Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Human health risk associated with the management of phosphorus in freshwaters using lanthanum and aluminium
haese, P.C. D'; Douglas, G. ; A., Verhulst ; Neven, E. ; Behets, G.J. ; Vervaet, B.A. ; Finsterle, K. ; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W. - \ 2019
Chemosphere 220 (2019). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 286 - 299.
The use of geo-engineering materials to manage phosphorus in lakes has increased in recent years with aluminium and lanthanum based materials being most commonly applied. Hence the potential impact of the use of these compounds on human health is receiving growing interest. This review seeks to understand, evaluate and compare potential unintended consequences on human health and ecotoxicological risks associated with the use of lanthanum- and aluminium-based materials to modify chemical and ecological conditions in water bodies. In addition to their therapeutic use for the reduction of intestinal phosphate absorption in patients with impaired renal function, the phosphate binding capacity of aluminium and lanthanum also led to the development of materials used for water treatment. Although lanthanum and aluminium share physicochemical similarities and have many common applications, their uptake and kinetics within the human body and living organisms importantly differ from each other which is reflected in a different toxicity profile. Whilst a causal role in the development of neurological pathologies, skeletal lesions, hematopoietic disorders and respiratory effects has unequivocally been demonstrated with increased exposure to aluminium, studies until now have failed to find such a clear association after exposure to lanthanum although caution is warranted. Our review indicates that lanthanum and aluminium have a distinctly different profile with respect to their potential effects on human health. Regular monitoring of both aluminium and lanthanum concentrations in lanthanum-/aluminium-treated water by the responsible authorities is recommended to avoid acute accidental or chronic low level accumulation.
Muddying the waters of the landing obligation: how Multi-level governance structures can obscure policy implementation
Hoof, L.J.W. van; Kraan, M.L. ; Visser, N.M. ; Avoyan, Emma ; Batsleer, J. ; Trapman, B.K. - \ 2019
In: The European Landing Oligation / Uhlmann, Sven Sebastian, Ulrich, Clara, Kennelly, Steven J., - p. 179 - 196.
The 2013 reform of the European Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) included an increased drive for regionalisation of the policy implementation and the introduction of the Landing Obligation (LO). The process of implementing the LO takes place at multiple levels of governance within the EU. We use the case of the implementation of the LO in the Netherlands, where policymakers and the fishing industry cooperate towards a workable policy implementation. In this paper, we argue that the EU’s complex and unconsolidated implementation structure hampers a fair and clear implementation process. Three main causes can be distinguished: first, a lack of a shared understanding of the goal of the Landing Obligation within and between the different governance levels that are involved in the implementation process. Second, no meaningful discussions are taking place between concurrent resource users, resource managers and supporters of the LO regarding the need and usefulness of the measure, as there is no arena in the governance system for them to meet. With the introduction of the Regional Advisory Councils in the 2002 CFP reform, a platform for discussion between fishers and NGOs was created, but this platform has only an advisory role and does not include the Member States. Third, the relationship between different decision-making bodies is unclear, as is the manner in which stakeholder input will be included in decision-making about implementing the LO. The result of this implementation process has been a diluted policy where the goal, its execution and its effectiveness remain unclear.
The nutritional value of the lower maize stem cannot be improved by ensiling nor by a fungal treatment
He, Yuan ; Dijkstra, Jan ; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M. ; Mouthier, Thibaut M.B. ; Kabel, Mirjam A. ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Cone, John W. - \ 2019
Animal Feed Science and Technology 247 (2019). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 92 - 102.
Ensiling - Fungal treatment - In vitro gas production - Lower stem

The effect of ensiling and fungal treatment on the chemical composition and on in vitro gas production, an indication of rumen degradability, of maize stems was studied. Stems from two maize cultivars (LG30211 and MZP8057) were separated into three parts: upper (above internode 12 up to and including internode 15), middle (above internode 8 up to and including internode 11), and lower stem (above internode 5 up to and including internode 7). The three parts of the stems were ensiled for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks and the lower stem was treated with the white-rot fungi Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus eryngii for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The dry matter content decreased and the acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) content increased from the top to the bottom in the stem. Upon ensiling, the neutral detergent fibre, ADF and ADL content increased. The gas production between 3 and 20 h, a measure of cell wall degradability in rumen fluid, did not change after ensiling, but gas production within 3 h and within 72 h decreased after ensiling. The acetic acid content and the proportion of ammonia-N in total N increased, and pH decreased, after 1 week of ensiling and did not show a clear trend from 1 to 8 weeks. The ADL and cellulose content of the lower part of the stem of both maize cultivars increased after fungal treatment and the hemicellulose content decreased except for the lower stem of MZP8057 treated with P. eryngii. The ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl compounds increased after fungal treatment. The gas production between 3 and 20 h and within 72 h decreased after fungal treatment. Both ensiling and fungal treatment cannot improve the degradability of the investigated maize stems.

