Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Scientific opinion: Risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed
Knutsen, Helle-Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Caude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Dall'asta, Chiara ; Dänicke, Sven ; Eriksen, Gunnar-Sundstøl ; Altieri, Andrea ; Roldán-Torres, Ruth ; Oswald, Isabelle P. - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)7. - ISSN 1831-4732
Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), β-zearalanol (β-ZAL), zearalanone (ZAN) and phase II conjugates. ZEN has oestrogenic activity and the oestrogenic activity of the modified forms of ZEN differs considerably. For ZEN, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for pig (piglets and gilts), poultry (chicken and fattening turkeys), sheep and fish (extrapolated from carp) and lowest observed effect level (LOAEL) for dogs. No reference points could be established for cattle, ducks, goats, horses, rabbits, mink and cats. For modified forms, no reference points could be established for any animal species and relative potency factors previously established from rodents by the CONTAM Panel in 2016 were used. The dietary exposure was estimated on 17,706 analytical results with high proportions of left-censored data (ZEN about 60%, ZAN about 70%, others close to 100%). Samples for ZEN were collected between 2001 and 2015 in 25 different European countries, whereas samples for the modified forms were collected mostly between 2013 and 2015 from three Member States. Based on exposure estimates, the risk of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms.
Scientific opinion: Risks to human and animal health related to the presence of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated and modified forms in food and feed
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Naegeli, Hanspeter ; Parent-Massin, Dominique ; Rietjens, Ivonne ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Eskola, Mari ; Gergelova, Petra ; Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa ; Benkova, Bistra ; Dörr, Barbara ; Gkrillas, Athanasios ; Gustavsson, Nicklas ; Manen, Mathijs Van; Edler, Lutz - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)9. - ISSN 1831-4732
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Following the request of the European Commission, the CONTAM Panel assessed the risk to animal and human health related to DON, 3-acetyl-DON (3-Ac-DON), 15-acetyl-DON (15-Ac-DON) and DON-3-glucoside in food and feed. A total of 27,537, 13,892, 7,270 and 2,266 analytical data for DON, 3-Ac-DON, 15-Ac-DON and DON-3-glucoside, respectively, in food, feed and unprocessed grains collected from 2007 to 2014 were used. For human exposure, grains and grain-based products were main sources, whereas in farm and companion animals, cereal grains, cereal by-products and forage maize contributed most. DON is rapidly absorbed, distributed, and excreted. Since 3-Ac-DON and 15-Ac-DON are largely deacetylated and DON-3-glucoside cleaved in the intestines the same toxic effects as DON can be expected. The TDI of 1 μg/kg bw per day, that was established for DON based on reduced body weight gain in mice, was therefore used as a group-TDI for the sum of DON, 3-Ac-DON, 15-Ac-DON and DON-3-glucoside. In order to assess acute human health risk, epidemiological data from mycotoxicoses were assessed and a group-ARfD of 8 μg/kg bw per eating occasion was calculated. Estimates of acute dietary exposures were below this dose and did not raise a health concern in humans. The estimated mean chronic dietary exposure was above the group-TDI in infants, toddlers and other children, and at high exposure also in adolescents and adults, indicating a potential health concern. Based on estimated mean dietary concentrations in ruminants, poultry, rabbits, dogs and cats, most farmed fish species and horses, adverse effects are not expected. At the high dietary concentrations, there is a potential risk for chronic adverse effects in pigs and fish and for acute adverse effects in cats and farmed mink.
Does introduction of clover in an agricultural grassland affect the food base and functional diversity of Collembola?
Annibale, Alessandra D'; Sechi, Valentina ; Larsen, Thomas ; Christensen, Søren ; Krogh, Paul Henning ; Eriksen, Jørgen - \ 2017
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 112 (2017). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 165 - 176.
