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Hydrophobic eutectic mixtures as volatile fatty acid extractants
Bruinhorst, Adriaan van den; Raes, Sanne ; Maesara, Sausan Atika ; Kroon, Maaike C. ; Esteves, A.C.C. ; Meuldijk, Jan - \ 2019
Separation and Purification Technology 216 (2019). - ISSN 1383-5866 - p. 147 - 157.
Deep eutectic solvents - Designer solvents - Eutectic mixtures - Liquid–liquid extraction - Volatile fatty acid recovery
Organic waste streams can be converted into volatile fatty acids (VFAs) via fermentation. VFAs can be used as intermediates in the synthesis of added-value chemicals. In this work, hydrophobic eutectic mixtures were designed for the liquid-liquid extraction of VFAs from dilute aqueous solutions. The eutectic behaviour was screened for over 100 combinations of 16 hydrophobic components that were selected based on a set of predetermined criteria. Mixtures of dihexylthiourea and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) showed the best extraction performance and were stable over a wide pH range. The extraction efficiency increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the VFAs, and only undissociated acids were extracted. Upon increasing the TOPO content of the eutectic mixture, the extraction performance could be improved, confirming the tuneable nature of eutectic solvents. However, the extraction performance was less than that for solutions of TOPO in hydrophobic solvents, even though mole fractions of TOPO were higher in the eutectic mixtures. It was hypothesized that the intermolecular VFA–TOPO interactions required for extraction are suppressed by the inter-component interactions in the eutectic mixture. The inter-component interactions are responsible for the negative deviation from ideality of the melting temperature depressions that extend the liquid window of the mixtures towards the extraction temperature. Hence, the design of novel hydrophobic extractants based on eutectic mixtures was demonstrated. Their performance might be improved by selecting counterparts that interfere less with the interactions required for VFA extraction.
Serological Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Sheep of Portugal 2014
Esteves, Fernando ; Mesquita, João R. ; Vala, Helena ; Abreu-Silva, Joana ; Poel, W.H.M. Van Der; Nascimento, Maria S.J. - \ 2016
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 16 (2016)1. - ISSN 1530-3667 - p. 63 - 65.
Arbovirus - ELISA. - Schmallenberg virus - Seroprevalence - Sheep
Between November and December of 2014, a serosurvey was set up to evaluate the presence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibodies in sheep of Portugal. Sera (n = 1068) were tested using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ID Screen® Schmallenberg virus indirect, IDvet Innovative Diagnostics Montpellier, France). The estimated occurrence of immunogobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SBV in sheep of Portugal was 12.8% (95% confidence interval 11.0-15.0%). This is the first study reporting the presence of SBV antibodies in sheep of Portugal.
Variants of the recently discovered avian gyrovirus 2 are detected in Southern Brazil and The Netherlands
Santos, H.F. dos; Knak, M.B. ; Castro, F.L. de; Slongo, J. ; Ritterbusch, G.A. ; Klein, T.A.P. ; Esteves, P.A. ; Silva, A. Da; Trevisol, I.M. ; Claassen, E.A.W. ; Cornelissen, A.H.M. ; Lovato, M. ; Franco, A.C. ; Roehe, P.M. ; Rijsewijk, F.A.M. - \ 2012
Veterinary Microbiology 155 (2012)2-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 230 - 236.
chicken anemia virus - sequence alignment - disease virus - feathers - dna
A genome of a virus preliminarily named avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2), a close relative to chicken anemia virus, was recently discovered in a chicken in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. To study the occurrence of AGV2 in Rio Grande do Sul and the neighboring state Santa Catarina, a number of adult chickens (n = 108 and n = 48, respectively) were tested for the presence of AGV2 DNA. An AGV2-specific PCR was developed, optimized and used to analyze DNA extracted from clinical samples. AGV2 DNA was detected in 98/108 (90.7%) of samples collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and 29/48 (60.4%) of the samples collected in the state of Santa Catarina. In order to check whether AGV2 DNA would be detected in samples from a geographically distant region, DNA from brain samples of 21 diseased chickens from the Netherlands were tested independently, by the same method. In such specimens, 9/21 (42.9%) brain tissue samples were found to contain AVG2 DNA. Sequence analysis of some of the PCR products demonstrated that the amplified AGV2 sequences could vary up to 15.8% and could preliminarily be divided in three groups. This indicated the occurrence of variants of AGV2, which may reflect differences in geographical origin and/or in biological properties. The data presented here provides evidence that AGV2 seems fairly distributed in chickens in Southern Brazil and that AGV2 also circulates in the Netherlands. Besides, circulating viruses display genetic variants whose significance should be further examined, particularly to determine whether AGV2 would play any role in chicken diseases.