Sensitivity analysis of a source partitioning method for H2O and CO2 fluxes based on high frequency eddy covariance data : Findings from field data and large eddy simulations
Klosterhalfen, A. ; Moene, A.F. ; Schmidt, M. ; Scanlon, T.M. ; Vereecken, H. ; Graf, A. - \ 2019
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 265 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 152 - 170.
Flux partitioning - Latent heat flux - LES - Net ecosystem exchange - Sensitivity analysis - Water use efficiency

Scanlon and Sahu (2008) and Scanlon and Kustas (2010) proposed a source partitioning method (SK10 in the following) to estimate contributions of transpiration, evaporation, photosynthesis, and respiration to H2O and CO2 fluxes obtained by the eddy covariance method. High frequency eddy covariance raw data time series are needed, and the source partitioning is estimated based on separate application of the flux-variance similarity theory to stomatal and non-stomatal components of the regarded fluxes, as well as on additional assumptions on leaf-level water use efficiency (WUE). We applied SK10 to data from two test sites (forest and cropland) and analyzed partitioning results depending on various ways to estimate WUE from available data. Also, we conducted large eddy simulations (LES), simulating the turbulent transport of H2O and CO2 for contrasting vertical distributions of the canopy sinks/sources, as well as for varying relative magnitudes of soil sources and canopy sinks/sources. SK10 was applied to the synthetic high frequency data generated by LES and the effects of canopy type, measurement height, given sink-source-distributions, and input of varying WUEs were tested regarding the partitioning performance. SK10 requires that the correlation coefficient between stomatal and non-stomatal scalar fluctuations is determined by the ratio of the transfer efficiencies of these scalar components, an assumption (transfer assumption in the following) that could be tested with the generated LES data. The partitioning results of the field sites yielded satisfactory flux fractions, when fair-weather conditions (no precipitation) and a high productive state of the vegetation were present. Further, partitioning performance with regard to soil fluxes increased with crop maturity. Results also showed relatively large dependencies on WUE, where the partitioning factors (median) changed by around -57% and +36%. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation used for the estimation of foliage temperature and WUE could slightly increase the plausibility of the partitioning results in comparison to soil respiration measurements by decreasing the partitioning factor by up to 42%. The LES-based analysis revealed that for a satisfying performance of SK10, a certain degree of decorrelation of the H2O and CO2 fluctuations (here, |ρq'c’| < 0.975) was needed. This decorrelation is enhanced by a clear separation between soil sources and canopy sinks/sources, and for observations within the roughness sublayer. The expected dependence of the partitioning results on the WUE input could be observed. However, due to violation of the abovementioned transfer assumption, the known true input WUE did not yield the known true input partitioning. This could only be achieved after introducing correction factors for the transfer assumption, which were known however only in the special case of the LES experiments.

Taste matters most : Effects of package design on the dynamics of implicit and explicit product evaluations over repeated in-home consumption
Tijssen, Irene O.J.M. ; Zandstra, Elizabeth H. ; Boer, Annick den; Jager, Gerry - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 72 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 126 - 135.
Attractiveness - Healthiness - Implicit associations - Package design - Repeated exposure - Sensory evaluation

Package design influences consumers’ expectations of a product's sensory properties and expected healthiness and/or tastiness, and potentially also changes actual product perception during consumption. The robustness of these effects is far from clear, however. This study investigated the influence of package cues signalling either hedonic or healthy product properties on expectations and subsequent product evaluation over repeated consumption. In a between-subjects design, 92 participants evaluated product expectations and taste perceptions of a chocolate-sesame flavoured biscuit with a package emphasizing either its healthy (n = 44) or hedonic (n = 48) aspects, both at a central location (CLT) and during six home use tests (HUT), using both explicit (questionnaires) and implicit (IAT) measures. Package design significantly affected (p < 0.05) consumers’ expectations of the product. They expected the biscuit to be tastier, less attractive and less healthy in the hedonic package condition, and less tasty, more attractive and healthier in the healthy package condition. However, these effects did not transfer to actual product evaluations upon tasting, either blind or tasting in combination with viewing the package during the HUTs. Implicit attitudes did change as a result of repeated exposures, depending on the package consumers were provided with, indicating product-package interactions over time (p < 0.05). In conclusion, package design influences product expectations and associations with its healthiness and attractiveness, which is of relevance in product choice and purchase settings. However, at the stage of (repeated) consumption, intrinsic (sensory) properties become the dominant drivers of products’ sensory and hedonic evaluations, and the impact of package cues seems less potent.

