Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The relevance of spatial scales in nutrient balances on dairy farms
Leeuwen, M.W.J. van; Middelaar, C.E. van; Oenema, J. ; Dam, J.C. van; Stoorvogel, J.J. ; Stoof, C.R. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2019
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 269 (2019). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 125 - 139.
Policy makers and farmers use tools, such as a nutrient balance, to gain insight into the environmental impact of agricultural practices. A discrepancy, however, exists between the needs of policy makers and farmers, about the use and the spatial scale of such tools. Farm balances calculate nutrient balances across all agricultural fields within a farm without distinguishing separate fields, whereas field balances calculate a nutrient balance on a delineated field. For farmers, a nutrient balance at field level is more useful than at crop or farm level, because decision making and fine-tuning management occurs at the field level. A field balance, however, requires more detailed data than a farm balance and therefore is less easy to implement. As soil types influence nutrient balances, we hypothesize that if within-farm variation in soil types is low, there is no need to replace a farm balance by a field balance. To test this hypothesis, we computed nutrient balances at farm and field level on five Dutch dairy farms (three on sand, two on clay), varying in degree of within-farm variation in soil series. A full year of soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) input and output data on farm and field level were provided by farmers, while soil variation was determined using the Dutch 1:50.000 soil map. The Annual farm Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) was used to calculate soil N and P surpluses, and soil nutrient fluxes such as nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emission at farm and field level. Even on farms with few soil series, a considerable variation in N and P inputs, outputs and balances across fields was found, due to management differences and soil properties not represented by the soil map. Furthermore, field-level balances better represented nitrogen leaching than farm-level balances on farms with diverse soils (reflected by different leaching factors) and negative nitrogen field balances (deficits). Also, using field balances, for one case study farm the highest soil N surplus (kg ha−1) was found on grass fields with the highest risk of N leaching. A field balance, therefore, provides more meaningful information than a farm balance when variation in soil types and/or management factors is found within the farm, because soil types and management factors affect N and P balances, N leaching and N emissions. For farms with the highest variation in soil types and/or management, we recommend using field-level nutrient balances in order to detect extreme surpluses, deficits, leaching and/or emissions, to improve management decisions.

Spatial variation of carbon and nutrients stocks in Amazonian Dark Earth
Brazao Vieira Alho, C.F. ; Samuel Rosa, A. ; Coimbra Martins, Gilvan ; Hiemstra, T. ; Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Teixeira, Wenceslau G. - \ 2019
Geoderma 337 (2019). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 322 - 332.
Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are anthropic soils that are enriched in carbon (C) and several nutrients, particularly calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), when compared to adjacent soils from the Amazon basin. Studies on ADE empower the understanding of complex pre-Columbian cultural development in the Amazon and may also provide insights for future sustainable agricultural practices in the tropics. ADE are highly variable in size, depth and soil physico-chemical characteristics. Nonetheless, the differentiation between ADE and the adjacent soils is not standardized and is commonly done based on visual field observations. In this regard, the pretic horizon has been recently proposed as an attempt to classify ADE systematically. Spatial modelling techniques can be of great use to study the structure of the spatial variation of soil properties in highly variable areas. Here, we predicted the carbon and nutrients stocks in ADE by applying spatial modelling techniques using an environmental covariate (i.e. expected anthropic enrichment gradient) in our model. In addition, we used the pretic horizon criteria to classify pretic and non-pretic areas and evaluate their relative contribution to the total stocks. In this study, we collected soil samples from five 20-cm soil layers at n = 53 georeferenced points placed in a grid of about 10 to 60 m spacing in a study area located in Central Amazon (~9.4 ha). Ceramic fragments were weighed and quantified. Samples were analysed for: Total C, Total Ca, Total P, Exchangeable Ca + Mg, Extractable P, soil pH, potential CEC (pH = 7.0) and the clay content. The use of the pretic horizon criteria allowed us to clearly distinguish two unambiguous areas with a sharp transition, rather than a smooth continuum, in contrast to previous studies in ADE. Depth- and profile-wise linear regression model parameters indicated a greater importance of the chosen environmental covariate (i.e. expected anthropic enrichment gradient) to explain the spatial variation of Total Ca and Total P stocks than Total C stocks. The overall Total Ca and Total P stocks were twice as large in the pretic area when compared to the non-pretic area.
Exploring optimal catch crops for reducing nitrate leaching in vegetable greenhouse in North China
Zhang, Hongyuan ; Hu, Kelin ; Zhang, Lijuan ; Ji, Yanzhi ; Qin, Wei - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 212 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 273 - 282.
Catch crop - Greenhouse vegetable field - N uptake - Nitrate leaching - Soil-crop system model