Vaccination with a gE-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 vaccine confers insufficient protection to a bovine herpesvirus type 5 challenge
Silva, A.D. ; Spilki, F.R. ; Franco, A.C. ; Esteves, P.A. ; Hubner, S.O. ; Driemeier, D. ; Oliveira, A.P. ; Rijsewijk, F.A.M. ; Roehe, P.M. - \ 2006
Vaccine 24 (2006)16. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 3313 - 3320.
to-cell spread - glycoprotein-e - restriction-endonuclease - experimental-infection - neurological disease - nervous-system - 1.2a bhv-1.2a - in-vitro - virus - calves
In the present study, cross-protection to bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) induced by bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) vaccination was examined following inoculation of rabbits and calves with a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative BHV-1 vaccine and subsequent challenge with BHV-5. Rabbits (n = 5) and calves (n = 8) were vaccinated [five rabbits intranasally (IN), four calves IN and four intramuscularly (IM)] with 7.1 log10median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of the BHV-1 vaccine. Rabbits and calves were challenged IN [rabbits 2 weeks post-vaccination (pv); calves 5 weeks pv] with 9.1 log10 TCID50 of BHV-5. Two out of five vaccinated rabbits died after challenge with typical BHV-5 disease, as did 3/5 non-vaccinated controls. In calves, 4/8 vaccinated animals displayed mild signs of disease, whereas 6/6 non-vaccinated controls developed signs of disease, so severe that 2/6 had to be killed. Besides, nasal virus shedding post-challenge was not reduced by vaccination. At necropsy, on day 21 post-challenge, typical BHV-5 lesions were evident in brain tissues of both vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves. Dexametasone administration at 180 days post-infection did not reactivate clinical signs despite BHV-5 shedding in nasal secretions of both vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves. These results show that the BHV-1 vaccine evaluated here did not confer protection to BHV-5 in rabbits. In calves, BHV-1 vaccination did confer some protection to BHV-5 induced clinical disease, but it did not prevent infection and had no effect on nasal virus shedding or on the development of encephalitic lesions.
Antigenic and molecular characterization of eight samples of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003
Silva, A.D. Da; Sortica, V.A. ; Braga, A.C. ; Spilki, F.R. ; Franco, A.C. ; Esteves, P.A. ; Rijsewijk, F.A.M. ; Rosa, J.C.A. ; Batista, H. ; Oliveira, A.P. ; Roehe, P.M. - \ 2005
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25 (2005)1. - ISSN 0100-736X - p. 21 - 24.
Pseudorabies or Aujeszky's disease (AD), caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a major concern in swine production. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, AD was only detected in 1954, in cattle. In 2003 two outbreaks of encephalitis occurred on the northern region of the state, close to the border with the state of Santa Catarina. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) was isolated from distinct farms within the region and subjected to antigenic and genomic analyses. These isolates were compared with prototype strains NIA-3 and NP. Antigenic characterization with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed to viral glycoproteins (gB, gC, gD and gE-,) was performed by an imunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) on infected cell monolayers. Genomic characterization was carried out by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) of the whole DNA viral genome with Bam HI. The antigenic profile of the eight isolates from Rio Grande do Sul as well as strains NIA-3 and NP were similar. REA analysis revealed that all isolates from Rio Grande do Sul displayed a genomic type II arrangement, a genotype often found in other outbreaks of AD previously reported in other Brazilian states. The results obtained suggest that the eight isolates examined here were similar.
A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA allows discrimination between responses induced by bovine herpesvirus subtypes 1 (BoHV-1.1) and 2 (BoHV-1.2)
Spilki, F.R. ; Esteves, P.A. ; Silva, A.D. Da; Franco, A.C. ; Roehe, P.M. ; Rijsewijk, F.A.M. - \ 2005
Journal of Virological Methods 129 (2005)2. - ISSN 0166-0934 - p. 191 - 193.