Assessing the role of CAP for more sustainable and healthier food systems in Europe : A literature review
Recanati, F. ; Maughan, C. ; Pedrotti, M. ; Dembska, K. ; Antonelli, M. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 653 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 908 - 919.
Common Agricultural Policy - Environment - European Union - Nutrition - Rural livelihoods - SDGs

Today, the European food system is characterized by unhealthy dietary trends, environmentally unsustainable production, and a dependency on an ageing farming population. The ongoing reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) represents an opportunity to redress these issues. This literature review highlights trends in how academic and grey literature have received CAP attempts in addressing the (i) environmental issues, (ii) nutritional outcomes, and (iii) rural livelihoods. Additionally, future policy and research directions relating to the CAP have been identified from the selected literature. The reviewed literature varies in approach and perspective. In particular, since the environment and rural development are already part of the CAP, the reviewed studies analyze and propose improvements to existing mechanisms. While for nutrition, the reviewed studies assessed possible policy strategies for integrating this sphere within the CAP, highlighting both the complexity of this task as well as its potential benefits. Despite these differences, a clear commonality emerged from the policy recommendations: the CAP should promote the European Union (EU) policy integration and multi-disciplinary and participatory research as key strategies to meet food system sustainability targets.

UAV based soil salinity assessment of cropland
Ivushkin, Konstantin ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Bregt, Arnold K. ; Pulatov, Alim ; Franceschini, Marston H.D. ; Kramer, Henk ; Loo, Eibertus N. van; Jaramillo Roman, Viviana ; Finkers, Richard - \ 2019
Geoderma 338 (2019). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 502 - 512.
Hyperspectral - LiDAR - Quinoa - Remote sensing - Soil salinity - Thermography - UAV

Increased soil salinity is a significant agricultural problem that decreases yields for common agricultural crops. Its dynamics require cost and labour effective measurement techniques and widely acknowledged methods are not present yet. We investigated the potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing to measure salt stress in quinoa plants. Three different UAV sensors were used: a WIRIS thermal camera, a Rikola hyperspectral camera and a Riegl VUX-SYS Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanner. Several vegetation indices, canopy temperature and LiDAR measured plant height were derived from the remote sensing data and their relation with ground measured parameters like salt treatment, stomatal conductance and actual plant height is analysed. The results show that widely used multispectral vegetation indices are not efficient in discriminating between salt affected and control quinoa plants. The hyperspectral Physiological Reflectance Index (PRI) performed best and showed a clear distinction between salt affected and treated plants. This distinction is also visible for LiDAR measured plant height, where salt treated plants were on average 10 cm shorter than control plants. Canopy temperature was significantly affected, though detection of this required an additional step in analysis – Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) clustering. This step assured temperature comparison for equally vegetated pixels. Data combination of all three sensors in a Multiple Linear Regression model increased the prediction power and for the whole dataset R2 reached 0.46, with some subgroups reaching an R2 of 0.64. We conclude that UAV borne remote sensing is useful for measuring salt stress in plants and a combination of multiple measurement techniques is advised to increase the accuracy.