Chinese intensive greenhouse vegetable systems are characterized by high input of water and nutrients, which are not sustainable. There is an urgent need to explore smart and practical strategies to convert the “high input-low output” systems to “optimal input-output” ones. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different catch crops on reducing nitrate leaching in the vegetable greenhouse during the summer fallow season. A two-year field experiment with three catch crops, i.e., sweet corn (SC), amaranth (A) and sweet sorghum (SG), and no catch crop (CK) were conducted in vegetable greenhouse in Dingzhou city, Hebei province, China. The measured soil water content and inorganic nitrogen (N) content in soil profile, biomass and crop N uptake were used to validate the WHCNS (Soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) model, soil water movement and nitrate leaching were simulated. The results showed that the catch crops decreased the water drainage by 18.2–29.0% and nitrate leaching by 23.3–42.3% respectively, compared with CK. The water drainage reduction ranked as SC > SG > A, while the nitrate leaching reduction was A > SC > SG. The biomass was SC > SG > A, while the crop N uptake was SC > A > SG. Sweet corn could absorb the residual nitrate in the deep soil layers due to the long root system, while amaranth could absorb most residual nitrate in the surface soil. Amaranth showed greater N-uptake capacity than sweet corn, and the nitrate was mainly accumulated in the surface soil. Planting amaranth as summer catch crop reduced nitrate leaching in the vegetable greenhouses. Our study provides a guideline for selecting effective catch crops in intensive vegetable greenhouses in North China.

Research idea to science for impact : Tracing the significant moments in an innovation based irrigation study
Srinivasan, M.S. ; Jongmans, C. ; Bewsell, D. ; Elley, G. - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 212 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 181 - 192.
Co-innovation - Co-learning - Irrigation - Stakeholder management - Weather forecast

Uptake of irrigation scheduling tools by New Zealand (NZ) farmers has remained static for many years and some researchers consider the use of linear, tech-transfer approaches as the main reason for this. To understand the controls and drivers that influence the uptake of these tools and to evaluate the effectiveness of a co-innovation approach in improving their (tools) uptake, a team of biophysical (hydrologists) and social researchers undertook a pilot study in an irrigation scheme in the South Island of NZ. Co-innovation offers a multi-directional, multi-level, multi-actor approach, in which input from stakeholders is valued in every part of the process, from problem definition to solution adoption. In this study, we focused on the adaptive aspect of co-innovation that allows stakeholders to periodically review their actions and respond to it in a way that is inclusive others’ views and reflective of feedback received. The pilot study activities were analysed retrospectively to develop a systemic view to the implementation of a co-innovation-based multi-stakeholder hydrology project. While implementing a co-innovation approach, five chronologically-distinct yet overlapping phases emerged in the project: 1. concept development, where the hydrologists came up with the research idea and seed concept; 2. trust building, where researchers (hydrologists and social) interacted with key on-farm stakeholders in developing and implementing the research idea into a pilot field study; 3. knowledge synthesis, where researchers collected on-farm biophysical and behavioural data to record practice change; 4. extended outreach, where stakeholders, including researchers, devised pathways to sustain the lessons learned and practices changed, and disseminated the learnings to the wider irrigation community; and 5. project legacy, where the researchers, after the development of the seed concept into a practice change, evolved an exit strategy. Apart from core research activities, such as data collection on irrigation water use and changes in irrigation scheduling practices, each one of the five phases included actions that were unique to that phase as well as to achieving the wider pilot study goal of improving water use efficiency. This paper discusses the learnings from these phases, including insights, and key identifiers and indicators of pilot study progression during each phase, which may serve as an example to other biophysical studies that propose to employ co-innovation-based multi stakeholder approach.