restriction-endonuclease - type-1 - bhv-1 - infections
Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) has distinct subtypes according to genomic characterization. Immune responses induced by BoHV-1 subtype 1 (BoHV-1.1) are not distinguishable from those induced by BoHV-1 subtype 2 (BoHV-1.2) through conventional serological methods. In the present report, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is described that allows discrimination between immune responses in cattle immunized with either subtype, based on a monoclonal antibody that recognizes specifically the amino-terminal region of glycoprotein C (gC) on BoHV-1.1 strains, thus not reacting with BoHV-1.2a. The test displayed a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 90% and a good correlation with serum neutralization tests on samples from BoHV-1.1-immunized calves (¿ = 0.799). The test may be useful to provide new insights into the roles played by each of these two subtypes in the epidemiology of BoHV-1 infections
|Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, trace gases and aerosols in Amazonia: the LBA EUSTACH experiments
Andreae, M.O. ; Artaxo, P. ; Brandao, C. ; Carswell, F.E. ; Ciccioli, P. ; Costa, A.L. da; Culf, A.D. ; Esteves, J.L. ; Gash, J.H.C. ; Grace, J. ; Kabat, P. ; Lelieveld, J. ; Malhi, Y. ; Manzi, A.O. ; Meixner, F.X. ; Nobre, A.D. ; Nobre, C. ; Ruivo, M.L.P. ; Silva-Dias, M.A. ; Stefani, P. ; Valentini, R. ; Jouanne, J. von; Waterloo, M.J. - \ 2003
In: The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate. / Kabat, P., Andreae, M.O., Silva-Dias, M.A., Veraart, J.A., Brink, N.J., Bilthoven : RIVM (Dutch nat. Res. Programme global Air Pollut.Climate Change Rep. 410200125) - p. 2 - 44.
A Brazilian glycoprotein E-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BHV-1.2a) mutant is attenuated for cattle and induces protection against wild-type virus challenge
Franco, A.C. ; Spilki, F.R. ; Esteves, P.A. ; Lima, M. de; Weiblen, R. ; Flores, E.F. ; Rijsewijk, F.A.M. ; Roehe, P.M. - \ 2002
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 22 (2002)4. - ISSN 0100-736X - p. 135 - 140.
to-cell spread - deletion mutant - ge - gi - junctions - vaccine - calves - gg
The authors previously reported the construction of a glycoprotein E-deleted (gE-) mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BHV-1.2a). This mutant, 265gE-, was designed as a vaccinal strain for differential vaccines, allowing the distinction between vaccinated and naturally infected cattle. In order to determine the safety and efficacy of this candidate vaccine virus, a group of calves was inoculated with 265gE-. The virus was detected in secretions of inoculated calves to lower titres and for a shorter period than the parental virus inoculated in control calves. Twenty one days after inoculation, the calves were challenged with the wild type parental virus. Only mild signs of infection were detected on vaccinated calves, whereas non-vaccinated controls displayed intense rhinotracheitis and shed virus for longer and to higher titres than vaccinated calves. Six months after vaccination, both vaccinated and control groups were subjected to reactivation of potentially latent virus. The mutant 265gE- could not be reactivated from vaccinated calves. The clinical signs observed, following the reactivation of the parental virus, were again much milder on vaccinated than on non-vaccinated calves. Moreover, parental virus shedding was considerably reduced on vaccinated calves at reactivation. In view of its attenuation, immunogenicity and protective effect upon challenge and reactivation with a virulent BHV-1, the mutant 265gE- was shown to be suitable for use as a BHV-1 differential vaccine virus
Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, trace gases and aerosols in Amazonia: the LBA EUSTACH experiments
Andreae, M.O. ; Artaxo, P. ; Brandão, C. ; Carswell, F.E. ; Ciccioli, P. ; Costa, A.L. da; Culf, A.D. ; Esteves, J.L. ; Gash, J.H.C. ; Grace, J. ; Kabat, P. ; Lelieveld, J. ; Malhi, Y. ; Manzi, A.O. ; Meixner, F.X. ; Nobre, A.D. ; Nobre, C. ; Lourdes Ruivo, M. de; Silva-Dias, M.A. ; Stefani, P. ; Valentini, R. ; Jouanne, J. von; Waterloo, M.J. - \ 2002
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 107 (2002)D20. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 8066 - 8066.
rain-forest - wet season - tropical forest - nitric-oxide - dry season - ozone measurements - brazilian amazon - emissions - basin - dioxide
The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin was investigated in the project European Studies on Trace Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry as a Contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). We present an overview of the design of the project, the measurement sites and methods, and the meteorological conditions during the experiment. The main results from LBA-EUSTACH are: Eddy correlation studies in three regions of the Amazon Basin consistently show a large net carbon sink in the undisturbed rain forest. Nitrogen emitted by forest soils is subject to chemical cycling within the canopy space, which results in re-uptake of a large fraction of soil-derived NOx by the vegetation. The forest vegetation is both a sink and a source of volatile organic compounds, with net deposition being particularly important for partially oxidized organics. Concentrations of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are highly seasonal, with a pronounced maximum in the dry (burning) season. High CCN concentrations from biomass burning have a pronounced impact on cloud microphysics, rainfall production mechanisms, and probably on large-scale climate dynamics.