Functional diversity - Functional traits - Legumes - Mesofauna - Stable isotopes

Introduction of legumes (i.e. white clover) in agricultural grasslands is a common practice to improve yields, but how this affects soil fauna populations, particularly mesofauna, is still poorly understood. We investigated taxonomical and functional differences of Collembola communities between plots with either perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) or a mixture of both in a Danish agricultural grassland 6 and 14 months after establishing the leys (September and May, respectively). Diet preferences were investigated via stable isotope analyses (SIA) of carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15N). Collembolan abundance data were used to analyse morphological and ecological traits of the collected taxa and calculate functional diversity indices. Our stable isotope results show that root-derived resources made larger contributions to epedaphic and hemiedaphic species in the white clover than ryegrass plots. Changes in taxa specific density and traits distribution as a response to the C:N ratio of plant material, suggest that plant material quality was the main factor affecting the collembolan community, especially when comparing the two sampling occasions. Functional richness decreased under conditions of low quality material. In contrast to our hypothesis, population densities did not increase under mixture treatment and functional richness decreased. Our results suggest that habitat changes, via different plant composition, can affect some functional groups, having in turn effects on the functional diversity of the community.

A global inventory of small floating plastic debris
Sebille, Erik van; Wilcox, Chris ; Lebreton, Laurent ; Maximenko, Nikolai ; Hardesty, Britta Denise ; Franeker, J.A. van; Eriksen, Marcus ; Siegel, David ; Galgani, F. ; Law, Kara Lavender - \ 2015
Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015)12. - ISSN 1748-9326
marine debris - ocean circulation
Microplastic debris floating at the ocean surface can harm marine life. Understanding the severity of this harm requires knowledge of plastic abundance and distributions. Dozens of expeditions measuring microplastics have been carried out since the 1970s, but they have primarily focused on the
North Atlantic and North Pacific accumulation zones, with much sparser coverage elsewhere. Here, we use the largest dataset of microplastic measurements assembled to date to assess the confidence we can have in global estimates of microplastic abundance and mass.Weuse a rigorous statistical
framework to standardize a global dataset of plastic marine debris measured using surface-trawling plankton nets and coupled this with three different ocean circulation models to spatially interpolate the observations. Our estimates show that the accumulated number of microplastic particles in 2014 ranges from 15 to 51 trillion particles, weighing between 93 and 236 thousand metric tons, which is
only approximately1%of global plastic waste estimated to enter the ocean in the year 2010. These estimates are larger than previous global estimates, but vary widely because the scarcity of data in most of the world ocean, differences in model formulations, and fundamental knowledge gaps in the sources, transformations and fates of microplastics in the ocean.
Measuring the impact of an ongoing microcredit project : evidence from a study in Ghana
Eriksen, Steffen ; Lensink, Robert - \ 2015
Journal of Development Effectiveness 7 (2015)4. - ISSN 1943-9342 - p. 519 - 529.
Ghana - impact evaluation - list experiment - microcredit - summary indexation

This article uses a mixed method approach to assess the impact of a microfinance organisation in Ghana. By combining propensity score matching with a double-difference method, the authors determine that microcredit has a positive effect on expenditures but does not positively affect a series of other outcome variables. A list experiment further suggests that microcredit loan proceeds often are not spent productively.

Lensink, R. ; Asenso-Okyere, K. ; Bahiigwa, G. ; Cao, E. De; Eriksen, S. ; Jemaneh, S. ; Gutu, T. ; Hansen, N. ; Lutz, C. ; Tadesse, G. ; Tefera, W. ; Yirga, C. ; Zerfu, E. ; Berg, M. van der; Klaver, D.C. ; Jacobs, J. ; Hofstede, M. ; Ingen, T. van; Getew, H. ; Tigabu, A. ; Babu, S. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Desalos, C.B. ; Kefyalew, D. ; Kusters, C.S.L. ; Bulte, E. ; Pradhan, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Rapporten ) - 1978
This report on Ethiopia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (covering the eight country studies); and - A report with the results of the international lobbying and advocacy programmes. This series of reports assessed the 2011-2015 contribution of the Dutch Co-Financing System (MFS II) towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, strengthening international civil society, setting the international agenda and changing decision-makers’ policy and practice, with the ultimate goal of reducing structural poverty. On July 2nd, 2015, the reports were approved by the independent steering committee (see below), which concluded that they meet the quality standards of validity, reliability and usefulness set by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
First successful reduction of clinical allergenicity of food by genetic modification: Mal d 1 silenced apples cause fewer allergy symptoms than the wild-type cultivar
Dubois, A.E.J. ; Pagliarani, G. ; Brouwer, R.M. ; Kollen, B.J. ; Dragsted, L.O. ; Eriksen, F.D. ; Callesen, O. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Krens, F.A. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J. ; Flokstra-de Blok, B.J. ; Weg, W.E. van de - \ 2015
Allergy 70 (2015)11. - ISSN 0105-4538 - p. 1406 - 1412.