Predicting soil microplastic concentration using vis-NIR spectroscopy
Corradini, Fabio ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza ; Gertsen, Hennie ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 650 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 922 - 932.
Microplastics - Near-infrared spectroscopy - Soil pollution - Spectroradiometer - Vis-NIR

Microplastic accumulation in soil may have a detrimental impact on soil biota. The lack of standardized methods to identify and quantify microplastics in soils is an obstacle to research. Existing techniques are time-consuming and field data are seldom collected. To tackle the problem, we explored the possibilities of using a portable spectroradiometer working in the near infrared range (350–2500 nm) to rapidly assess microplastic concentrations in soils without extraction. Four sets of artificially polluted soil samples were prepared. Three sets had only one polymer polluting the soil (low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), or polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). The fourth set contained random amounts of the three polymers (Mix). The concentrations of microplastics were regressed on the reflectance observed for each of the 2150 wavelengths registered by the instrument, using a Bayesian approach. For a measurement range between 1 and 100 g kg−1, results showed a root-mean-squared-deviation (RMSD) of 8, 18, and 10 g kg−1 for LDPE, PET, and PVC. The Mix treatment presented an RMSD of 8, 10, and 5 g kg−1 for LDPE, PET, and PVC. The repeatability of the proposed method was 0.2–8.4, 0.1–5.1, and 0.1–9.0 g kg−1 for LDPE, PET, and PVC, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that vis-NIR techniques are suitable to identify and quantify LDPE, PET, and PVC microplastics in soil samples, with a 10 g kg−1 accuracy and a detection limit ≈ 15 g kg−1. The method proposed is different than other approaches since it is faster because it avoids extraction steps and can directly quantify the amount of plastic in a sample. Nevertheless, it seems to be useful only for pollution hotspots.

Plastic film cover during the fallow season preceding sowing increases yield and water use efficiency of rain-fed spring maize in a semi-arid climate
Zhang, Zhe ; Zhang, Yanqing ; Sun, Zhanxiang ; Zheng, Jiaming ; Liu, Enke ; Feng, Liangshan ; Feng, Chen ; Si, Pengfei ; Bai, Wei ; Cai, Qian ; Yang, Ning ; Werf, Wopke van der; Zhang, Lizhen - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 212 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 203 - 210.
Film cover - Soil temperature - Water availability - Yield components

Plastic film mulch increases crop yields in rain-fed agriculture in cool semi-arid climates by warming the soil and reducing evaporative water losses. The semi-arid Khorchin area in Northeast China is an important production area for rain-fed maize. Drought stress occurs frequently, even if plastic film mulch is applied at sowing. We hypothesized that the yield and water capture of maize could be increased by reducing evaporative loss of water by use of plastic film cover during the autumn and winter preceding sowing. In this study, we compared maize growth, water uptake and yield in three film cover treatments: (1) film cover from the autumn before maize sowing until maize harvest (autumn mulching: AM), (2) film cover from maize sowing till harvest (conventional practice) (spring mulching: SM), (3) no film cover (no mulch: NM). Field experiments were conducted in Fuxin city, Khorchin region, Liaoning province, China in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Autumn mulching increased grain yield on average by 18% when compared to spring mulching and by 36% when compared to no mulching. The 1000-kernel weight in AM was 7% higher than in SM, and 12% higher than in NM. Soil water content in the root zone before sowing was 35 mm greater in AM than in SM and NM. Water uptake during the growing season was 34 mm greater in AM than in SM and NM. Water use efficiency for grain yield (yield per unit water uptake) in AM was on average 2.5% higher than in conventional mulching (SM) and 27% higher than in NM. Autumn mulching advanced development, with an advance of 5 days in tasseling time as compared to SM and 10 days when compared to NM. These results show that film cover during the fallow period before maize sowing can increase crop yield and water use efficiency, and reduce climate risks in rain-fed agriculture under semi-arid conditions.

