Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Anhydrobiosis : Inside yeast cells
Rapoport, Alexander ; Golovina, Elena A. ; Gervais, Patrick ; Dupont, Sebastien ; Beney, Laurent - \ 2018
Biotechnology Advances (2018). - ISSN 0734-9750 - 17 p.
Anhydrobiosis - Dehydration–rehydration - Desiccation - Intracellular changes - Intracellular protective reactions - Yeast

Under natural conditions yeast cells as well as other microorganisms are regularly subjected to the influence of severe drought, which leads to their serious dehydration. The dry seasons are then changed by rains and there is a restoration of normal water potential inside the cells. To survive such seasonal changes a lot of vegetative microbial cells, which belong to various genera and species, may be able to enter into a state of anhydrobiosis, in which their metabolism is temporarily and reversibly suspended or delayed. This evolutionarily developed adaptation to extreme conditions of the environment is widely used for practical goals – for conservation of microorganisms in collections, for maintenance and long storage of different important strain-producers and for other various biotechnological purposes. This current review presents the most important data obtained mainly in the studies of the structural and functional changes in yeast cells during dehydration. It describes the changes of the main organelles of eukaryotic cells and their role in cell survival in a dry state. The review provides information regarding the role of water in the structure and functions of biological macromolecules and membranes. Some important intracellular protective reactions of eukaryotic organisms, which were revealed in these studies and may have more general importance, are also discussed. The results of the studies of yeast anhydrobiosis summarized in the review show the possibilities of improving the conservation and long-term storage of various microorganisms and of increasing the quality of industrially produced dry microbial preparations.

Bee conservation : Inclusive solutions
Kleijn, David ; Biesmeijer, Koos ; Dupont, Yoko L. ; Nielsen, Anders ; Potts, Simon G. ; Settele, Josef - \ 2018
Science 360 (2018)6387. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 389 - 390.
Whole dairy matrix or single nutrients in assessment of health effects: current evidence and knowledge gaps
Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev ; Bertram, Hanne Christine ; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe ; Groot, Lisette De; Dupont, Didier ; Feeney, Emma ; Ipsen, Richard ; Lecerf, Jean Michel ; Mackie, Alan ; Mckinley, Michelle C. ; Michalski, Marie-Caroline ; Rémond, Didier ; Risérus, Ulf ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita ; Tholstrup, Tine ; Weaver, Connie ; Astrup, Arne ; Givens, Ian - \ 2017
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105 (2017)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1033 - 1045.
Foods consist of a large number of different nutrients that are contained in a complex structure. The nature of the food structure and the nutrients therein (i.e., the food matrix) will determine the nutrient digestion and absorption, thereby altering the overall nutritional properties of the food. Thus, the food matrix may exhibit a different relation with health indicators compared to single nutrients studied in isolation. The evidence for a dairy matrix effect was presented and discussed by an expert panel at a closed workshop, and the following consensus was reached: 1) Current evidence does not support a positive association between intake of dairy products and risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., stroke and coronary heart disease) and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, fermented dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, generally show inverse associations. 2) Intervention studies have indicated that the metabolic effects of whole dairy may be different than those of single dairy constituents when considering the effects on body weight, cardiometabolic disease risk, and bone health. 3) Different dairy products seem to be distinctly linked to health effects and disease risk markers. 4) Different dairy structures and common processing methods may enhance interactions between nutrients in the dairy matrix, which may modify the metabolic effects of dairy consumption. 5) In conclusion, the nutritional values of dairy products should not be considered equivalent to their nutrient contents but, rather, be considered on the basis of the biofunctionality of the nutrients within dairy food structures. 6) Further research on the health effects of whole dairy foods is warranted alongside the more traditional approach of studying the health effects of single nutrients. Future diet assessments and recommendations should carefully consider the evidence of the effects of whole foods alongside the evidence of the effects of individual nutrients. Current knowledge gaps and recommendations for priorities in future research on dairy were identified and presented.
