, Renato ; Maza Chamba, Hector ; Mbwambo, Lawrence ; Melgaço, Karina Liana Lisboa ; Mendivelso, Hooz Angela ; Murphy, Brett P. ; O'Brien, Joseph J. ; Oberbauer, Steven F. ; Okada, Naoki ; Pélissier, Raphaël ; Prior, Lynda D. ; Roig, Fidel Alejandro ; Ross, Michael ; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo ; Rossi, Vivien ; Rowland, Lucy ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Santana, Hellen ; Schulze, Mark ; Selhorst, Diogo ; Silva, Williamar Rodrigues ; Silveira, Marcos ; Spannl, Susanne ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Toledo, José Julio ; Toledo, Marcos Miranda ; Toledo, Marisol ; Toma, Takeshi ; Tomazello Filho, Mario ; Valdez Hernández, Juan Ignacio ; Verbesselt, Jan ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Vincent, Grégoire ; Volkmer De Castilho, Carolina ; Volland, Franziska ; Worbes, Martin ; Zanon, Magda Lea Bolzan ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. - \ 2016
Biogeosciences 13 (2016)8. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 2537 - 2562.
The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68 include aboveground wood productivity measurements and 35 litter productivity measurements), their associated canopy photosynthetic capacity (enhanced vegetation index, EVI) and climate, we ask how carbon assimilation and aboveground allocation are related to climate seasonality in tropical forests and how they interact in the seasonal carbon cycle. We found that canopy photosynthetic capacity seasonality responds positively to precipitation when rainfall is  < 2000 mm yr−1 (water-limited forests) and to radiation otherwise (light-limited forests). On the other hand, independent of climate limitations, wood productivity and litterfall are driven by seasonal variation in precipitation and evapotranspiration, respectively. Consequently, light-limited forests present an asynchronism between canopy photosynthetic capacity and wood productivity. First-order control by precipitation likely indicates a decrease in tropical forest productivity in a drier climate in water-limited forest, and in current light-limited forest with future rainfall  < 2000 mm yr−1.
Phylogenetic diversity of Amazonian tree communities
Honorio Coronado, E.N. ; Dexter, K.G. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Chave, Jérôme ; Lewis, S.L. ; Alexiades, M.N. ; Alvarez, Esteban ; Alves de Oliveira, Atila ; Amaral, J.L. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, E.J.M.M. - \ 2015
Diversity and Distributions 21 (2015)11. - ISSN 1366-9516 - p. 1295 - 1307.
Amazon basin - Eudicots - Magnoliids - Monocots - Phylogenetic diversity - Species richness

Aim: To examine variation in the phylogenetic diversity (PD) of tree communities across geographical and environmental gradients in Amazonia. Location: Two hundred and eighty-three c. 1 ha forest inventory plots from across Amazonia. Methods: We evaluated PD as the total phylogenetic branch length across species in each plot (PDss), the mean pairwise phylogenetic distance between species (MPD), the mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) and their equivalents standardized for species richness (ses.PDss, ses.MPD, ses.MNTD). We compared PD of tree communities growing (1) on substrates of varying geological age; and (2) in environments with varying ecophysiological barriers to growth and survival. Results: PDss is strongly positively correlated with species richness (SR), whereas MNTD has a negative correlation. Communities on geologically young- and intermediate-aged substrates (western and central Amazonia respectively) have the highest SR, and therefore the highest PDss and the lowest MNTD. We find that the youngest and oldest substrates (the latter on the Brazilian and Guiana Shields) have the highest ses.PDss and ses.MNTD. MPD and ses.MPD are strongly correlated with how evenly taxa are distributed among the three principal angiosperm clades and are both highest in western Amazonia. Meanwhile, seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) and forests on white sands have low PD, as evaluated by any metric. Main conclusions: High ses.PDss and ses.MNTD reflect greater lineage diversity in communities. We suggest that high ses.PDss and ses.MNTD in western Amazonia results from its favourable, easy-to-colonize environment, whereas high values in the Brazilian and Guianan Shields may be due to accumulation of lineages over a longer period of time. White-sand forests and SDTF are dominated by close relatives from fewer lineages, perhaps reflecting ecophysiological barriers that are difficult to surmount evolutionarily. Because MPD and ses.MPD do not reflect lineage diversity per se, we suggest that PDss, ses.PDss and ses.MNTD may be the most useful diversity metrics for setting large-scale conservation priorities.

Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees
Feldpausch, T.R. ; Banin, L. ; Phillips, O.L. ; Baker, T.R. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Quesada, C.A. ; Affum-Baffoe, K. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Berry, N.J. ; Bird, M. ; Brondizio, E.S. ; Camargo, P. de; Chave, J. ; Djagbletey, G. ; Domingues, T.F. ; Drescher, M. ; Fearnside, P.M. ; Franca, M.B. ; Fyllas, N.M. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, G. ; Hladik, A. ; Higuchi, N. ; Hunter, M.O. ; Iida, Y. ; Salim, K.A. ; Kassim, A.R. ; Keller, M. ; Kemp, J. ; King, D.A. ; Lovett, J.C. ; Marimon, B.S. ; Marimon-Junior, B.H. ; Lenza, E. ; Marshall, A.R. ; Metcalfe, D.J. ; Mitchard, E.T.A. ; Moran, E.F. ; Nelson, B.W. ; Nilus, R. ; Nogueira, E.M. ; Palace, M. ; Patino, S. ; Peh, K.S.H. ; Raventos, M.T. ; Reitsma, J.M. ; Saiz, G. ; Schrodt, F. ; Sonké, B. ; Taedoumg, H.E. ; Tan, S. ; White, L. ; Wöll, H. ; Lloyd, J. - \ 2011
Biogeosciences 8 (2011). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1081 - 1106.
amazon rain-forest - elfin cloud forest - leaf gas-exchange - montane forest - aboveground biomass - spatial-patterns - hydraulic architecture - altitudinal transect - environmental-change - neotropical forest
Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical countries. Utilising this database, our objectives were: 1. to determine if H:D relationships differ by geographic region and forest type (wet to dry forests, including zones of tension where forest and savanna overlap). 2. to ascertain if the H:D relationship is modulated by climate and/or forest structural characteristics (e.g. stand-level basal area, A). 3. to develop H:D allometric equations and evaluate biases to reduce error in future local-to-global estimates of tropical forest biomass. Annual precipitation coefficient of variation (PV), dry season length (SD), and mean annual air temperature (TA) emerged as key drivers of variation in H:D relationships at the pantropical and region scales. Vegetation structure also played a role with trees in forests of a high A being, on average, taller at any given D. After the effects of environment and forest structure are taken into account, two main regional groups can be identified. Forests in Asia, Africa and the Guyana Shield all have, on average, similar H:D relationships, but with trees in the forests of much of the Amazon Basin and tropical Australia typically being shorter at any given D than their counterparts elsewhere. The region-environment-structure model with the lowest Akaike's information criterion and lowest deviation estimated stand-level H across all plots to within amedian -2.7 to 0.9% of the true value. Some of the plot-to-plot variability in H:D relationships not accounted for by this model could be attributed to variations in soil physical conditions. Other things being equal, trees tend to be more slender in the absence of soil physical constraints, especially at smaller D. Pantropical and continental-level models provided less robust estimates of H, especially when the roles of climate and stand structure in modulating H:D allometry were not simultaneously taken into account.
Functional traits predict ontogenetic growth trajectories among neotropical trees
Hérault, B. ; Bachelot, B. ; Poorter, L. ; Bongers, F. ; Chave, J. ; Paine, C.E.T. ; Rossi, V. ; Baraloto, C. - \ 2011
Journal of Ecology 99 (2011)6. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1431 - 1440.