Irrigation reduces the negative effect of global warming on winter wheat yield and greenhouse gas intensity
Li, Jiazhen ; Dong, Wenxu ; Oenema, Oene ; Chen, Tuo ; Hu, Chunsheng ; Yuan, Haijing ; Zhao, Liying - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 646 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 290 - 299.
Global warming potential - Greenhouse gas intensity - Greenhouse gases - Irrigation - Warming - Wheat yield

Global warming may exacerbate drought, decrease crop yield and affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in semi-arid regions. However, the interactive effects of increases in temperature and water availability on winter wheat yield and GHG emissions in semi-arid climates are not well-understood. Here, we report on a two-year field experiment that examined the effects of a mean soil temperature increase of ~2 °C (at 5 cm depth) with and without additional irrigation on wheat yield and GHG emissions. Infrared heaters were placed above the crop canopy at a height of 1.8 m to simulate warming. Fluxes of CH4, CO2 and N2O were measured using closed static chamber technique once per week during the wheat growing seasons. Warming decreased wheat yield by 28% in the relatively dry year of 2015, while supplemental irrigation nullified the warming effect completely. Warming did not alter the wheat yield significantly in the relatively wet year of 2016, but supplemental irrigation with no warming decreased the wheat yield by 25%. Warming increased CO2 emissions by 28% and CH4 uptake by 24% and tended to decrease N2O emissions. Supplemental irrigation increased N2O emissions but had little effect on CO2 emissions and CH4 uptake. Evidently, warming and supplemental irrigation had interactive effects on wheat yield, GHG emissions and GHG emissions intensity. Precision irrigation appears to be a means of simultaneously increasing wheat yield and reducing GHG emissions under warming conditions in semi-arid areas.

Biological control of potato soft rot caused by Dickeya solani and the survival of bacterial antagonists under cold storage conditions
Hadizadeh, I. ; Peivastegan, B. ; Hannukkala, A. ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Nissinen, R. ; Pirhonen, M. - \ 2018
Plant Pathology (2018). - ISSN 0032-0862
Dickeya and Pectobacterium are responsible for causing blackleg of plants and soft rot of tubers in storage and in the field, giving rise to losses in seed potato production. In an attempt to improve potato health, biocontrol activity of known and putative antagonists was screened using in vitro and in planta assays, followed by analysis of their persistence at various storage temperatures. Most antagonists had low survival on potato tuber surfaces at 4 °C. The population dynamics of the best low‐temperature tolerant strain and also the most efficient antagonist, Serratia plymuthica A30, along with Dickeya solani as target pathogen, was studied with TaqMan real‐time PCR throughout the storage period. Tubers of three potato cultivars were treated in the autumn with the antagonist and then inoculated with D. solani. Although the cell densities of both strains decreased during the storage period in inoculated tubers, the pathogen population was always lower in the presence of the antagonist. The treated tubers were planted in the field the following growing season to evaluate the efficiency of the bacterial antagonist for controlling disease incidence. The potato endophyte S. plymuthica A30 protected potato plants by reducing blackleg development on average by 58.5% and transmission to tuber progeny as latent infection by 47–75%. These results suggest that treatment of potato tubers with biocontrol agents after harvest can reduce the severity of soft rot disease during storage and affect the transmission of soft rot bacteria from mother tubers to progeny tubers during field cultivation.
Microbial water quality: Monitoring and modeling
Pachepsky, Y.A. ; Allende, A. ; Boithias, L. ; Cho, K. ; Jamieson, R. ; Hofstra, N. ; Molina, M. - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Quality 47 (2018)5. - ISSN 0047-2425 - p. 931 - 938.

