Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Use of the beta growth function to quantitatively characterize the effects of plant density and a growth regulator on growth and biomass partitioning in cotton
Mao, Lili ; Zhang, Lizhen ; Sun, Xuezhen ; Werf, Wopke van der; Evers, Jochem B. ; Zhao, Xinhua ; Zhang, Siping ; Song, Xianliang ; Li, Zhaohu - \ 2018
Field Crops Research 224 (2018). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 28 - 36.
Beta growth function - Biomass partitioning - Growth rate - Mepiquat chloride - Plant population density
Allocation of newly formed biomass towards plant organs is a key determinant of plant performance that is affected by agronomic practices such as plant population density and use of growth regulators. Here we quantified biomass allocation of intercropped cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) growing at two population densities (3.0 and 7.5 plants m−2) and with or without application of the growth regulator mepiquat chloride (MC) in three consecutive years. The beta growth function was used to quantitatively characterize the dynamics of biomass partitioning. Compared to low density, high density increased daily growth rate and final above-ground dry matter, but decreased allocation to fruits. Application of MC did not affect dry matter accumulation but increased allocation to fruits by 22%. The parameters of the beta growth function have a clear biological interpretation, providing a useful quantitative characterization of the effect of management on dry matter allocation in cotton. The function may also be used to model organ-specific daily assimilate partitioning as a component in models of plant growth and crop production with the consideration of discussed caveats.
Characterizing Tropical Forest Cover Loss Using Dense Sentinel-1 Data and Active Fire Alerts
Reiche, Johannes ; Verhoeven, Rob ; Verbesselt, Jan ; Hamunyela, Eliakim ; Wielaard, Niels ; Herold, Martin - \ 2018
Remote Sensing 10 (2018)5. - ISSN 2072-4292 - 18 p.
Fire use for land management is widespread in natural tropical and plantation forests, causing major environmental and economic damage. Recent studies combining active fire alerts with annual forest-cover loss information identified fire-related forest-cover loss areas well, but do not provide detailed understanding on how fires and forest-cover loss are temporally related. Here, we combine Sentinel-1-based, near real-time forest cover information with Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) active fire alerts, and for the first time, characterize the temporal relationship between fires and tropical forest-cover loss at high temporal detail and medium spatial scale. We quantify fire-related forest-cover loss and separate fires that predate, coincide with, and postdate forest-cover loss. For the Province of Riau, Indonesia, dense Sentinel-1 C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data with guaranteed observations of at least every 12 days allowed for confident and timely forest-cover-loss detection in natural and plantation forest with user’s and producer’s accuracy above 95%. Forest-cover loss was detected and confirmed within 22 days in natural forest and within 15 days in plantation forest. This difference can primarily be related to different change processes and dynamics in natural and plantation forest. For the period between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2017, fire-related forest-cover loss accounted for about one third of the natural forest-cover loss, while in plantation forest, less than ten percent of the forest-cover loss was fire-related. We found clear spatial patterns of fires predating, coinciding with, or postdating forest-cover loss. Only the minority of fires in natural and plantation forest temporally coincided with forest-cover loss (13% and 16%) and can thus be confidently attributed as direct cause of forest-cover loss. The majority of the fires predated (64% and 58%) or postdated forest-cover loss (23% and 26%), and should be attributed to other key land management practices. Detailed and timely information on how fires and forest cover loss are temporally related can support tropical forest management, policy development, and law enforcement to reduce unsustainable and illegal fire use in the tropics.
Effect of timing of corn silage supplementation to Holstein dairy cows given limited daily access to pasture : intake and performance
Mattiauda, D.A. ; Gibb, M.J. ; Carriquiry, M. ; Tamminga, S. ; Chilibroste, P. - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - 9 p.