Control of vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry : New opportunities and challenges
Garros, Claire ; Bouyer, Jérémy ; Takken, Willem ; Smallegange, Renate C. - \ 2018
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases ) - ISBN 9789086863150 - p. 575 - 580.
Future strategies - Innovation - Integrated control - Livestock pest and disease - One Health

A large number of state-of-the-art issues of livestock pests and diseases, and their control, has been reviewed in the current volume of the Ecology and Control of Vector-borne diseases book series. The combined reviews demonstrate a clear difference in livestock pests between northern and southern regions, where the former are more subjected to pest control and the southern areas are more confronted with infectious vector-borne diseases. It appears that arthropod pests and associated vector-borne diseases in livestock have received less attention than required, leading to a lack of novel and innovative strategies for their prevention and control. Yet, the rapid expansion of the livestock industry as a result of population growth and global change call for solutions that are essential for economic and sustainable livestock production systems. The One Health concept, by now well known in human health, still needs to be integrated into the livestock industry. This becomes more urgent given the recent emergence of novel arthropod-borne diseases and the invasion of arthropod pests in new territories. It is concluded that a multidisciplinary approach to tackle the problem of arthropod pests and associated diseases in livestock is required, which should include novel genetic and microbiological tools and strategies in order to prevent the near-unity reliance on chemical pesticides and vaccines.

The impact of cattle dung pats on earthworm distribution in grazed pastures
Bacher, M.G. ; Fenton, O. ; Bondi, G. ; Creamer, R.E. ; Karmarkar, M. ; Schmidt, O. - \ 2018
BMC Ecology 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1472-6785
Earthworms - Grassland - Lumbricidae - Population aggregation - Populations - Sampling - Soil biodiversity - Soil fauna - Spatial distribution

Background: Grazed grassland management regimes can have various effects on soil fauna. For example, effects on earthworms can be negative through compaction induced by grazing animals, or positive mediated by increases in sward productivity and cattle dung pats providing a food source. Knowledge gaps exist in relation to the behaviour of different earthworm species i.e. their movement towards and aggregation under dung pats, the legacy effects of pats and the spatial area of recruitment. The present study addressed these knowledge gaps in field experiments, over 2 years, using natural and simulated dung pats on two permanent, intensively grazed pastures in Ireland. Results: Dung pats strongly affected spatial earthworm distribution, with up to four times more earthworms aggregating beneath pats, than in the control locations away from pats. In these earthworm communities comprising 11 species, temporally different aggregation and dispersal patterns were observed, including absence of individual species from control locations, but no clear successional responses. Epigeic species in general, but also certain species of the anecic and endogeic groups were aggregating under dung. Sampling after complete dung pat disappearance (27 weeks after application) suggested an absence of a dung pat legacy effect on earthworm communities. Based on species distributions, the maximum size of the recruitment area from which earthworms moved to pats was estimated to be 3.8 m2 per dung pat. Since actual grazing over 6 weeks would result in the deposition of about 300 dung pats per ha, it is estimated that a surface area of 1140 m2 or about 11% of the total grazing area can be influenced by dung pats in a given grazing period. Conclusions: This study showed that the presence of dung pats in pastures creates temporary hot spots in spatial earthworm species distribution, which changes over time. The findings highlight the importance of considering dung pats, temporally and spatially, when sampling earthworms in grazed pastures. Published comparisons of grazed and cut grasslands probably reached incorrect conclusions by ignoring or deliberately avoiding dung pats. Furthermore, the observed intense aggregation of earthworms beneath dung pats suggests that earthworm functions need to be assessed separately at these hot spots.

Impacts of nitrogen addition on plant species richness and abundance : A global meta-analysis
Midolo, Gabriele ; Alkemade, Rob ; Schipper, Aafke M. ; Benítez-López, Ana ; Perring, Michael P. ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2018
Global Ecology and Biogeography (2018). - ISSN 1466-822X
anthropogenic impacts - biodiversity - eutrophication - global change - GLOBIO - soil acidification - vegetation

Aim: Experimental nitrogen (N) addition (fertilization) studies are commonly used to quantify the impacts of increased N inputs on plant biodiversity. However, given that plant community responses can vary considerably among individual studies, there is a clear need to synthesize and generalize findings with meta-analytical approaches. Our goal was to quantify changes in species richness and abundance in plant communities in response to N addition across different environmental contexts, while controlling for different experimental designs. Location: Global. Time period: Data range: 1985–2016; Publication years: 1990–2018. Major taxa studied: Plants. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of 115 experiments reported in 85 studies assessing the effects of N addition on terrestrial natural and semi-natural plant communities. We quantified local-scale changes in plant biodiversity in relationship to N addition using four metrics: species richness (SR), individual species abundance (IA), mean species abundance (MSA) and geometric mean abundance (GMA). Results: For all metrics, greater amounts of annual N addition resulted in larger declines in plant diversity. Additionally, MSA decreased more steeply with N that was applied in reduced (NH4 +) rather than oxidized ((NO 3)) form. Loss of SR with increasing amounts of N was found to be larger in warmer sites. Furthermore, greater losses of SR were found in sites with longer experimental durations, smaller plot sizes and lower soil cation exchange capacity. Finally, reductions in the abundance of individual species were larger for N-sensitive plant life-form types (legumes and non-vascular plants). Main conclusions: N enrichment decreases both SR and abundance of plants in N-addition experiments, but the magnitude of the response differs among biodiversity metrics and with the environmental and experimental context. This underlines the importance of integrating multiple dimensions of biodiversity and relevant modifying factors into assessments of biodiversity responses to global environmental change.