mixed dipterocarp forest - tropical trees - trade-offs - photosynthetic traits - relative importance - economics spectrum - shade tolerance - good predictors - wood density - life-history
1. Functional traits are posited to explain interspecific differences in performance, but these relationships are difficult to describe for long-lived organisms such as trees, which exhibit strong ontogenetic changes in demographic rates. Here, we use a size-dependent model of tree growth to test the extent to which of 17 functional traits related to leaf and stem economics, adult stature and seed size predict the ontogenetic trajectory of tree growth. 2. We used a Bayesian modelling framework to parameterize and contrast three size-dependent diameter growth models using 16 years of census data from 5524 individuals of 50 rain forest tree species: a size-dependent model, a size-dependent model with species-specific parameters and a size-dependent model based on functional traits. 3. Most species showed clear hump-shaped ontogenetic growth trajectories and, across species, maximum growth rate varied nearly tenfold, from 0.58 to 5.51 mm year-1. Most species attained their maximum growth at 60% of their maximum size, whereas the magnitude of ontogenetic changes in growth rate varied widely among species. 4. The Trait-Model provided the best compromise between explained variance and model parsimony and needed considerably fewer parameters than the model with species terms. 5. Stem economics and adult stature largely explained interspecific differences in growth strategy. Maximum absolute diameter growth rates increased with increasing adult stature and leaf d13C and decreased with increasing wood density. Species with light wood had the greatest potential to modulate their growth, resulting in hump-shaped ontogenetic growth curves. Seed size and leaf economics, generally thought to be of paramount importance for plant performance, had no significant relationships with the growth parameters. 6. Synthesis. Our modelling approach offers a promising way to link demographic parameters to their functional determinants and hence to predict growth trajectories in species-rich communities with little parameter inflation, bridging the gap between functional ecology and population demography.
TRY - a global database of plant traits
Kattge, J. ; Diaz, S. ; Lavorel, S. ; Prentices, I.C. ; Leadley, P. ; Bönisch, G. ; Garnier, E. ; Westobys, M. ; Reich, P.B. ; Wrights, I.J. ; Cornelissen, C. ; Violle, C. ; Harisson, S.P. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Reichstein, M. ; Enquist, B.J. ; Soudzilovskaia, N.A. ; Ackerly, D.D. ; Anand, M. ; Atkin, O. ; Bahn, M. ; Baker, T.R. ; Baldochi, D. ; Bekker, R. ; Blanco, C.C. ; Blonders, B. ; Bond, W.J. ; Bradstock, R. ; Bunker, D.E. ; Casanoves, F. ; Cavender-Bares, J. ; Chambers, J.Q. ; Chapin III, F.S. ; Chave, J. ; Coomes, D. ; Cornwell, W.K. ; Craine, J.M. ; Dobrin, B.H. ; Duarte, L. ; Durka, W. ; Elser, J. ; Esser, G. ; Estiarte, M. ; Fagan, W.F. ; Fang, J. ; Fernadez-Mendez, F. ; Fidelis, A. ; Finegan, B. ; Flores, O. ; Ford, H. ; Frank, D. ; Freschet, T. ; Fyllas, N.M. ; Gallagher, R.V. ; Green, W.A. ; Gutierrez, A.G. ; Hickler, T. ; Higgins, S.I. ; Hodgson, J.G. ; Jalili, A. ; Jansen, S. ; Joly, C.A. ; Kerkhoff, A.J. ; Kirkup, D. ; Kitajima, K. ; Kleyer, M. ; Klotz, S. ; Knops, J.M.H. ; Kramer, K. ; Kühn, I. ; Kurokawa, H. ; Laughlin, D. ; Lee, T.D. ; Leishman, M. ; Lens, F. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Lloyd, J. ; Llusia, J. ; Louault, F. ; Ma, S. ; Mahecha, M.D. ; Manning, P. ; Massad, T. ; Medlyn, B.E. ; Messier, J. ; Moles, A.T. ; Müller, S.C. ; Nadrowski, K. ; Naeem, S. ; Niinemets, Ü. ; Nöllert, S. ; Nüske, A. ; Ogaya, R. ; Oleksyn, J. ; Onipchenko, V.G. ; Onoda, Y. ; Ordonez Barragan, J.C. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2011
Global Change Biology 17 (2011)9. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2905 - 2935.
relative growth-rate - tropical rain-forest - hawaiian metrosideros-polymorpha - litter decomposition rates - leaf economics spectrum - old-field succession - sub-arctic flora - functional traits - wide-range - terrestrial biosphere
Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.
Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees
Feldpausch, T.R. ; Banin, L. ; Phillips, O.L. ; Baker, T.R. ; Lewis, S.L. ; Quesada, C.A. ; Affum-Baffoe, K. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Berry, N.J. ; Bird, M. ; Brondizio, E.S. ; Camargo, P. de; Chave, J. ; Djagbletey, G. ; Domingues, T.F. ; Drescher, M. ; Fearnside, P.M. ; Franca, M.B. ; Fyllas, N.M. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, G. ; Hladik, A. ; Higuchi, N. ; Hunter, M.O. ; Iida, Y. ; Salim, K.A. ; Kassim, A.R. ; Keller, M. ; Kemp, J. ; King, D.A. ; Lovett, J.C. ; Marimon, B.S. ; Marimon-Junior, B.H. ; Lenza, E. ; Marshall, A.R. ; Metcalfe, D.J. ; Mitchard, E.T.A. ; Moran, E.F. ; Nelson, B.W. ; Nilus, R. ; Nogueira, E.M. ; Palace, M. ; Patino, S. ; Peh, K.S.H. ; Raventos, M.T. ; Reitsma, J.M. ; Saiz, G. ; Schrodt, F. ; Sonké, B. ; Taedoumg, H.E. ; Tan, S. ; White, L. ; Wöll, H. ; Lloyd, J. - \ 2010
Biogeosciences Discussions 7 (2010). - ISSN 1810-6277 - p. 7727 - 7793.
Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical countries. Utilising this database, our objectives were: 1. to determine if H:D relationships differ by geographic region and forest type (wet to dry forests, including zones of tension where forest and savanna overlap). 2. to ascertain if the H:D relationship is modulated by climate and/or forest structural characteristics (e.g. stand-level basal area, A). 3. to develop H:D allometric equations and evaluate biases to reduce error in future local-to-global estimates of tropical forest biomass. Annual precipitation coefficient of variation (PV), dry season length (SD), and mean annual air temperature (TA) emerged as key drivers of variation in H:D relationships at the pantropical and region scales. Vegetation structure also played a role with trees in forests of a high A being, on average, taller at any given D. After the effects of environment and forest structure are taken into account, two main regional groups can be identified. Forests in Asia, Africa and the Guyana Shield all have, on average, similar H:D relationships, but with trees in the forests of much of the Amazon Basin and tropical Australia typically being shorter at any given D than their counterparts elsewhere. The region-environment-structure model with the lowest Akaike's information criterion and lowest deviation estimated stand-level H across all plots to within a median –2.7 to 0.9% of the true value. Some of the plot-to-plot variability in H:D relationships not accounted for by this model could be attributed to variations in soil physical conditions. Other things being equal, trees tend to be more slender in the absence of soil physical constraints, especially at smaller D. Pantropical and continental-level models provided only poor estimates of H, especially when the roles of climate and stand structure in modulating H:D allometry were not simultaneously taken into account.
Decoupled leaf and stem economics in rain forest trees
Baraloto, C. ; Paine, C.E.T. ; Poorter, L. ; Beauchene, J. ; Bonal, D. ; Domenach, A.M. ; Herault, B. ; Patiño, S. ; Roggy, J.C. ; Chave, J. - \ 2010
Ecology Letters 13 (2010)11. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1338 - 1347.
functional traits - neotropical forests - wood density - strategies - diversity - spectrum - size - phylogenetics - conductivity - architecture
Cross-species analyses of plant functional traits have shed light on factors contributing to differences in performance and distribution, but to date most studies have focused on either leaves or stems. We extend these tissue-specific analyses of functional strategy towards a whole-plant approach by integrating data on functional traits for 13 448 leaves and wood tissues from 4672 trees representing 668 species of Neotropical trees. Strong correlations amongst traits previously defined as the leaf economics spectrum reflect a tradeoff between investments in productive leaves with rapid turnover vs. costly physical leaf structure with a long revenue stream. A second axis of variation, the ‘stem economics spectrum’, defines a similar tradeoff at the stem level: dense wood vs. high wood water content and thick bark. Most importantly, these two axes are orthogonal, suggesting that tradeoffs operate independently at the leaf and at the stem levels. By simplifying the multivariate ecological strategies of tropical trees into positions along these two spectra, our results provide a basis to improve global vegetation models predicting responses of tropical forests to global chan
Annual Rainfall and Seasonality Predict Pan-tropical Patterns of Liana Density and Basal Area
DeWalt, S.J. ; Schnitzer, S.A. ; Chave, J. ; Bongers, F. ; Cai, Z.Q. ; Ewango, C.E.N. ; Parren, M.P.E. - \ 2010
Biotropica 42 (2010)3. - ISSN 0006-3606 - p. 309 - 317.