Microbial water quality lies in the nexus of human, animal, and environmental health. Multidisciplinary efforts are under way to understand how microbial water quality can be monitored, predicted, and managed. This special collection of papers in the Journal of Environmental Quality was inspired by the idea of creating a special section containing the panoramic view of advances and challenges in the arena of microbial water quality research. It addresses various facets of health-related microorganism release, transport, and survival in the environment. The papers analyze the spatiotemporal variability of microbial water quality, selection of predictors of the spatiotemporal variations, the role of bottom sediments and biofilms, correlations between concentrations of indicator and pathogenic organisms and the role for risk assessment techniques, use of molecular markers, subsurface microbial transport as related to microbial water quality, antibiotic resistance, real-time monitoring and nowcasting, watershed scale modeling, and monitoring design. Both authors and editors represent international experience in the field. The findings underscore the challenges of observing and understanding microbial water quality; they also suggest promising research directions for improving the knowledge base needed to protect and improve our water sources. Copyright c

How including ecological realism impacts the assessment of the environmental effect of oil spills at the population level: The application of matrix models for Arctic Calanus species
Vries, Pepijn de; Tamis, Jacqueline ; Hjorth, Morten ; Jak, Robbert ; Falk-Petersen, Stig ; Heuvel-Greve, Martine van den; Klok, Chris ; Hemerik, Lia - \ 2018
Marine Environmental Research 141 (2018). - ISSN 0141-1136 - p. 264 - 274.
matrix models - Arctic - calanus - lc50 - noec - Population dynamics - Oil spill
For oil spill responses, assessment of the potential environmental exposure and impacts of a spill is crucial. Due to a lack of chronic toxicity data, acute data is used together with precautionary assumptions. The effect on the Arctic keystone (copepod) species Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus glacialis populations is compared using two approaches: a precautionary approach where all exposed individuals die above a defined threshold concentration and a refined (full-dose-response) approach. For this purpose a matrix population model parameterised with data from the literature is used. Population effects of continuous exposures with varying durations were modelled on a range of concentrations. Just above the chronic No Observed Effect Concentration (which is field relevant) the estimated population recovery duration of the precautionary approach was more than 300 times that of the refined approach. With increasing exposure concentration and duration, the effect in the refined approach converges to the maximum effect assumed in the precautionary approach.
Designing plant varieties with information technology
Visser, R.G.F. ; Finkers, H.J. - \ 2018
Prophyta - Focus on Europe (2018). - p. 28 - 30.
A field which could potentially lead to a further boost in plant breeding is the information technology. By a clever use of computers, a wide variety of (partially) curated (linked) data, and smart software and bioinformatics techniques, we can start to much better predict, design and select potential future improved varieties.
Testing three approaches to estimate soil evaporation through a dry soil layer in a semi-arid area
Balugani, E. ; Lubczynski, M.W. ; Tol, C. van der; Metselaar, K. - \ 2018
Journal of Hydrology 567 (2018). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 405 - 419.
Arid - Dry soil layer - Semi-arid - Soil evaporation - Water vapour flow

Bare soils and grasslands in arid and semi-arid conditions constitute a large portion of the earth surface. Evaporation, which is the main component of the water balance in these conditions, often takes place through a dry soil layer (DSL). There is no scientific agreement yet on the DSL effects on evaporation rates. The implementations of three conceptual models of DSL-evaporation were tested for the simulation of evaporation rates in a semi-arid study area in Central Spain: (i) the daily-average model, based on the assumption that the daily average vapour transport in a DSL can be represented in analogy to isothermal liquid flow; (ii) the numerical model solving the Richards equation, in this case HYDRUS1D was used; and (iii) the pore-scale model, based on soil column experiments in laboratory conditions. The evaporation rates estimated by the three conceptual models for semi-arid field conditions were compared with the evaporation rates measured by an eddy covariance tower in the same area. The results indicate that the daily-average conceptual model assumption, in which the DSL has no effects on evaporation, does not hold in very dry conditions. The numerical model solving the Richards equation was not able to simulate the effects of the DSL on evaporation rates. The evaporation estimates obtained by the pore-scale conceptual model were closest to the eddy covariance measurements during the dry season, however this model was applicable only to the relatively steady evaporation conditions during afternoons and only assuming spatially constant DSL thickness.