Comment on "critical wind speed at which trees break"
Albrecht, Axel ; Badel, Eric ; Bonnesoeur, Vivien ; Brunet, Yves ; Constant, Thiéry ; Défossez, Pauline ; Langre, Emmanuel De; Dupont, Sylvain ; Fournier, Meriem ; Gardiner, Barry ; Schelhaas, Mart Jan - \ 2016
Physical Review. E, Statistical nonlinear, and soft matter physics 94 (2016)6. - ISSN 2470-0045

Virot et al. [E. Virot, Phys. Rev. E 93, 023001 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevE.93.023001] assert that the critical wind speed at which ≥50% of all trees in a population break is ≈42 m/s, regardless of tree characteristics. We show that empirical data do not support this assertion, and that the assumptions underlying the theory used by Virot et al. are inconsistent with the biomechanics of trees.

Dairy Matrix Expert Meeting
Groot, Lisette de - \ 2016
Dicussant: Mechanisms behind dairy food matrix effects (2 sessions) 1. The structure of dairy products, as modified by processing, drives the kinetics of proteolysis and lipolysis in the G1 tract and the bioavailability of nutrients. Didier Dupont/Discussant: Lisette de Groot 2. Diary matrix, processing and protein digestion, implications for functionality of dairy foods and their proteins. Didier Remond/Discussant: Lisette de Groot
Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks : a meta-analysis
Cooper, Julia ; Baranski, Marcin ; Stewart, Gavin ; Nobel-de Lange, Majimcha ; Bàrberi, Paolo ; Fließbach, Andreas ; Peigné, Josephine ; Berner, Alfred ; Brock, Christopher ; Casagrande, Marion ; Crowley, Oliver ; David, Christophe ; Vliegher, Alex De; Döring, Thomas F. ; Dupont, Aurélien ; Entz, Martin ; Grosse, Meike ; Haase, Thorsten ; Halde, Caroline ; Hammerl, Verena ; Huiting, Hilfred ; Leithold, Günter ; Messmer, Monika ; Schloter, Michael ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Heijden, Marcel G.A. van der; Willekens, Koen ; Wittwer, Raphaël ; Mäder, Paul - \ 2016
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 36 (2016)1. - ISSN 1774-0746
Conservation agriculture - Conservation tillage - Crop yield - Meta-analysis - Minimum tillage - No-till - Organic farming - Reduced tillage - Soil C - Weeds

Reduced tillage is increasingly promoted to improve sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems. Nonetheless, adoption of reduced tillage by organic farmers has been slow due to concerns about nutrient supply, soil structure, and weeds that may limit yields. Here, we compiled the results from both published and unpublished research comparing deep or shallow inversion tillage, with various categories of reduced tillage under organic management. Shallow refers to less than 25 cm. We found that (1) division of reduced tillage practices into different classes with varying degrees of intensity allowed us to assess the trade-offs between reductions in tillage intensity, crop yields, weed incidence, and soil C stocks. (2) Reducing tillage intensity in organic systems reduced crop yields by an average of 7.6 % relative to deep inversion tillage with no significant reduction in yield relative to shallow inversion tillage. (3) Among the different classes of reduced tillage practice, shallow non-inversion tillage resulted in non-significant reductions in yield relative to deep inversion; whereas deep non-inversion tillage resulted in the largest yield reduction, of 11.6 %. (4) Using inversion tillage to only a shallow depth resulted in minimal reductions in yield, of 5.5 %, but significantly higher soil C stocks and better weed control. This finding suggests that this is a good option for organic farmers wanting to improve soil quality while minimizing impacts on yields. (5) Weeds were consistently higher, by about 50 %, when tillage intensity was reduced, although this did not always result in reduced yields.

The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method : From knowledge to action
Egger, Lotti ; Ménard, Olivia ; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina ; Alvito, Paula ; Assunção, Ricardo ; Balance, Simon ; Barberá, Reyes ; Brodkorb, Andre ; Cattenoz, Thomas ; Clemente, Alfonso ; Comi, Irene ; Dupont, Didier ; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe ; Lagarda, María Jesús ; Feunteun, Steven Le; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke ; Karakaya, Sibel ; Lesmes, Uri ; Mackie, Alan R. ; Martins, Carla ; Meynier, Anne ; Miralles, Beatriz ; Murray, B.S. ; Pihlanto, Anne ; Picariello, Gianluca ; Santos, C.N. ; Simsek, Sebnem ; Recio, Isidra ; Rigby, Neil ; Rioux, Laurie Eve ; Stoffers, Helena ; Tavares, Ana ; Tavares, Lucelia ; Turgeon, Sylvie ; Ulleberg, E.K. ; Vegarud, G.E. ; Vergères, Guy ; Portmann, Reto - \ 2016
Food Research International 88 (2016)Par B. - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 217 - 225.