Modulation of litter decomposition by the soil microbial food web under influence of land use change
Heijboer, Amber ; Ruiter, Peter C. de; Bodelier, Paul L.E. ; Kowalchuk, George A. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)NOV. - ISSN 1664-302X
Agricultural abandonment - Carbon cycle - Decomposition - PLFA-SIP - Soil food web - Soil microbial community

Soil microbial communities modulate soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics by catalyzing litter decomposition. However, our understanding of how litter-derived carbon (C) flows through the microbial portion of the soil food web is far from comprehensive. This information is necessary to facilitate reliable predictions of soil C cycling and sequestration in response to a changing environment such as land use change in the form of agricultural abandonment. To examine the flow of litter-derived C through the soil microbial food web and it’s response to land use change, we carried out an incubation experiment with soils from six fields; three recently abandoned and three long term abandoned fields. In these soils, the fate of 13C-labeled plant litter was followed by analyzing phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) over a period of 56 days. The litter-amended soils were sampled over time to measure 13CO2 and mineral N dynamics. Microbial 13C-incorporation patterns revealed a clear succession of microbial groups during litter decomposition. Fungi were first to incorporate 13C-label, followed by G− bacteria, G+ bacteria, actinomycetes and micro-fauna. The order in which various microbial groups responded to litter decomposition was similar across all the fields examined, with no clear distinction between recent and long-term abandoned soils. Although the microbial biomass was initially higher in long-term abandoned soils, the net amount of 13C-labeled litter that was incorporated by the soil microbial community was ultimately comparable between recent and long-term abandoned fields. In relative terms, this means there was a higher efficiency of litter-derived 13C-incorporation in recent abandoned soil microbial communities compared to long-term abandoned soils, most likely due to a net shift from SOM-derived C toward root-derived C input in the soil microbial food web following land-abandonment.

Unravelling the mechanisms underlying health and productivity promoting agricultural practices by fine-mapping rhizosphere communities
Harkes, P. ; Suleiman, Afnan ; Elsen, S.J.J. van den; Helder, J. - \ 2018
The impact of soil pathogens on crops has been studied for decades as if this was a multitude of bilateral interactions. For a long time, it has been realised that crops and soil-borne pathogens are interacting in a densely inhabited environment, the rhizosphere. A more versatile approach was hampered because of technical limitations: it was just impracticable to take major and highly diverse organismal groups such as bacteria, fungi and protists into consideration. Here we monitored the (plant-parasitic) nematode community in the rhizosphere of barley under three distinct soil management regimes, for two developmental stages of the crop, in two different locations. Total DNA and RNA was isolated from rhizosphere samples - 104 rhizosphere samples, for each sample DNA and cDNA was analysed separately - using home-made extraction and purification protocols. Targeted (ribosomal DNA) Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to characterise the nematode, protist, fungal and bacterial community. First of all, very significant location effects were observed for all four organismal groups. Superimposed on the location effects, clear effects of organic, integrated and conventional soil management could be pinpointed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time four major key organismal groups players of the soil food web are simultaneously mapped in order to obtain insight in the effects of soil management practices on plant-parasitic nematodes taking a major part of the rhizobiome into consideration.
Dietary advanced glycation endproducts induce an inflammatory response in human macrophages in vitro
Lugt, Timme van der; Weseler, Antje R. ; Gebbink, Wouter A. ; Vrolijk, Misha F. ; Opperhuizen, Antoon ; Bast, Aalt - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2072-6643
Advanced glycation endproducts - Food - Inflammation - Macrophages - Maillard reaction