A Summary of Research Activities from the AgMIP Potato Crop Modeling Intercomparison Pilot
Fleisher, D.H. ; Condori, B. ; Quiroz, R. ; Alva, A. ; Asseng, S. ; Barreda, Carolina ; Berghuijs, H.N.C. ; Bindi, M. ; Boote, K.J. ; Craigon, J. ; Fangmeier, A. ; Ferrise, Roberto ; Franke, A.C. ; Gayler, S. ; Govindakrishnan, P.M. ; Harahagazwe, Dieudonne ; Hoogenboom, G. ; Kremer, P. ; Kroes, J. ; Naresh Kumar, S. ; Merante, Paolo ; Nendel, C. ; Olesen, J.E. ; Parker, P.S. ; Pleijel, H. ; Raes, Dirk ; Raymundo, Rubi ; Reidsma, P. ; Ruana, A. ; Silva, J.V. ; Stella, T. ; Stockle, Claudio ; Supit, I. ; Evert, F.K. van; Vandermeiren, K. ; Vanuytrecht, Eline ; Vorne, V. ; Wolf, J. ; Woli, Prem - \ 2018
Activity-1 of the potato crop model intercomparison pilot was recently completed and focused on quantifying multi-model uncertainty to climate responses when using common data sets from low-and high-input management sites. Median model ensemble response outperformed any single model in terms of replicatingobserved yield across all sites. Uncertainty among models averaged 15% higher for low-versus high-input sites, with larger differences observed for evapotranspiration (ET), nitrogen uptake, and water use efficiency as compared to dry matter. A minimum of five partial, or three full, calibrated models was required for an ensemble approach to keep variability below that of common field variation. Model variation was not influenced by carbon dioxide (C), but increased as much as 41 and 23% for yield and ET respectively as temperature (T) or rainfall (W) moved away from historical levels. Increases in T accounted for the highest amount of uncertainty, suggesting that methods and parameters for T sensitivity represent a considerable unknown among models. Activity-2 research is on-going and tests the capability of multiple models to mimic effects of elevated C concentration on potato yields measured at eight different locations in Europe. A subset from observed OTC and FACE data was used to initially calibrate the models. This research will also evaluate the stability of the models’ calibration with respect to changes in geographic location, as the same variety was used in all locations. This presentation will summarize the Activity-1 results and discuss the current status of Activity-2 investigations.
Data from: Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in a long-term non-weeded field experiment
Veen, Ciska G.F. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Bezemer, T.M. - \ 2018
biodiversity-ecosystem functioning
Many grassland biodiversity experiments show a positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, however, in most these experiments plant communities are established by sowing and natural colonization is prevented by selective weeding of non-sown species. During ecosystem restoration, for example on abandoned fields, plant communities start on bare soil, and diversity is often manipulated in a single sowing event. How such initial plant diversity manipulations influence plant biodiversity development and ecosystem functioning is not well understood. We examined how relationships between taxonomic and functional diversity, biomass production and stability develop over 16 years in non-weeded plots sown with 15 species, 4 species, or that were not sown. We found that sown plant communities become functionally similar to unsown, naturally colonized plant communities. However, initial sowing treatments had long-lasting effects on species composition and taxonomic diversity. We found only few relationships between biomass production, or stability in biomass production, and functional or taxonomic diversity, and the ones we observed were negative. In addition, the cover of dominant plant species was positively related to biomass production and stability. We conclude that effects of introducing plant species at the start of secondary succession can persist for a long time, and that in secondary succession communities with natural plant species dynamics diversity-functioning relationships can be weak or negative. Moreover, our findings indicate that in systems where natural colonization of species is allowed effects of plant dominance may underlie diversity-functioning relationships.
Upscaling water and nutrient use efficiencies from field to catchment scale : a case study in the Selke catchment, Germany
Silva, J.V. ; Jomaa, S. ; Chukalla, A.D. ; Yang, X. ; Merbach, I. ; Rode, M. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Reidsma, P. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 20th Nitrogen Workshop. - INRA - p. 60 - 61.
Workshop report : Experimental animal models for universal influenza vaccines
Alessio, Flavia D'; Koopman, Gerrit ; Houard, Sophie ; Remarque, Edmond J. ; Stockhofe, Norbert ; Engelhardt, Othmar G. - \ 2018
Vaccine 36 (2018)46. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 6895 - 6901.
Animal models - Influenza - Workshop - “Universal” vaccine