Dairy proteins - Harmonized IVD protocol - In vitro digestion - Inter-laboratory trial - Mass spectrometry - Peptides

Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary output from this network. To validate this protocol, inter-laboratory trials were conducted within the INFOGEST network. A first study was performed using skim milk powder (SMP) as a model food and served to compare the different in-house digestion protocols used among the INFOGEST members. In a second inter-laboratory study applying the harmonized protocol, the degree of consistency in protein hydrolysis was investigated. Analysis of the hydrolyzed proteins, after the gastric and intestinal phases, showed that caseins were mainly hydrolyzed during the gastric phase, whereas β-lactoglobulin was, as previously shown, resistant to pepsin. Moreover, generation of free amino acids occurred mainly during the intestinal phase.The study also showed that a few critical steps were responsible for the remaining inter-laboratory variability. The largest deviations arose from the determination of pepsin activity. Therefore, this step was further clarified, harmonized, and implemented in a third inter-laboratory study.The present work gives an overview of all three inter-laboratory studies, showing that the IVD INFOGEST method has led to an increased consistency that enables a better comparability of in vitro digestion studies in the future.

Forecasting radiation fog at climatologically contrasting sites: evaluation of statistical methods and WRF
Román-Cascón, C. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Yague, C. ; Sastre, M. ; Arrillaga, J.A. ; Maqueda, G. - \ 2016
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 142 (2016)695. - ISSN 0035-9009 - p. 1048 - 1063.
A 6-year climatology of radiation fog has been compiled at two sites: the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA, Spain) and the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR, The Netherlands). These sites are contrasting in terms of geographical situation, climate zone, altitude, humidity and soil water availability. Therefore, several climatological differences in fog abundance, onset, dissipation and duration have been quantified between both sites. The more humid site (CESAR) is characterised by relatively short radiation-fog events distributed throughout the year. However, radiation fog at the drier site (CIBA) is more persistent and appears during late-autumn/winter months. In general, its formation requires more time after sunset (~ 2 h more), since further cooling is required to reach saturation. The forecast of these fog events has been evaluated through two different approaches. On the one hand, we extend the statistical method presented by [Menut ~al.(2014)Menut, Mailler, Dupont, Haeffelin and Elias] (M14). This method uses statistics to define threshold values on key variables for fog formation (pre-fog) and verifies its predictability using observations and numerical model output. We present some of the most appropriate threshold values for the forecasting of pre-fog periods at both sites, which differ from those presented in M14 and depend on the optimisation of the hit-rate or the false-alarm rate. Additionally, we also extend M14 suggesting other variables as potential predictors for fog formation (friction velocity and visibility tendency). Finally, we focus on the fog simulation by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in terms of liquid water content. The WRF model was able to simulate radiation fog when configured with sophisticated physical options and high resolution. However it failed simulating the onset, dissipation and vertical extension of fog (overestimated). The model results were extremely sensitive to the spin-up time.