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) can be found in protein-and sugar-rich food products processed at high temperatures, which make up a vast amount of the Western diet. The effect of AGE-rich food products on human health is not yet clear and controversy still exists due to possible contamination of samples with endotoxin and the use of endogenous formed AGEs. AGEs occur in food products, both as protein-bound and individual molecules. Which form exactly induces a pro-inflammatory effect is also unknown. In this study, we exposed human macrophage-like cells to dietary AGEs, both in a protein matrix and individual AGEs. It was ensured that all samples did not contain endotoxin concentrations > 0.06 EU/mL. The dietary AGEs induced TNF-alpha secretion of human macrophage-like cells. This effect was decreased by the addition of N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML)-antibodies or a receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) antagonist. None of the individual AGEs induce any TNF-alpha, indicating that AGEs should be bound to proteins to exert an inflammatory reaction. These findings show that dietary AGEs directly stimulate the inflammatory response of human innate immune cells and help us define the risk of regular consumption of AGE-rich food products on human health.

What is animal happiness?
Webb, Laura E. ; Veenhoven, Ruut ; Harfeld, Jes Lynning ; Jensen, Margit Bak - \ 2018
Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences (2018). - ISSN 0077-8923
affect balance - animal welfare - human happiness - typical level of affect

Today, we see a growing concern for the quality of life of nonhuman animals and an accompanying call for viable means of assessing how well animals thrive. Past research focused on minimizing negatives such as stress, while more recent endeavors strive to promote positives such as happiness. But what is animal happiness? Although often mentioned, the term lacks a clear definition. With recent advances in the study of animal emotion, current interest into positive rather than negative experiences, and the call for captive and domesticated animals to have good lives, the time is ripe to examine the concept of animal happiness. We draw from the human and animal literature to delineate a concept of animal happiness and propose how to assess it. We argue that animal happiness depends on how an individual feels generally—that is, a typical level of affect.

Stable isotope measurements confirm consumption of submerged macrophytes by macroinvertebrate and fish taxa
Wolters, Jan-Willem ; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M. ; Schoelynck, Jonas ; Brion, Natacha ; Verdonschot, Piet F.M. ; Meire, Patrick - \ 2018
Aquatic Ecology 52 (2018)4. - ISSN 1386-2588 - p. 269 - 280.
Aquatic food web - Epiphytic algae - Generalist feeding strategy - Stable isotope mixing model - Temperate lowland stream

Many macrophyte species in lowland streams exhibit signs of grazing and herbivore damage, even though herbivory by aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish is generally considered to be of little importance. In this study, we collected evidence for the hypothesis that herbivory on macrophytes by macroinvertebrates and fish is more widespread than assumed. We measured the dual stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) of organic matter, epiphyton, submerged macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish in a Belgian lowland stream. There was a clear distinction in isotopic signatures of the different basal resources, allowing the use of the SIAR mixing model. These calculations revealed the consumption of macrophyte tissue not only by the phytophagous larvae of Nymphula nitidulata Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), but also by Baetidae nymphs (Ephemeroptera), Orthocladiinae larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae), the crayfish Orconectus limosus Rafinesque (Decapoda: Cambaridae) and the fish Gobio gobio L. (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) which are classified as feeding on other resources. Although the potential share of macrophyte biomass in the diet of macroinvertebrates and fish was demonstrated to be up to 49%, this amount is only a small percentage of the total standing macrophyte biomass in a lowland stream. However, the impact of this herbivory may still be substantial because consumption may comprise a significant fraction of the daily primary production. Additionally, small-scale herbivory may still have a negative impact on macrophyte growth and survival, for example through consumption of apical meristems and the increased susceptibility to diseases and toxins if the macrophyte’s epidermis is damaged.

The unfulfilled promise of urban Lake Kleine Melanen (The Netherlands) : Diagnostics, experiment on reduction of sediment P-release and in-lake restoration
Waajen, Guido ; Lürling, Miquel ; Sande, René van de - \ 2018
Lake and Reservoir Management (2018). - ISSN 1040-2381
Biomanipulation - cyanobacteria - eutrophication management - Phoslock - polyaluminumchloride - sediment capping - stormwater runoff