A major challenge in influenza research is the selection of an appropriate animal model that accurately reflects the disease and the protective immune response observed in humans. A workshop organised by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, brought together experts from the influenza vaccine community with the aim to discuss the current knowledge and future perspectives for testing broadly reactive influenza vaccines in animal models. The programme included a diversity of models from well-established and publicly accepted models to cutting edge, newly developed animal models as well as ex-vivo approaches and human models. The audience concluded that different vaccine approaches may require evaluation in different animal models, depending on the type of immune response induced by the vaccine. Safety is the main concern for transition to clinical development and influenza vaccine associated enhanced disease was specifically emphasised. An efficient animal model to evaluate this aspect of safety still needs to be identified. Working with animal models requires ethical compliance and consideration of the 3R principles. Development of alternative approaches such as ex-vivo techniques is progressing but is still at an early stage and these methods are not yet suitable for broader application for vaccine evaluation. The human challenge is the ultimate model to assess influenza vaccines. However this model is expensive and not largely applicable. The currently used pre-clinical models are not yet specifically focused on studying unique aspects of a universal influenza vaccine. Further collaboration, communication and effective networking are needed for success in establishment of harmonised and standardised pre-clinical models for evaluation of new influenza vaccines. This report does not provide a complete review of the field but discusses the data presented by the speakers and discussion points raised during the meeting.

Nutrimetabolomics: An Integrative Action for Metabolomic Analyses in Human Nutritional Studies
Ulaszewska, Marynka M. ; Weinert, Christoph H. ; Trimigno, Alessia ; Portmann, Reto ; Andres Lacueva, Cristina ; Badertscher, René ; Brennan, Lorraine ; Brunius, Carl ; Bub, Achim ; Capozzi, Francesco ; Cialiè Rosso, Marta ; Cordero, Chiara E. ; Daniel, Hannelore ; Durand, Stéphanie ; Egert, Bjoern ; Ferrario, Paola G. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Franceschi, Pietro ; Garcia-Aloy, Mar ; Giacomoni, Franck ; Giesbertz, Pieter ; González-Domínguez, Raúl ; Hanhineva, Kati ; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y. ; Kopka, Joachim ; Kulling, Sabine E. ; Llorach, Rafael ; Manach, Claudine ; Mattivi, Fulvio ; Migné, Carole ; Münger, Linda H. ; Ott, Beate ; Picone, Gianfranco ; Pimentel, Grégory ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Riccadonna, Samantha ; Rist, Manuela J. ; Rombouts, Caroline ; Rubert, Josep ; Skurk, Thomas ; Sri Harsha, Pedapati S.C. ; Meulebroek, Lieven Van; Vanhaecke, Lynn ; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa ; Wishart, David ; Vergères, Guy - \ 2018
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2018). - ISSN 1613-4125
GC–MS - LC–MS - metabolomics - NMR - nutrition
The life sciences are currently being transformed by an unprecedented wave of developments in molecular analysis, which include important advances in instrumental analysis as well as biocomputing. In light of the central role played by metabolism in nutrition, metabolomics is rapidly being established as a key analytical tool in human nutritional studies. Consequently, an increasing number of nutritionists integrate metabolomics into their study designs. Within this dynamic landscape, the potential of nutritional metabolomics (nutrimetabolomics) to be translated into a science, which can impact on health policies, still needs to be realized. A key element to reach this goal is the ability of the research community to join, to collectively make the best use of the potential offered by nutritional metabolomics. This article, therefore, provides a methodological description of nutritional metabolomics that reflects on the state-of-the-art techniques used in the laboratories of the Food Biomarker Alliance (funded by the European Joint Programming Initiative “A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life” (JPI HDHL)) as well as points of reflections to harmonize this field. It is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to present a pragmatic guidance on metabolomic methodologies, providing readers with useful “tips and tricks” along the analytical workflow.
Assessing the future structure of direct payments and the rural development interventions in the light of the EU Agricultural and environmental challenges : Research for AGRI Committee - The CAP support beyond 2020
Jongeneel, R.A. ; Silvis, H.J. - \ 2018
European Parliament - ISBN 9789284639618 - 50 p.
This study provides an assessment of the structure and type of interventions as proposed by the European Commission on the CAP beyond 2020 (Title III of the proposal(COM2018) 392). All Direct Payment and Rural development inerventions have been examined in the context of the main Agricultural and environmental challenges the EU faces. A set of recommendation is made for the improvement of specific instruments and to address policy priorities and level playing field concerns.
Toxicity-induced modification of treatment : what is in a name?
Kok, Dieuwertje E. ; Winkels, Renate M. ; Herpen, Carla M.L. van; Kampman, Ellen - \ 2018
European Journal of Cancer 104 (2018). - ISSN 0959-8049 - p. 145 - 150.
Body composition - Cancer - Definition - Determinants - Toxicity - Treatment modification