Standard methods for toxicology research in Apis mellifera
Medrzycki, P. ; Giffard, H. ; Aupinel, P. ; Belzunces, L.P. ; Chauzat, M.P. ; Classen, C. ; Colin, M.E. ; Dupont, T. ; Girolami, V. ; Johnson, R. ; Conte, Y. Le; Luckmann, J. ; Marzaro, M. ; Pistorius, J. ; Porrini, C. ; Schur, A. ; Sgolastra, F. ; Delso, N.S. ; Steen, J.J.M. van der; Wallner, K. ; Alaux, C. ; Biron, D.G. ; Blot, N. ; Bogo, G. ; Brunet, J.L. ; Delbac, F. ; Diogon, M. ; Alaoui, H. El; Provost, B. ; Tosi, S. ; Vidau, C. - \ 2013
Journal of Apicultural Research 52 (2013)4. - ISSN 0021-8839
honey-bees hymenoptera - size field colonies - free-flying colonies - parathion penncap-m - neonicotinoid insecticides - systemic insecticides - nosema-ceranae - pesticide sensitivity - pollen availability - rearing temperature
Modern agriculture often involves the use of pesticides to protect crops. These substances are harmful to target organisms (pests and pathogens). Nevertheless, they can also damage non-target animals, such as pollinators and entomophagous arthropods. It is obvious that the undesirable side effects of pesticides on the environment should be reduced to a minimum. Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) are very important organisms from an agricultural perspective and are vulnerable to pesticide-induced impacts. They contribute actively to the pollination of cultivated crops and wild vegetation, making food production possible. Of course, since Apis mellifera occupies the same ecological niche as many other species of pollinators, the loss of honey bees caused by environmental pollutants suggests that other insects may experience a similar outcome. Because pesticides can harm honey bees and other pollinators, it is important to register pesticides that are as selective as possible. In this manuscript, we describe a selection of methods used for studying pesticide toxicity/selectiveness towards Apis mellifera. These methods may be used in risk assessment schemes and in scientific research aimed to explain acute and chronic effects of any target compound on Apis mellifera.
The Positive Impact of the Early-Feeding of a Plant-Based Diet on Its Future Acceptance and Utilisation in Rainbow Trout
Geurden, I. ; Borchert, P. ; Balasubramanian, M.N. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Dupont-Nivet, M. ; Quillet, E. ; Kaushik, S.J. ; Panserat, S. ; Médale, F. - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)12. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
salmon oncorhynchus-kisutch - atlantic salmon - amino-acids - epigenetic modifications - growth-performance - homing migration - body-composition - oil replacement - ration level - mykiss
Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional exposure, the growth of fish fed plant-based feed. Rainbow trout swimup fry were fed for 3 weeks either a plant-based diet (diet V, V-fish) or a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil as protein and fat source (diet M, M-fish). After this 3-wk nutritional history period, all V- or M-fish received diet M for a 7-month intermediate growth phase. Both groups were then challenged by feeding diet V for 25 days during which voluntary feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilisation were monitored (V-challenge). Three isogenic rainbow trout lines were used for evaluating possible family effects. The results of the V-challenge showed a 42% higher growth rate (P = 0.002) and 30% higher feed intake (P = 0.005) in fish of nutritional history V compared to M (averaged over the three families). Besides the effects on feed intake, V-fish utilized diet V more efficiently than M-fish, as reflected by the on average 18% higher feed efficiency (P = 0.003). We noted a significant family effect for the above parameters (P,0.001), but the nutritional history effect was consistent for all three families (no interaction effect, P.0.05). In summary, our study shows that an early shortterm exposure of rainbow trout fry to a plant-based diet improves acceptance and utilization of the same diet when given at later life stages. This positive response is encouraging as a potential strategy to improve the use of plant-based feed in fish, of interest in the field of fish farming and animal nutrition in general. Future work needs to determine the persistency of this positive early feeding effect and the underlying mechanisms.
Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia
Severance, E.G. ; Dickerson, F.B. ; Halling, M. ; Krivogorsky, B. ; Haile, L. ; Yang, S. ; Stallings, C.R. ; Origoni, A.E. ; Bossis, I. ; Xiao, J. ; Dupont, D. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Yolken, R.H. - \ 2010
Schizophrenia Research 118 (2010)1-3. - ISSN 0920-9964 - p. 240 - 247.