Lake Kleine Melanen (The Netherlands) experienced cyanobacterial blooms during the summertime, causing public health risks, turbid water, and lack of macrophytes. To improve the situation, we determined the underlying causes of the poor water quality. Our diagnosis included the water and phosphorus (P) budget of the lake and showed the need for the reduction of both the external and internal P loads. The external P load (7.5 mg P/m2/d) exceeded the transition between the clear water state and the turbid state by 44–121%, mainly due to the discharges from the separated stormwater sewer system in the adjacent neighborhood. Due to political and financial considerations of the managing authorities, the restoration (2010–2012) was restricted to internal management. To reduce the high internal P load (3.8 mg P/m2/d), we tested 3 sediment capping options in an enclosure experiment, showing the best results when we combined sand capping with the P fixative Phoslock® and flocculant polyaluminumchloride. A 0.6–1.3 m thick layer of soft sediment was dredged from the lake. Thereafter, the sediment was capped with a 0.2 m thick layer of sand to which Phoslock® was added. Additional in-lake measures including fish removal and shoreline reconstruction were also conducted to support improvement. We compared water quality before (2008–2010) and after (2012–2014) interventions. Although the mean concentration of total P was reduced from 0.30 to 0.11 mg P/L, and cyanobacterial chlorophyll a from 52 to 6 μg/L, cyanobacterial blooms still occurred. For further water quality improvement, the reduction of the external P load caused by stormwater runoff is required.

IgE Cross-Reactivity of Cashew Nut Allergens
Bastiaan-Net, Shanna ; Reitsma, Marit ; Cordewener, Jan H.G. ; Valk, Johanna P.M. van der; America, Twan A.H.P. ; Dubois, Anthony E.J. ; Gerth van Wijk, Roy ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Jong, Nicolette W. de; Wichers, Harry J. - \ 2018
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology (2018). - ISSN 1018-2438 - 14 p.
Allergenicity - Cashew nut - Food allergy - IgE cross-reactivity - Immunoblotting - Tree nut allergy

Background: Allergic sensitisation towards cashew nut often happens without a clear history of eating cashew nut. IgE cross-reactivity between cashew and pistachio nut is well described; however, the ability of cashew nut-specific IgE to cross-react to common tree nut species and other Anacardiaceae, like mango, pink peppercorn, or sumac is largely unknown. Objectives: Cashew nut allergic individuals may cross-react to foods that are phylogenetically related to cashew. We aimed to determine IgE cross-sensitisation and cross-reactivity profiles in cashew nut-sensitised subjects, towards botanically related proteins of other Anacardiaceae family members and related tree nut species. Method: Sera from children with a suspected cashew nut allergy (n = 56) were assessed for IgE sensitisation to common tree nuts, mango, pink peppercorn, and sumac using dot blot technique. Allergen cross-reactivity patterns between Anacardiaceae species were subsequently examined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot inhibition, and IgE-reactive allergens were identified by LC-MS/MS. Results: From the 56 subjects analysed, 36 were positive on dot blot for cashew nut (63%). Of these, 50% were mono-sensitised to cashew nuts, 19% were co-sensitised to Anacardiaceae species, and 31% were co-sensitised to tree nuts. Subjects co-sensitised to Anacardiaceae species displayed a different allergen recognition pattern than subjects sensitised to common tree nuts. In pink peppercorn, putative albumin- and legumin-type seed storage proteins were found to cross-react with serum of cashew nut-sensitised subjects in vitro. In addition, a putative luminal binding protein was identified, which, among others, may be involved in cross-reactivity between several Anacardiaceae species. Conclusions: Results demonstrate the in vitro presence of IgE cross-sensitisation in children towards multiple Anacardiaceae species. In this study, putative novel allergens were identified in cashew, pistachio, and pink peppercorn, which may pose factors that underlie the observed cross-sensitivity to these species. The clinical relevance of this widespread cross-sensitisation is unknown.

LAESI mass spectrometry imaging as a tool to differentiate the root metabolome of native and range-expanding plant species
Kulkarni, Purva ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Verhoeven, Koen J.F. ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Garbeva, Paolina - \ 2018
Planta 248 (2018)6. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 1515 - 1523.
Ambient imaging - Comparative metabolomics - Mass spectrometry imaging - Metabolic profiling - Plant root - Range expansion