dry evergreen forests - floristic composition - neotropical forests - community structure - species-diversity - national-park - tree - abundance - dynamics - india
We test the hypotheses proposed by Gentry and Schnitzer that liana density and basal area in tropical forests vary negatively with mean annual precipitation (MAP) and positively with seasonality. Previous studies correlating liana abundance with these climatic variables have produced conflicting results, warranting a new analysis of drivers of liana abundance based on a different dataset. We compiled a pan-tropical dataset containing 28,953 lianas (=2.5 cm diam.) from studies conducted at 13 Neotropical and 11 Paleotropical dry to wet lowland tropical forests. The ranges in MAP and dry season length (DSL) (number of months with mean rainfall
Reconciling neutral community models and environmental filtering: theory and an empirical test
Jabot, F. ; Etienne, R.S. ; Chave, J. - \ 2008
Oikos 117 (2008)9. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 1308 - 1320.
bornean rain-forest - seed dispersal - tropical forest - beta-diversity - species-abundance - habitat associations - floristic variation - neotropical forest - spatial variation - sampling formula
It is widely believed that the neutral theory of biodiversity cannot be used for parameter inference if the assumption of neutrality is not met. The goal of this work is to extend this neutral framework to quantify the intensity of recruitment limitation (limited dispersal plus environmental filtering) in natural species assemblages. We model several local communities as part of a larger metacommunity, and we assume that neutrality holds in each local community, but not in the metacommunity. The immigration rate m does not only reflect dispersal limitation into a given local community, but also the intensity of environmental filtering. We develop a novel statistical method to infer the immigration parameter m in each local community. Using simulated datasets, we show that m indeed depends on both dispersal limitation and on the intensity of environmental filtering. We then apply this method to a network of tropical tree plots in central Panama. Inferred recruitment rates m were positively correlated with the fraction of trees dispersed by mammals, and with annual rainfall, possibly due to a weaker environmental filtering as rainfall increases. Finally, m, as estimated from trees greater than 1 cm trunk diameter, were significantly larger than an estimation based on trees greater than 10 cm trunk diameter. This suggests a cumulative effect of environmental filtering upon trees throughout their ontogeny.
Above-ground biomass and productivity in a rain forest of eastern South America
Chave, J. ; Olivier, J. ; Bongers, F.J.J.M. ; Chatelet, P. ; Forget, P.M. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Norden, N. ; Riera, B. ; Charles-Dominique, P. - \ 2008
Journal of Tropical Ecology 24 (2008). - ISSN 0266-4674 - p. 355 - 366.
net primary production - wood specific-gravity - long-term plots - tropical forests - french-guiana - neotropical forest - live biomass - carbon - amazon - density
Abstract: The dynamics of tropical forest woody plants was studied at the Nouragues Field Station, central French Guiana. Stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and above-ground net primary productivity, including the contribution of litterfall, were estimated from two large permanent census plots of 12 and 10 ha, established on contrasting soil types, and censused twice, first in 1992¿1994, then again in 2000¿2002. Mean stem density was 512 stems ha¿1 and basal area, 30m2 ha¿1. Stem mortality rate ranged between 1.51% and 2.06% y¿1. In both plots, stem density decreased over the study period. Using a correlation between wood density and wood hardness directly measured by a Pilodyn wood tester,we found that the mean wood densitywas 0.63 g cm¿3, 12% smaller than the mean of wood density estimated from the literature values for the species occurring in our plot. Above-ground biomass ranged from 356 to 398Mgha¿1 (oven-dry mass), and it increased over the census period. Leaf biomass was 6.47Mg ha¿1. Our total estimate of aboveground net primary productivity was 8.81 MgC ha¿1 y¿1 (in carbon units), not accounting for loss to herbivory, branchfalls, or biogenic volatile organic compounds, whichmay altogether account for an additional 1MgC ha¿1 y¿1. Coarse wood productivity (stem growth plus recruitment) contributed to 4.16 MgC ha¿1 y¿1. Litterfall contributed to 4.65MgC ha¿1 y¿1 with 3.16 MgC ha¿1 y¿1 due to leaves, 1.10 MgC ha¿1 y¿1 to twigs, and 0.39MgC ha¿1 y¿1 to fruits and flowers. The increase in above-ground biomass for both trees and lianas is consistentwith the hypothesis of a shift in the functioning of Amazonian rain forests driven by environmental changes, although alternative hypotheses such as a recovery from past disturbances cannot be ruled out at our site, as suggested by the observed decrease in stem density. Key Words: above-ground biomass, carbon, French Guiana, net primary productivity, tropical forest
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