Background Genetic modification of allergenic foods such as apple has the potential to reduce their clinical allergenicity, but this has never been studied by oral challenges in allergic individuals. Methods We performed oral food challenges in 21 apple-allergic individuals with Elstar apples which had undergone gene silencing of the major allergen of apple, Mal d 1, by RNA interference. Downregulation of Mal d 1 gene expression in the apples was verified by qRT-PCR. Clinical responses to the genetically modified apples were compared to those seen with the wild-type Elstar using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Gene silencing produced two genetically modified apple lines expressing Mal d 1.02 and other Mal d 1 gene mRNA levels which were extensively downregulated, that is only 0.1–16.4% (e-DR1) and 0.2–9.9% (e-DR2) of those of the wild-type Elstar, respectively. Challenges with these downregulated apple lines produced significantly less intense maximal symptoms to the first dose (Vmax1) than with Elstar (Vmax1 Elstar 3.0 mm vs 0.0 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043), as well as significantly less intense mean symptoms per dose (meanV/d) than with Elstar (meanV/d Elstar 2.2 mm vs 0.2 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043). Only one subject (5%) remained symptom-free when challenged with the Elstar apple, whereas 43% did so with e-DR1 and 63% with e-DR2. Conclusion These data show that mRNA silencing of Mal d 1 results in a marked reduction of Mal d 1 gene expression in the fruit and reduction of symptoms when these apples are ingested by allergic subjects. Approximately half of the subjects developed no symptoms whatsoever, and virtually all subjects wished to consume the apple again in the future.
Strategies to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from herbivore production systems
Schils, R.L.M. ; Eriksen, J. ; Ledgard, S. ; Vellinga, Th.V. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Luo, J. ; Petersen, S.O. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2013
Animal 7 (2013)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 29 - 40.
greenhouse-gas emissions - ruminant livestock systems - hippuric-acid content - cattle slurry - new-zealand - n2o emissions - nitrifier denitrification - nitrification inhibitor - climate-change - dinitrogen emissions
Herbivores are a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. They account for a large share of manure-related N2O emissions, as well as soil-related N2O emissions through the use of grazing land, and land for feed and forage production. It is widely acknowledged that mitigation measures are necessary to avoid an increase in N2O emissions while meeting the growing global food demand. The production and emissions of N2O are closely linked to the efficiency of nitrogen (N) transfer between the major components of a livestock system, that is, animal, manure, soil and crop. Therefore, mitigation options in this paper have been structured along these N pathways. Mitigation technologies involving diet-based intervention include lowering the CP content or increasing the condensed tannin content of the diet. Animal-related mitigation options also include breeding for improved N conversion and high animal productivity. The main soil-based mitigation measures include efficient use of fertilizer and manure, including the use of nitrification inhibitors. In pasture-based systems with animal housing facilities, reducing grazing time is an effective option to reduce N2O losses. Crop-based options comprise breeding efforts for increased N-use efficiency and the use of pastures with N2-fixing clover. It is important to recognize that all N2O mitigation options affect the N and carbon cycles of livestock systems. Therefore, care should be taken that reductions in N2O emissions are not offset by unwanted increases in ammonia, methane or carbon dioxide emissions. Despite the abundant availability of mitigation options, implementation in practice is still lagging. Actual implementation will only follow after increased awareness among farmers and greenhouse gases targeted policies. So far, reductions in N2O emissions that have been achieved are mostly a positive side effect of other N-targeted policies.