feeding strategy - grazing - grazing pattern - ingestive behaviour - milk production
The timing in which supplements are provided in grazing systems can affect dry matter (DM) intake and productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of corn silage supplementation on ingestive behaviour, DM intake, milk yield and composition in grazing dairy cows. In total, 33 Holstein dairy cows in a randomized block design grazed on a second-year mixed grass–legume pasture from 0900 to 1500 h and received 2.7 kg of a commercial supplement at each milking. Paddock sizes were adjusted to provide a daily herbage allowance of 15 kg DM/cow determined at ground level. The three treatments imposed each provided 3.8 kg DM/day of corn silage offered in a single meal at 0800 h (Treatment AM), equally distributed in two meals 0800 and 1700 h (Treatment AM-PM) or a single meal at 1700 h (Treatment PM). The experiment was carried out during the late autumn and early winter period, with 1 week of adaptation and 6 weeks of measurements. There were no differences between treatments in milk yield, but 4% fat-corrected milk yield tended to be greater in AM-PM than in AM cows, which did not differ from PM (23.7, 25.3 and 24.6±0.84 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). Fat percentage and yield were greater for AM-PM than for AM cows and intermediate for PM cows (3.89 v. 3.66±0.072% and 1.00 v. 0.92±0.035 kg/day, respectively). Offering corn silage in two meals had an effect on herbage DM intake which was greater for AM-PM than AM cows and was intermediate in PM cows (8.5, 11.0 and 10.3±0.68 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). During the 6-h period at pasture, the overall proportion of observations on which cows were grazing tended to be different between treatments and a clear grazing pattern along the grazing session (1-h observation period) was identified. During the time at pasture, the proportion of observations during which cows ruminated was positively correlated with the DM intake of corn silage immediately before turn out to pasture. The treatment effects on herbage DM intake did not sufficiently explain differences in productive performance. This suggests that the timing of the corn silage supplementation affected rumen kinetics and likewise the appearance of hunger and satiety signals as indicated by observed changes in temporal patterns of grazing and ruminating activities.
The Timing of Initiating Complementary Feeding in Preterm Infants and Its Effect on Overweight : A Systematic Review
Vissers, K.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Goudoever, J.B. van; Janse, A. - \ 2018
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 72 (2018). - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 307 - 315.
Background:
What is the appropriate time to start complementary feeding for preterm infants? The answer to this question is yet under debate. The timing of initiating complementary feeding may be associated with overweight in
term infants. This systematic review aimed to study the effect of the timing of initiating complementary feeding on overweight in preterm infants. Predefined search items included preterm infants, complementary feeding, overweight, and their synonyms.
Summary:
The search identified 15,749 articles, of which 5 articles were included. Three
studies presented data of randomized controlled trials and 2 studies were
trials found no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) Z-score between the intervention groups at 12 months of age. One randomized controlled trial presented a significant greater mean rate of growth in length per week until 12 months in the preterm weaning strategy-group compared
with the current best practices. One observational study concluded that each month the infants received complementary food later, the Z-score for length and weight was reduced by 0.1.
Key Messages:
No clear conclusion could be drawn from the included studies. This review illustrates the need for further research to access the effect of the timing of
initiating complementary feeding on overweight in preterm infants.
What makes long-term investment decisions forward looking : A framework applied to the case of Amsterdam's new sea lock
Pot, W.D. ; Dewulf, A. ; Biesbroek, G.R. ; Vlist, M.J. van der; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2018
Technological Forecasting and Social Change 132 (2018). - ISSN 0040-1625 - p. 174 - 190.
Forward-looking decisions - Future anticipation - Infrastructure investments - Public sector - Scenario use
Long-term investments challenge decision makers to look into the far future. Existing future studies often build upon a rational idea of decision making that does not help to explain why decision makers anticipate the future. In addition, existing studies do not provide a clear definition of what is considered as “forward looking”. This article proposes a framework that can be used to evaluate and explain for what reasons and based on what criteria decision makers take forward-looking investment decisions. We apply this framework to a specific decision-making case about a Dutch sea lock, making use of interviews (n = 16) and a content analysis of primary documents (n = 430). We find that not all investment decisions are necessarily forward looking. Secondly, we conclude from our case that decisions became forward looking because administrators used scenarios, visions, and flexible solutions to build support, avoid political risks and comply to formal rules. Scenario developers and urban planners could therefore involve administrators in early stages of the decision-making process to increase their awareness of the future towards which they are steering and provide them with alternative future paths. Furthermore, they could identify and use relevant institutional rules with forward-looking features to stimulate forward-looking decisions.
Rapid divergence of mussel populations despite incomplete barriers to dispersal
Maas, Diede L. ; Prost, Stefan ; Bi, Ke ; Smith, Lydia ; Armstrong, Ellie E. ; Aji, Ludi P. ; Toha, Abdul H.A. ; Gillespie, Rosemary G. ; Becking, Leontine E. - \ 2018
Molecular Ecology 27 (2018)7. - ISSN 0962-1083 - p. 1556 - 1571.