cows milk - occupational-status - antibodies - food - association - hypothesis - proteins - humans - blood
Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting, we characterized IgG class antibody specificity to whole bovine casein and to the as, ß, and ¿ subunits in individuals with recent onset psychosis (n = 95), long-term schizophrenia (n = 103), and non-psychiatric controls (n = 65). In both patient groups, we found elevated IgG to casein proteins, particularly to whole casein and the as subunit (p = 0.0001). Odds ratios of casein seroprevalence for recent onset psychosis (age-, gender-, race-, smoking-adjusted) were significant for whole casein (8.13, p = 0.0001), and the as (7.89, p = 0.0001), ß (5.23, p = 0.001) and ¿ (5.70, p = 0.0001) subunits. Odds ratios for long-term schizophrenia were significant for whole casein (7.85, p = 0.0001), and the as (4.78, p = 0.003) and ¿ (4.92, p = 0.004) subunits. Within the recent onset group, odds ratios were particularly significant for a subgroup of people with psychotic disorders that included major depressive disorders (8.22–16.48, p = 0.0001). In a different recent onset subgroup (schizophrenia-spectrum disorders), PANSS scores for negative symptoms were correlated with casein antibody levels for the as and ¿ subunits (p = 0.001–0.01). Immunoblotting patterns also exhibited group specificity, with ¿ predominant in recent onset and as in schizophrenia (Fisher's Exact Test, p = 0.001). The elevated IgG and unique patterns of antibody specificity to bovine casein among diagnostic groups provide a rationale for clinical trials to evaluate efficacies of dietary modifications in individuals with neuropsychiatric diseases.
Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder
Severance, E.G. ; Dupont, D. ; Dickerson, F.B. ; Stallings, C.R. ; Origoni, A.E. ; Krivogorsky, B. ; Yang, S. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Yolken, R.H. - \ 2010
Bipolar Disorders 12 (2010). - ISSN 1398-5647 - p. 834 - 842.
bovine beta-casein - common variants - cows milk - schizophrenia - hypothesis - antibodies - food - autoimmunity - polymorphism - resistance
Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized different epitopes of the casein protein than control individuals. Methods: Anti-bovine casein immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were measured with solid-phase immunoassays in 75 individuals with bipolar disorder and 65 controls. Epitope recognition was evaluated in immunoassays by cross neutralization with anti-bovine casein polyclonal antibodies of defined reactivity. Group-specific reactivity and associations with symptom severity scores were detected with age-, gender-, and race-controlled regression models. Results: Individuals with bipolar disorder had significantly elevated anti-casein IgG (t-test, p = 0.001) compared to controls. Casein IgG seropositivity conferred odds ratios of 3.97 for bipolar disorder [n = 75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–12.08, p = 0.015], 5.26 for the bipolar I subtype (n = 56, 95% CI: 1.66–16.64, p = 0.005), and 3.98 for bipolar disorder with psychosis (n = 54, 95% CI: 1.32–12.00, p = 0.014). Lithium and/or antipsychotic medication did not significantly affect anti-casein IgG levels. Casein IgG measures correlated with severity of manic (R2 = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.05–0.24, p = 0.02) but not depressive symptoms. Unlike controls, sera from individuals with bipolar disorder did not inhibit binding of casein-reactive animal sera (t-test/¿2, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Anti-casein IgG associations with bipolar I diagnoses, psychotic symptom history, and mania severity scores suggest that casein-related immune activation may relate to the psychosis and mania components of this mood disorder. Case-control differences in epitope recognition implicate disease-related alterations in how the casein molecule is digested and/or how resulting casein-derived structures are rendered immunogenic.
Letter to the editor: PCV-2 genotype definition and nomenclature
Segales, J. ; Olvera, A. ; Grau-Roma, L. ; Charreyre, C. ; Nauwynck, H. ; Larsen, L. ; Dupont, K. ; McCullough, K. ; Ellis, J.L. ; Krakowka, S. ; Mankertz, A. ; Fredholm, M. ; Fossum, C. ; Timmusk, S. ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. ; Beattie, V. ; Armstrong, D. ; Grassland, B. ; Baekbo, P. ; Allan, G. - \ 2008
Veterinary Record 162 (2008)26. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 867 - 868.