Policy relevant results from an expert elicitation on the health risks of phthalates
Zimmer, K.E. ; Gutleb, A.C. ; Ravnum, S. ; Krayer von Krauss, M. ; Murk, A.J. ; Ropstad, E. ; Skaare, J.U. ; Eriksen, G.S. ; Lyche, J.L. ; Koppe, J.G. ; Magnanti, B. ; Yang, A. ; Keune, H. - \ 2012
Environmental Health : a global access science source 11 (2012)Suppl 1. - ISSN 1476-069X
Background: The EU 6th Framework Program (FP)-funded Health and Environment Network (HENVINET) aimed to support informed policy making by facilitating the availability of relevant knowledge on different environmental health issues. An approach was developed by which scientific agreement, disagreement, and knowledge gaps could be efficiently identified, and expert advice prepared in a way that is usable for policy makers. There were two aims of the project: 1) to apply the tool to a relevant issue; the potential health impacts of the widely used plasticizers, phthalates, and 2) to evaluate the method and the tool by asking both scientific experts and the target audience, namely policy makers and stakeholders, for their opinions. Methods: The tool consisted of an expert consultation in several steps on the issue of phthalates in environmental health. A diagram depicting the cause-effect chain, from the production and use of phthalates to potential health impacts, was prepared based on existing reviews. This was used as a basis for an online questionnaire, through which experts in the field were consulted. The results of this first round of consultation laid the foundation for a new questionnaire answered by an expert panel that, subsequently, also discussed approaches and results in a workshop. One major task of the expert panel was to pinpoint priorities from the cause-effect chain according to their impact on the extent of potential health risks and their relevance for reducing uncertainty. The results were condensed into a policy brief that was sent to policy makers and stakeholders for their evaluation. Results: The experts agreed about the substantial knowledge gaps within the field of phthalates. The top three priorities for further research and policy action were: 1) intrauterine exposure, 2) reproductive toxicology, and 3) exposure from medical devices. Although not all relevant information from the cause-effect chain is known for phthalates, most experts thought that there are enough indications to justify a precautionary approach and to restrict their general use. Although some of the experts expressed some scepticism about such a tool, most felt that important issues were highlighted. Conclusions: The approach used was an efficient way at summarising priority knowledge gaps as a starting point for health risk assessment of compounds, based on their relevance for the risk assessment outcome. We conclude that this approach is useful for supporting policy makers with state-of-the-art scientific knowledge weighed by experts. The method can assist future evidence-based policy making.
Policy relevant Results from an Expert Elicitation on the Human Health Risks of Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)
Ravnum, S. ; Zimmer, K.E. ; Keune, H. ; Gutleb, A.C. ; Murk, A.J. ; Koppe, J.G. ; Magnanti, B. ; Lyche, J.L. ; Eriksen, G.S. ; Ropstad, E. ; Skaare, J.U. ; Kobernus, M. ; Yang, A. ; Bartonova, A. ; Krayer von Krauss, M. - \ 2012
Environmental Health : a global access science source 11 (2012)Suppl 1. - ISSN 1476-069X
brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers - spontaneous behavior - neonatal exposure - serum - toxicity - trends - pbde - rat - neurotoxicity
Aim: Apply a recently developed expert elicitation procedure to evaluate the state of the current knowledge of the two brominated flame retardants (BFRs) most commonly used today; decabromo-diphenyl ether (decaBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and their potential impact on human health in order to support policy considerations. This expert elicitation was organized by the HENVINET (Health and Environment Network) Consortium. Method: The HENVINET expert elicitation procedure that was used in the evaluations of decaBDE and HBCD is a rapid assessment tool aimed at highlighting areas of agreement and areas of disagreement on knowledge-related key issues for environment and health policy decision making. Results: The outcome of the expert consultation on BFRs was concrete expert advice for policy makers with specific priorities for further action made clear for both stakeholders and policy makers. The experts were not in agreement whether or not the knowledge currently available on decaBDE or HBCD is sufficient to justify policy actions, but most experts considered that enough data already exists to support a ban or restriction on the use of these compounds. All experts agreed on the necessity of more research on the compounds. Priority issues for further research were, among others: more studies on the extent of human exposure to the compounds. more studies on the fate and concentration in the human body of the compounds.
Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in 'Elstar' apple and the effect of grafting
Krath, B.N. ; Eriksen, F.D. ; Pedersen, B.H. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Weg, W.E. van de; Dragsted, L.O. - \ 2009
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 84 (2009)6 Isafruit Suppl. - ISSN 1462-0316 - p. 52 - 57.
controlled food challenge - birch pollen allergen - malus-domestica - double-blind - expression - protein - cloning - bet-v-1 - fruit
Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross- allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may allow many apple allergics to eat them without an allergic reaction. We are currently collaborating to develop a hypo-allergenic apple within the European Integrated Research Project, ISAFRUIT ( Hypo-allergenic apple plants (Malus × domestica Borkh., ‘Elstar’) with decreased levels of Mal d 1 mRNA were produced by RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Ten genetically modified (GM) apple lines were selected. In vitro plantlets were first transferred to a greenhouse, then grafted onto wild-type M.9 rootstock to promote the development of fruit-producing trees. Levels of Mal d 1 gene silencing were measured repeatedly by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to leaf samples from wild-type ‘Elstar’, two GM lines showed modest levels of gene silencing (up to 250-fold), whereas the other eight GM lines were significantly silenced (up to10,000-fold) in Mal d 1 gene expression. These levels of silencing were unaffected by grafting, and have been stable over more than 3 years, and throughout all developmental stages.
Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Phthalates
Lyche, J.L. ; Gutleb, A.C. ; Bergman, A. ; Eriksen, G.S. ; Murk, A.J. ; Ropstad, E. ; Saunders, M. ; Skaare, J.U. - \ 2009
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B. Critical Reviews 12 (2009)4. - ISSN 1093-7404 - p. 225 - 249.
in-utero exposure - plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate - n-butyl phthalate - duplicate diet samples - sprague-dawley rats - intensive-care-unit - polyvinylchloride-infusion lines - tandem mass-spectrometry - fetal leydig-cells - di(n-butyl) phthalate
The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthalates are highest in children and decrease with age. At present, DEHP exposures in the general population appear to be close to the tolerable daily intake (TDI), suggesting that at least some individuals exceed the TDI. In addition, specific high-risk groups exist with internal levels that are several orders of magnitude above average. Urinary metabolites used as biomarkers for the internal levels provide additional means to determine more specifically phthalate exposure levels in both general and high-risk populations. However, exposure data are not consistent and there are indications that secondary metabolites may be more accurate indicators of the internal exposure compared to primary metabolites. The present human toxicity data are not sufficient for evaluating the occurrence of reproductive effects following phthalate exposure in humans, based on existing relevant animal data. This is especially the case for data on female reproductive toxicity, which are scarce. Therefore, future research needs to focus on developmental and reproductive endpoints in humans. It should be noted that phthalates occur in mixtures but most toxicological information is based on single compounds. Thus, it is concluded that it is important to improve the knowledge of toxic interactions among the different chemicals and to develop measures for combined exposure to various groups of phthalates
Club du Sahel/CILSS livestock strategy : country report for Republic of Niger : economic analysis = Club du Sahel/CILSS stratégie de l'élevage : rapport par pays pour la République du Niger : analyse économique
Eriksen, J.H. - \ 1985
Wageningen : CABO - 31
economische analyse - sectorale analyse - dierhouderij - niger - beperkingen - economic analysis - sectoral analysis - animal husbandry - constraints
Club du Sahel/CILSS livestock strategy : country report for Burkina Faso : economic analysis = Club du Sahel/CILSS stratégie de l'élevage : rapport Agraire de la République du Burkina Faso : analyse économique
Eriksen, J.H. - \ 1985
Wageningen : CABO - 28
economische analyse - sectorale analyse - dierhouderij - burkina faso - beperkingen - economic analysis - sectoral analysis - animal husbandry - constraints
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