Striking genetic structure among marine populations at small spatial scales is becoming evident with extensive molecular studies. Such observations suggest isolation at small scales may play an important role in forming patterns of genetic diversity within species. Isolation‐by‐distance, isolation‐by‐environment, and historical priority effects are umbrella terms for a suite of processes that underlie genetic structure, but their relative importance at different spatial and temporal scales remains elusive. Here, we use marine lakes in Indonesia to assess genetic structure and test relative roles of the processes in shaping genetic differentiation in populations of a bivalve mussel (Brachidontes sp.). Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies of similar age (6,000 – 10,000 years), but with heterogeneous environments and varying degrees of connection to the sea. Using a population genomic approach (double‐digest Restriction‐site Associated DNA sequencing), we show strong genetic structuring across populations (range FST: 0.07 – 0.24), and find limited gene flow through admixture plots. At large spatial scales (>1400km), a clear isolation‐by‐distance pattern was detected. At smaller spatial scales (<200km), this pattern is maintained, but accompanied by an association of genetic divergence with degree of connection. No signatures of isolation‐by‐environment were found. We hypothesize that (incomplete) dispersal barriers can cause initial isolation, allowing priority effects to give the numerical advantage necessary to initiate strong genetic structure. Priority effects may be strengthened by local adaptation, which our data potentially corroborates by showing a high correlation between mussel genotypes and temperature. Our study indicates an often‐neglected role of evolution‐mediated priority effects in shaping population divergence.
Strategic land banking in the Netherlands : Experiencing Dutch dilemmas
Spit, Tejo - \ 2018
In: Instruments of Land Policy Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9781138201514 - p. 271 - 283.
Within a public perspective on land policies, land banking of regional authorities is a very special instrument, as it links spatial policymaking directly to its implementation. Therewith, it is greatly increasing the effectiveness of spatial policymaking. Yet, its effectiveness also depends upon its specific context. It will be made clear that the potential of land banking for the implementation of regional spatial policies is enormous, especially in the Netherlands, for it adds a powerful instrument, rooted in private law, to the regional spatial planning toolkit. Traditionally, the Dutch provinces played an important role in regional spatial developments, using instruments based on public law. Nowadays, however, they are also getting more and more involved as an active (private) player on regional land markets as well. Analytically, these two roles create many controversies as public and private interests of provinces tend to mix. This results in controversies in terms of effectiveness (including efficiency) and legitimacy. Both theoretically as well as empirically, the controversies can be reduced into three tension areas, concerning (1) rationales for regional land policies, (2) conflicts of interests with municipalities, and (3) inflation of land prices.
Imagining transformative futures: participatory foresight for food systems change
Hebinck, Aniek ; Vervoort, Joost M. ; Hebinck, Paul ; Rutting, Lucas ; Galli, Francesca - \ 2018
Ecology and Society 23 (2018)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
Transformations inherently involve systems change and because of the political nature of change, are subject to contestation. A potentially effective strategy to further transformative change that builds on interdisciplinary, multiactor, and multiscale-practices and values is the use of foresight. Foresight covers a wide range of methods to systematically investigate the future. Foresight exercises offer collaborative spaces and have the potential to conceptualize and even initiate transformative change. But there is no clear understanding of the possibilities and limitations of foresight in this regard. This explorative paper builds on foresight and sociology and interrogates the role of foresight in transformative change, building on four cases. These cases are embedded in different contexts and characterized by different organizational approaches and constellations of actors. Nevertheless, they share the common goal of transformative food systems change. By reflecting on the processes that play a role in foresight workshops, we analyze what created conditions for transformative change in these four empirical cases. We have operationalized these conditions by distinguishing layers in the structuring processes that influence the impact of the foresight process. Based on this analysis, we conclude that there are three roles, ranging from modest to more ambitious, that foresight can play in transformative change: preconceptualization of change; offering an avenue for the creation of new actor networks; and creation of concrete strategies with a high chance of implementation. Furthermore, contributing to future design of foresight processes for transformative change, we offer some crucial points to consider before designing foresight processes. These include the role of leading change makers (including researchers), the risk of co-option by more regime-driven actors, and the ability to attract stakeholders to participate.
A predictive model for flavor partitioning and protein-flavor interactions in fat-free dairy protein solutions
Viry, Ombeline ; Boom, Remko ; Avison, Shane ; Pascu, Mirela ; Bodnár, Igor - \ 2018
Food Research International 109 (2018). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 52 - 58.