Severe treatment-induced toxicities can have clinical consequences such as hospitalisation or treatment modifications, which in turn may deteriorate the prognosis of patients with cancer. Identification of determinants of treatment-induced toxicities is essential to develop strategies that promote therapy compliance and enhance the quality of life. Whereas toxicities are systematically recorded and graded per protocol in most clinical trials, observational studies often depend on retrospective data collection from medical records collected as standard care. Existing population-based or patient cohorts are a valuable source of information, even when relying on retrospective data collection, but comparisons across studies are hampered by a lack of a uniform definition for toxicity outcomes. We propose a new standardised approach to summarise toxicities in observational studies that rely on medical records for outcome assessment. We recommend the term ‘toxicity-induced modification of treatment’ (TIMT) to cover all toxicities that are responsible for changes in a planned treatment schedule. We define a TIMT as (i) a dose reduction, (ii) temporary interruption, (iii) discontinuation of therapy or (iv) an unanticipated switch to another regimen, as a result of treatment-induced toxicities and not because of progressive disease. This definition will provide clinically relevant information, especially when data on specific adverse events and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grades are not uniformly available. Implementation of this definition empowers comparisons across studies, facilitates communication between clinicians and researchers and will allow new research questions in this active field of research.

Biomass Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Dynamics Analysis Based on Particle Size Imaging
Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios ; Wilbers, Arnold ; Boogers, Ilco A.L.A. ; Appeldoorn, Maaike M. ; Kabel, Mirjam A. ; Loos, Joachim ; Zandvoort, Marc A.M.J. Van - \ 2018
Microscopy and Microanalysis 24 (2018)5. - ISSN 1431-9276 - p. 517 - 525.
biomass - enzymatic hydrolysis - large field of view - particle length distribution

Parameters such as pretreatment method, enzyme type and concentration, determine the conversion efficiency of biomass' cellulose and hemicellulose to glucose and mainly xylose in biomass-based fuel production. Chemical quantification of these processes offers no information on the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) on particle morphology. We report on the development of a microscopy method for imaging pretreated biomass particles at different EH stages. The method was based on acquiring large field of view images, typically 20×10 mm2 containing thousands of particles. Morphology of particles with lengths between 2 μm and 5 mm could be visualized and analyzed. The particle length distribution of corn stover samples, pretreated with increasing amounts of sulfuric acid at different EH stages, was measured. Particle size was shown to be dependent on pretreatment severity and EH time. The methodology developed could offer an alternative method for characterization of EH of biomass for second generation biofuels and visualization of recalcitrant structures.

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