wasting syndrome pmws - phylogenetic analysis - porcine circovirus-2 - emergence - swine
Survey on PFOS and other perfluorinated compounds in Dutch fish and shellfish
Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Boer, J. de - \ 2006
IJmuiden : RIVO (Report / Wageningen IMARES C034/06) - 19
schaaldieren - vis - visteelt - organische fluorverbindingen - bioaccumulatie - ecotoxicologie - shellfish - fish - fish culture - organofluorine compounds - bioaccumulation - ecotoxicology
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used in a wide variety of applications as a surfactant because of their ‘wetting’ properties. Other applications include moisture, stain and fat repellency for consumer products (e.g. leather and carpets) and as polymerization aid for the production of fluorinated polymers (e.g. Teflon). Because of the wide distribution in wildlife and human samples the production of perfluorinated octane sulfonate (PFOS) some producers (e.g. 3M) decided to terminate the production PFOS and related compounds on a voluntary basis (EPA, 2000). Other PFCs (e.g. perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA)) remain in production by various producers for a range of applications. Dupont voluntarily plans to reduce PFOA residuals in consumer products with 98% by 2007
Quantitative analysis of 8-isoprostane and hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate
Hoydonck, P.G.A. ; Wuyts, W.A. ; Vanaudenaerde, B.M. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Dupont, I.J. ; Temme, E.H.M. - \ 2004
European Respiratory Journal 23 (2004)2. - ISSN 0903-1936 - p. 189 - 192.
horseradish-peroxidase - pulmonary-disease - oxidative stress - airway diseases - expired breath - nitric-oxide - h2o2 - isoprostanes - smokers
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a noninvasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of EBC might be useful in the assessment of airway oxidative stress in smokers. The aim of this study was to determine 8-isoprostane and hydrogen peroxide levels in EBC, and, in addition, to investigate the reproducibility of these measurements. EBC samples were collected from 12 healthy male smokers at three time points within 1 week. 8-isoprostane and H2O2 were measured in nonconcentrated EBC using immunochemical and colorimetric assays, respectively. 8-isoprostane and H2O2 were detected in only 36 and 47% of all EBC samples, respectively. It was not possible to calculate the within-subject variation in a reliable manner since only three of the 12 smokers exhibited detectable 8-isoprostane concentrations on all three occasions (mean 4.6 pg.mL(-1); range 3.9-7.7 pg.mL(-1)), whereas H2O2 could not be detected on all three occasions in any of the smokers. Spiking experiments revealed a recovery of 83.5-109.5% for 8-isoprostane and 69.9-129.0% for H2O2 in fresh EBC samples. It was concluded that levels of 8-isoprostane and hydrogen peroxide cannot be reproducibly assessed in exhaled breath condensate from healthy smokers because of their low concentration and/or the lack of sensitivity of the available assays.
Strategies for the environmental management of chains
Hagelaar, J.L.F. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2002
In: Water recycling and resources recovery in Industry: Analysis, technologies and implementation / Lens, P., Hulshoff-Pol, L., Wilderer, P., Asano, T., - p. 109 - 131.
milieubescherming - productie - kwaliteit voor industriële verwerking - ketenmanagement - environmental protection - production - industrial processing quality - supply chain management
The ways to reduce the discharge of pollutants are diverse. End-of-pipe measures, cleaner production technologies and environmentally oriented product design is the spectrum in which solutions can be found. To implement such measures, and ultimately close industrial cycles, companies have to organize themselves to reach that goal. Closed production systems in this perspective are not a technological problem, but an organisational problem. In organizational terms, closed systems are also distinguished. DuPont's director of logistics (Clifford Sayre) defined Supply Chain Management (SCM) as a closed loop: 'It starts with the customer and it ends with the customer. Through the loop flow all materials and finished goods, information, even all transactions.' Chain co-operation is also becoming an economic necessity. One of the most significant paradigm shifts of modern business management is that individual businesses no longer compete as solely autonomous entities, but rather as supply chains (Christopher 1998). Strictly speaking, the supply chain is not a chain of businesses with one-to-one, business-to-business relationships, but a network of multiple businesses and relationships. Executives are becoming aware that the successful co-ordination, integration and management of key business processes across members of the supply chain will determine the ultimate success of the single enterprise (Van der Vorst 2000). Lambert and Cooper (2000) underline this growing awareness of executives in their research agenda for Supply Chain Management (SCM). According to them, a top priority in SCM should be research to develop a normative model that can guide managers in their efforts to develop and manage their supply chains. The managerial trend of developing chains also fits in with the ideas to cope with environmental damage
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