APCI-MS - Flavor - Hydrophobicity - Partitioning - Sodium caseinate - Whey protein isolate
Flavor perception is directly related to the concentration of aroma compounds in the headspace above a food matrix before and during consumption. With the knowledge of flavor partition coefficients, the distribution of aroma compounds within the food matrix and towards the headspace can be calculated. In this study static headspace measurements and modelling are combined to predict flavor partitioning of a wide range of flavor compounds above fat-free dairy protein mixture solutions. AFFIRM® (based on Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Mass Spectrometry) was used to measure the static headspace concentrations of 9 flavor compounds (3 esters, 3 aldehydes and 3 alcohols) above protein solutions with different concentrations and ratios of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate. Proteins had a small pushing out effect, leading to increased release of hydrophilic flavor compounds. This effect was negligible for more hydrophobic compounds, where clear retention was observed. An increased total protein concentration and higher whey to casein ratio increased the retention for all flavor compounds. Within the same chemical class, the retention increased with chain length. The experimental data was interpreted with a model describing flavor partitioning in protein solutions (Harrison & Hills, 1997), thereby enabling to extract protein-flavor binding constants. A clear power law was found between the protein-flavor binding constant and log P (octanol-water partition coefficient). Assuming solely non-specific hydrophobic interactions gave satisfying partitioning predictions for the esters and alcohols. For aldehydes specific chemical interactions with proteins turned out to be significant. This rendered a binding constant for whey protein that is 5 times higher than for caseinate in case of esters and alcohols, and 3 times higher in case of aldehydes. The model can accurately predict equilibrium flavor partitioning in dairy protein mixtures with only the knowledge of the octanol-water partition coefficients of the flavor compounds, and the composition of the protein mixture.
Comparing open innovation of innovative food SMEs with SMEs in the seed and high- tech industries - an analysis of 15 SMEs in the Netherlands
Omta, Onno ; Fortuin, Frances ; Dijkman, Niels - \ 2018
In: Open Innovation And Knowledge Management in Small And Medium Enterprises World Scientific Publishing - ISBN 9789813233584 - p. 140 - 162.
Various studies have shown that open innovation (OI) has become a basic requirement for the long-term survival of high-tech companies. However, also in an artisanal sector like the food industry OI has become increasingly important. To discover the extent to which innovative food and seed improvement SMEs can learn from hightech small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), in 2011 the authors conducted a comparative study of OI. The overall conclusion was that the degree to which food SMEs are able to collaborate with other SMEs, knowledge institutions and government agencies have become key for success in innovation, also in the food sector. Valuable learning points for food SMEs included, increasing the number of go/ no-go moments; using clear performance indicators during the whole OI process; providing remuneration for innovation performance; and capturing the lessons learned after the OI process. Considering the risk of opportunistic behavior, innovative food SMEs should take the protection of intellectual property (IP) more seriously in the future, as is already the case in the seed improvement sector.
Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies
Schoufour, Josje ; Kromhout, D. ; Voortman, Trudy ; Wood, Angela M. ; Kaptoge, Stephen ; Sweeting, Michael ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Danesh, John - \ 2018
The Lancet 391 (2018)10129. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1513 - 1523.
Background Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without previous cardiovascular disease. Methods We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose–response associations and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) per 100 g per week of alcohol (12·5 units per week) across 83 prospective studies, adjusting at least for study or centre, age, sex, smoking, and diabetes. To be eligible for the analysis, participants had to have information recorded about their alcohol consumption amount and status (ie, non-drinker vs current drinker), plus age, sex, history of diabetes and smoking status, at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline, and no baseline history of cardiovascular disease. The main analyses focused on current drinkers, whose baseline alcohol consumption was categorised into eight predefined groups according to the amount in grams consumed per week. We assessed alcohol consumption in relation to all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular disease, and several cardiovascular disease subtypes. We corrected HRs for estimated long-term variability in alcohol consumption using 152 640 serial alcohol assessments obtained some years apart (median interval 5·6 years [5th–95th percentile 1·04–13·5]) from 71 011 participants from 37 studies. Findings In the 599 912 current drinkers included in the analysis, we recorded 40 310 deaths and 39 018 incident cardiovascular disease events during 5·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100 g per week higher consumption 1·14, 95% CI, 1·10–1·17), coronary disease excluding myocardial infarction (1·06, 1·00–1·11), heart failure (1·09, 1·03–1·15), fatal hypertensive disease (1·24, 1·15–1·33); and fatal aortic aneurysm (1·15, 1·03–1·28). By contrast, increased alcohol consumption was log-linearly associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction (HR 0·94, 0·91–0·97). In comparison to those who reported drinking >0–≤100 g per week, those who reported drinking >100–≤200 g per week, >200–≤350 g per week, or >350 g per week had lower life expectancy at age 40 years of approximately 6 months, 1–2 years, or 4–5 years, respectively. Interpretation In current drinkers of alcohol in high-income countries, the threshold for lowest risk of all-cause mortality was about 100 g/week. For cardiovascular disease subtypes other than myocardial infarction, there were no clear risk thresholds below which lower alcohol consumption stopped being associated with lower disease risk. These data support limits for alcohol consumption that are lower than those recommended in most current guidelines.