Main conclusion: LAESI-MSI, an innovative high-throughput technique holds a unique potential for untargeted detection, profiling and spatial localization of metabolites from intact plant samples without need for extraction or extensive sample preparation. Our understanding of chemical diversity in biological samples has greatly improved through recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS). MS-based-imaging (MSI) techniques have further enhanced this by providing spatial information on the distribution of metabolites and their relative abundance. This study aims to employ laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MSI as a tool to profile and compare the root metabolome of two pairs of native and range-expanding plant species. It has been proposed that successful range-expanding plant species, like introduced exotic invaders, have a novel, or a more diverse secondary chemistry. Although some tests have been made using aboveground plant materials, tests using root materials are rare. We tested the hypothesis that range-expanding plants possess more diverse root chemistries than native plant species. To examine the root chemistry of the selected plant species, LAESI-MSI was performed in positive ion mode and data were acquired in a mass range of m/z 50–1200 with a spatial resolution of 100 µm. The acquired data were analyzed using in-house scripts, and differences in the spatial profiles were studied for discriminatory mass features. The results revealed clear differences in the metabolite profiles amongst and within both pairs of congeneric plant species, in the form of distinct metabolic fingerprints. The use of ambient conditions and the fact that no sample preparation was required, established LAESI-MSI as an ideal technique for untargeted metabolomics and for direct correlation of the acquired data to the underlying metabolomic complexity present in intact plant samples.

Prolonged intake of hyperproteic casein-based diet promotes a molecular environment leading to liver triacylglycerol deposition and increases markers of hepatic damage in rats
Schothorst, E.M. van; Keijer, J. ; Diaz, R. ; Palou, A. ; Oliver, P. - \ 2018
Introduction: High protein (HP) diets have been associated to body weight loss and positive metabolic effects on obese subjects. However, controversy exists on the effects of long-term intake of these diets, as more recent reports point to health risk and higher mortality. Liver is a key organ involved in macronutrient handling, thus, we aimed to analyse the effects of HP diets on liver metabolism and health.
Methods: We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of healthy adult male Wistar rats fed for 4 months with a casein-rich HP diet and analysed adiposity and molecular parameters related to metabolic syndrome and liver injury.
Results: Compared to rats on a control diet, HP-fed animals, that ingested 2.3 times higher amount of protein than controls, showed a lower cumulative food intake and lower body weight; although this lower body weight was not related to decreased adiposity. HP-fed animals presented lower serum cholesterol levels and were apparently healthy according to parameters related to metabolic syndrome: no differences were found in circulating non-esterified fatty acids or triaclyglicerols (TG) in comparison to controls. In liver, long-term intake of the casein-rich diet had an impact on metabolic pathways related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, indicative of higher TG deposition. Liver transcriptomic analysis also revealed up-regulation of immune-related genes and changes in expression of genes involved in acid-base maintenance and oxidative stress, pointing to alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. In line with these transcriptomic changes, clear functional signs of unhealthy effects, such increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha) were observed. Moreover, chronic intake of the HP diet produced a dramatic increase of hepatic HSP90, a marker of liver injury.
Conclusion: A drastic and prolonged increase in diet protein intake, resulting in a high acid load, induces a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased levels of markers of liver/health injury.
One Health as a moral dilemma : Towards a socially responsible zoonotic disease control
Herten, Joost van; Bovenkerk, Bernice ; Verweij, Marcel - \ 2018
Zoonoses and Public Health (2018). - ISSN 1863-1959 - 9 p.
boundary object - ethics - health concepts - moral dilemma - moral status - One Health - zoonotic disease control

During the last decade, the concept of One Health has become the international standard for zoonotic disease control. This call for transdisciplinary collaboration between professionals in human, animal and environmental health has produced several successes in zoonotic disease control, surveillance and research. Despite the lack of a clear definition, a shared agenda or institutional governance, One Health has proven to be a fruitful idea. Due to its ambiguity, the One Health concept functions as a boundary object: by leaving room for interpretation to fit different purposes, it facilitates cooperation. In many cases, this results in the promotion of health of humans, animals and the environment. However, there are also situations in which this mutual benefit of a One Health approach is not that evident, for instance, when healthy animals are culled to protect public health. Although such a strategy could well be part of a One Health approach, it is hard to understand how this contributes to the health of concerning animals. Consequently, these practices often lead to public debate. This raises questions on how we should understand the One Health concept in zoonotic disease control. Is it really about equally improving the health of humans, animals and the environment and is this even possible? Or is it ultimately just public health that counts? In cases of conflict between different values, the lack of a universal definition of the One Health concept contributes to this complexity. Although boundary objects have many positive aspects, in the context of One Health and zoonotic disease control, this conception seems to conceal underlying normative differences. To address moral dilemmas related to a One Health approach in zoonotic disease control, it is important to reflect on moral status and the meaning of health for humans, animals and the environment.

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