The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in a large subtropical shallow lake : Clear effects on water chemistry and phytoplankton structure community along a vegetated-pelagic gradient
Finkler Ferreira, Tiago ; Crossetti, Luciane O. ; Motta Marques, David M.L. ; Cardoso, Luciana ; Fragoso, Carlos Ruberto ; Nes, Egbert H. van - \ 2018
Limnologica 69 (2018). - ISSN 0075-9511 - p. 142 - 154.
Cyanobacteria control - Littoral-pelagic gradient - Phytoplankton community - Shallow lake restoration - Submerged macrophytes - Water quality
It is well known that submerged macrophytes exert positive feedback effects that enhance the water transparency, stabilizing the clear-water state in shallow temperate lakes. However, the structuring effect of macrophytes on the food web of subtropical and tropical ecosystems is still poorly understood. In this study we investigated the influence of dense submerged vegetation beds on the water chemistry and phytoplankton structure along a littoral-pelagic gradient of large subtropical shallow lake in southern Brazil. Seasonal monitoring was carried throughout one year following along a submerged vegetated-pelagic transect in order to analyze the effects of macrophyte's coverage (percentage of volume infested- PVI) on the water chemistry and phytoplankton community structure. Clear variations on nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass/composition could be observed permanently along the transect. Nutrients as orto-phosphate (PO4 −) and bicarbonate increased linearly towards the pelagic zone, whereas dissolved organic carbon and humic substances decreased linearly as PVI decreased. Concomitantly, a significant increase in the phytoplankton biomass was observed outwards from the submerged vegetation bed. In the vegetated area, small species (C-R strategists), unicellular flagellates were selected; whereas in the pelagic zone, larger (K-selected) species of cyanobacteria occurred, especially representatives of the functional groups M, LO, SN, S1 and K. Such results indicate that the macrophytes and inherent metabolism, such as potential excretion of dissolved organic compounds with allelochemicals and nutrient uptake from water column influence the structure of the phytoplankton community reducing also significantly the biomass of cyanobacteria within the dense submerged vegetated zone. Because of the continuous growth of macrophytes over the year in low latitude systems, their feed-back effect pattern tends to also dictate a different role in ecosystem dynamics and structure of the food web. These findings contribute to the management and conservation of subtropical and tropical lakes.
The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α is dispensable for cold-induced adipose tissue browning in mice
Defour, Merel ; Dijk, Wieneke ; Ruppert, Philip ; Nascimento, Emmani B.M. ; Schrauwen, Patrick ; Kersten, Sander - \ 2018
Molecular Metabolism 10 (2018). - ISSN 2212-8778 - p. 39 - 54.
Adipose tissue browning - Cold - PPARα - Transcriptomics
Objective: Chronic cold exposure causes white adipose tissue (WAT) to adopt features of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a process known as browning. Previous studies have hinted at a possible role for the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) in cold-induced browning. Here we aimed to investigate the importance of PPARα in driving transcriptional changes during cold-induced browning in mice. Methods: Male wildtype and PPARα-/- mice were housed at thermoneutrality (28 °C) or cold (5 °C) for 10 days. Whole genome expression analysis was performed on inguinal WAT. In addition, other analyses were carried out. Whole genome expression data of livers of wildtype and PPARα-/- mice fasted for 24 h served as positive control for PPARα-dependent gene regulation. Results: Cold exposure increased food intake and decreased weight of BAT and WAT to a similar extent in wildtype and PPARα-/- mice. Except for plasma non-esterified fatty acids, none of the cold-induced changes in plasma metabolites were dependent on PPARα genotype. Histological analysis of inguinal WAT showed clear browning upon cold exposure but did not reveal any morphological differences between wildtype and PPARα-/- mice. Transcriptomics analysis of inguinal WAT showed a marked effect of cold on overall gene expression, as revealed by principle component analysis and hierarchical clustering. However, wildtype and PPARα-/- mice clustered together, even after cold exposure, indicating a similar overall gene expression profile in the two genotypes. Pathway analysis revealed that cold upregulated pathways involved in energy usage, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid β-oxidation to a similar extent in wildtype and PPARα-/- mice. Furthermore, cold-mediated induction of genes related to thermogenesis such as Ucp1, Elovl3, Cox7a1, Cox8, and Cidea, as well as many PPAR target genes, was similar in wildtype and PPARα-/- mice. Finally, pharmacological PPARα activation had a minimal effect on expression of cold-induced genes in murine WAT. Conclusion: Cold-induced changes in gene expression in inguinal WAT are unaltered in mice lacking PPARα, indicating that PPARα is dispensable for cold-induced browning.
Geographic and socioeconomic diversity of food and nutrient intakes : a comparison of four European countries
Mertens, Elly ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Dofková, Marcela ; Mistura, Lorenza ; D’Addezio, Laura ; Turrini, Aida ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Favret, Sandra ; Havard, Sabrina ; Trolle, Ellen ; van’t Veer, Pieter ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2018
European Journal of Nutrition (2018). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 19.
Diet - Dietary guidelines - Europe - Foods - Nutrients - SUSFANS
Purpose: Public health policies and actions increasingly acknowledge the climate burden of food consumption. The aim of this study is to describe dietary intakes across four European countries, as baseline for further research towards healthier and environmentally-friendlier diets for Europe. Methods: Individual-level dietary intake data in adults were obtained from nationally-representative surveys from Denmark and France using a 7-day diet record, Italy using a 3-day diet record, and Czech Republic using two replicates of a 24-h recall. Energy-standardised food and nutrient intakes were calculated for each subject from the mean of two randomly selected days. Results: There was clear geographical variability, with a between-country range for mean fruit intake from 118 to 199 g/day, for vegetables from 95 to 239 g/day, for fish from 12 to 45 g/day, for dairy from 129 to 302 g/day, for sweet beverages from 48 to 224 ml/day, and for alcohol from 8 to 15 g/day, with higher intakes in Italy for fruit, vegetables and fish, and in Denmark for dairy, sweet beverages and alcohol. In all countries, intakes were low for legumes (< 20 g/day), and nuts and seeds (< 5 g/day), but high for red and processed meat (> 80 g/day). Within countries, food intakes also varied by socio-economic factors such as age, gender, and educational level, but less pronounced by anthropometric factors such as overweight status. For nutrients, intakes were low for dietary fibre (15.8–19.4 g/day) and vitamin D (2.4–3.0 µg/day) in all countries, for potassium (2288–2938 mg/day) and magnesium (268–285 mg/day) except in Denmark, for vitamin E in Denmark (6.7 mg/day), and for folate in Czech Republic (212 µg/day). Conclusions: There is considerable variation in food and nutrient intakes across Europe, not only between, but also within countries. Individual-level dietary data provide insight into the heterogeneity of dietary habits beyond per capita food supply data, and this is crucial to balancing healthy and environmentally-friendly diets for European citizens.
Does sex matter? Gender-specificity and its influence on site-chronologies in the common dioecious shrub Juniperus communis
Shetti, Rohan ; Buras, Allan ; Smiljanic, Marko ; Hallinger, Martin ; Grigoriev, Andrey A. ; Wilmking, Martin - \ 2018
Dendrochronologia 49 (2018). - ISSN 1125-7865 - p. 118 - 126.
Basal area increment - Boreal shrub - Principle component gradient analysis - Ring-width - Sexual dimorphism
In recent years an increasing number of studies have shown shrubs to be reliable proxies of environmental conditions in regions where Trees − due to harsh climate conditions − are absent. Although many shrubs are monoecious, some are dioecious, which poses certain questions related to gender-specific growth as observed for trees in previous studies. Here, we address the questions whether dioecious shrubs, similar to trees, show growth differences between male and female plants, and − if so − whether this difference needs to be considered in terms of sample selection. We chose Juniperus communis. L., the most widely distributed woody plant, and a common and well-studied dioecious shrub species in the northern hemisphere, especially in the Boreal, Subarctic tundra and Alpine regions. Our samples were collected from four sites − three from the Ural Mountains and one site from Kirkenes in Norway. To see if there were differences in radial growth between sexes we performed four different analyses. First, we used multivariate explorative statistics to see if there were gender biased sub-populations and generally found no differences. Secondly, to compare growth over the lifetime of shrubs we computed cumulative annual increments of basal area which revealed no gender-specific growth patterns. Thirdly, to test if differences in radial growth between male and female shrubs affect the resulting site-chronology, we compared individual shrub chronologies with the site-chronology and found a significant differentiation between normalized correlations of gender-specific chronologies to the site-chronology. This significant difference was restricted to an overall comparison, but not evident at individual site-level. Lastly, we compared correlations of gender-specific chronologies and a mean site-chronology with monthly climate records to find only very few meaningful differences in their responses. In summary, we could not detect any clear gender-specific growth pattern in Juniperus communis but observed a trend towards more non-climatic signals in female junipers which may affect the resulting site-chronology.
Sailing into Unchartered Waters : Plotting a Course for EU Bio-Based Sectors
Philippidis, George ; Bartelings, Heleen ; Smeets, Edward - \ 2018
Ecological Economics 147 (2018). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 410 - 421.
Biochemicals - Bioenergy - Biomass - CGE modelling
The use of biomass to achieve a sustainable, low carbon, competitive model of growth and employment is at the heart of European Union (EU) policy making. This study constitutes a first step toward understanding (i) the medium-term prospects for biobased sectors in the context of expected EU biomass policy developments and (ii) the degree of coherency with the Bioeconomy strategy in terms of identifying potential policy conflicts. A general finding is that EU bio-based sectors face important challenges, largely due to slower assumed rates of economic growth and land productivity, coupled with deeper greenhouse gas emissions cuts. Furthermore, EU policy conflicts are encountered in attempting to reconcile greenhouse gas reductions with macroeconomic growth, food security and biofuel mandates. To conclude, a more holistic public policy approach is necessary to avoid the perceived conflicts in biomass usage, whilst there is a clear need for targeted and sustained investments in EU bio-based activity to fully exploit its potential.
Artificial light at night shifts daily activity patterns but not the internal clock in the great tit (Parus major)
Spoelstra, Kamiel ; Verhagen, Irene ; Meijer, Davy ; Visser, Marcel E. - \ 2018
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 285 (2018)1875. - ISSN 0962-8452
Artificial light at night - Circadian period - Circadian phase - Entrainment - Light pollution
Artificial light at night has shown a dramatic increase over the last decades and continues to increase. Light at night can have strong effects on the behaviour and physiology of species, which includes changes in the daily timing of activity; a clear example is the advance in dawn song onset in songbirds by low levels of light at night. Although such effects are often referred to as changes in circadian timing, i.e. changes to the internal clock, two alternative mechanisms are possible. First, light at night can change the timing of clock controlled activity, without any change to the clock itself; e.g. by a change in the phase relation between the circadian clock and expression of activity. Second, changes in daily activity can be a direct response to light (‘masking’), without any involvement of the circadian system. Here, we studied whether the advance in onset of activity by dim light at night in great tits (Parus major) is indeed attributable to a phase shift of the internal clock.We entrained birds to a normal light/dark (LD) cycle with bright light during daytime and darkness at night, and to a comparable (LDim) schedule with dim light at night. The dim light at night strongly advanced the onset of activity of the birds. After at least six days in LD or LDim,we kept birds in constant darkness (DD) by leaving off all lights so birds would revert to their endogenous, circadian system controlled timing of activity.We found that the timing of onset in DD was not dependent on whether the birds were kept at LD or LDim before the measurement. Thus, the advance of activity under light at night is caused by a direct effect of light rather than a phase shift of the internal clock. This demonstrates that birds are capable of changing their daily activity to low levels of light at night directly, without the need to alter their internal clock.
Neonatal porcine blood derived dendritic cell subsets show activation after TLR2 or TLR9 stimulation
Vreman, Sandra ; Auray, Gael ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Rebel, Annemarie ; Summerfield, Artur ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert - \ 2018
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 84 (2018). - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 361 - 370.
Dendritic cell - Innate immunity - Neonate - Porcine - Toll like receptor ligand
The present study investigated the innate immune response in vitro to determine porcine neonate responses with Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 ligand (Pam3Cys) or TLR9 ligand (CpG) and compared these with adults. We identified the same phenotypically defined dendritic cell (DC) subsets and DC proportions in porcine neonate and adult blood by flow cytometry, which were plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs): CD14−CD4+CD172a+CADM1-) and conventional DCs (cDCs), being further divided into a cDC1 (CD14−CD4−CD172alowCADM1+) and a cDC2 (CD14−CD4−CD172a+CADM1+) subset. With neonatal cells, the TLR2 ligand induced a stronger TNF expression in monocytes and pDCs, and a stronger CD80/86 upregulation in cDC1, when compared to adult cells. Furthermore, in neonatal mononuclear cells TLR9 ligand was more potent at inducing IL12p40 mRNA expression. These results indicate clear responses of porcine neonatal antigen presenting cells after TLR2 and TLR9 stimulation, suggesting that corresponding ligands could be promising candidates for neonatal adjuvant application.
Natural disasters and agricultural protection : A panel data analysis
Klomp, Jeroen ; Hoogezand, Barry - \ 2018
World Development 104 (2018). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 404 - 417.
Agriculture - Natural disasters - Trade protection

We explore the impact of natural disasters on the degree of agricultural protection using data from 76 countries thereby covering more than 70 of the most traded agricultural commodities. Theoretically, the direction of this effect is not a priori directly clear as it balances the trade-off between protecting the economic interests of the domestic agricultural sector on the one hand and ensuring food availability for the society at large on the other. Our most important findings suggest that natural disasters generally raise agricultural trade controls to favor domestic farmers. These barriers are mainly provided by limiting imports in the aftermath of a natural event. However, the protection pattern differs among countries. To be more specific, floods and storms increase agricultural protection in high-income countries, while trade barriers in many LDCs are reduced during periods of extreme drought in an attempt to diminish food scarcity. Finally, it turns out that a large part of the change in agricultural protection caused by a natural disaster is explained by a number of commodity specific particularities (i.e., food vs. cash crops).

Species-specific, pan-European diameter increment models based on data of 2.3 million trees
Schelhaas, M. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Heidema, A.H. ; Thürig, Esther ; Rohner, Brigitte ; Vacchiano, G. ; Vayreda, Jordi ; Redmond, John ; Socha, J. ; Fridman, Jonas ; Tomter, Stein ; Polley, Heino ; Barreiro, Susana ; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2018
Forest Ecosystems 5 (2018). - ISSN 2095-6355 - 19 p.
Background: Over the last decades, many forest simulators have been developed for the forests of individual European countries. The underlying growth models are usually based on national datasets of varying size, obtained from National Forest Inventories or from long-term research plots. Many of these models include country- and location-specific predictors, such as site quality indices that may aggregate climate, soil properties and topography effects. Consequently, it is not sensible to compare such models among countries, and it is often impossible to apply models outside the region or country they were developed for. However, there is a clear need for more generically applicable but still locally accurate and climate sensitive simulators at the European scale, which requires the development of models that are applicable across the European continent. The purpose of this study is to develop tree diameter increment models that are applicable at the European scale, but still locally accurate. We compiled and used a dataset of diameter increment observations of over 2.3 million trees from 10 National Forest Inventories in Europe and a set of 99 potential explanatory variables covering forest structure, weather, climate, soil
and nutrient deposition. Results: Diameter increment models are presented for 20 species/species groups. Selection of explanatory variables was done using a combination of forward and backward selection methods. The explained variance ranged from 10% to 53% depending on the species. Variables related to forest structure (basal area of the stand and relative size of the tree) contributed most to the explained variance, but environmental variables were important to account for spatial patterns. The type of environmental variables included differed greatly among species. Conclusions: The presented diameter increment models are the first of their kind that are applicable at the European scale. This is an important step towards the development of a new generation of forest development simulators that can be applied at the European scale, but that are sensitive to variations in growing conditions and applicable to a wider range of management systems than before. This allows European scale but detailed analyses concerning topics like CO2 sequestration, wood mobilisation, long term impact of management, etc.
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