Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Transmission routes of ESBL/pAmpC producing bacteria in the broiler production pyramid, a literature review
Dame-Korevaar, Anita ; Fischer, Egil A.J. ; Goot, Jeanet van der; Stegeman, Arjan ; Mevius, Dik - \ 2019
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 162 (2019). - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 136 - 150.
Antimicrobial resistance - Evidence - Mechanisms - Poultry - Spread

Plasmid mediated Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase and AmpC Beta-Lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producing bacteria are resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobials and are widespread in humans, the environment and animals. Animals, especially broilers, are an important reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC producing bacteria. To control ESBL/pAmpC prevalence in broilers, transmission within the entire broiler production pyramid should be considered. This study, including 103 articles originating from two electronic databases, searched for evidence for possible routes of transmission of ESBL/pAmpC producing bacteria in the broiler production pyramid. Possible routes of transmission were categorised as 1) vertical between generations, 2) at hatcheries, 3) horizontal on farm, and 4) horizontal between farms and via the environment of farms. This review presents indications for transmission of ESBL/pAmpC producing bacteria for each of these routes. However, the lack of quantitative results in the literature did not allow an estimation of the relative contribution or magnitude of the different routes. Future research should be specifically targeted towards such information as it is crucial to guide reduction strategies for the spread of ESBL/pAmpC producing bacteria in the broiler production chain.

Modelling consumer choice through the random regret minimization model : An application in the food domain
Biondi, Beatrice ; Lans, Ivo A. Van der; Mazzocchi, Mario ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Trijp, Hans C.M. Van; Camanzi, Luca - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 73 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 97 - 109.
Choice experiment - Consumer behaviour - Discrete-choice model - Food choice - Individual differences - Regret minimization

In line with findings on post-purchase food-choice regret, one can expect that pre-purchase anticipated regret with respect to forgone (non-chosen) alternatives has an impact on consumer food choices, especially when the choice is considered to be important. The traditional Random Utility Maximization (RUM) models for discrete choices may not fully capture this impact. This study investigates the usefulness and potential in the food domain of a discrete choice model that follows the regret minimization principle, the Random Regret Minimization (RRM) model, as an alternative and complement to existing RUM models. The two models are applied to consumer stated choices of cheese in a choice experiment. The study also investigates whether and to what extent a number of personality traits determine whether particular consumers rather choose according to utility-maximization, or regret-minimization principles. Results show that at the aggregate level the two models have a similar goodness of fit to the data and prediction ability. Still, each of them shows better fit for particular subgroups of consumers, based on personality traits. Hence, the present study reveals a potential for the RRM model applications in the food domain, and adds to the empirical literature supporting previous findings on the RRM model found in other contexts. Further research is needed to explore in which situations and for which consumer segments the RRM model is the most useful model.

Farming and food systems potentials
Dixon, J. ; Boffa, J.M. ; Williams, T.O. ; Leeuw, J. de; Fischer, G. ; Velthuizen, H. van - \ 2019
In: Farming Systems and Food Security in Africa / Dixon, J., Garrity, D., Boffa, J.M., Williams, T.O., Amede, T., Auricht, C., Lott, R., Mburathi, G., Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group (Earthscan food and agriculture ) - ISBN 9781138963351
Plant species richness and functional groups have different effects on soil water content in a decade-long grassland experiment
Fischer, Christine ; Leimer, Sophia ; Roscher, Christiane ; Ravenek, Janneke ; Kroon, Hans de; Kreutziger, Yvonne ; Baade, Jussi ; Beßler, Holger ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Mommer, Liesje ; Lange, Markus ; Gleixner, Gerd ; Wilcke, Wolfgang ; Schröder, Boris ; Hildebrandt, Anke - \ 2019
Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)1. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 127 - 141.
biodiversity - functional groups - Jena Experiment - plant–soil–water relation - soil water content - spatial–temporal variability - species richness

The temporal and spatial dynamics of soil water are closely interlinked with terrestrial ecosystems functioning. The interaction between plant community properties such as species composition and richness and soil water mirrors fundamental ecological processes determining above-ground–below-ground feedbacks. Plant–water relations and water stress have attracted considerable attention in biodiversity experiments. Yet, although soil scientific research suggests an influence of ecosystem productivity on soil hydraulic properties, temporal changes of the soil water content and soil hydraulic properties remain largely understudied in biodiversity experiments. Thus, insights on how plant diversity—productivity relationships affect soil water are lacking. Here, we determine which factors related to plant community composition (species and functional group richness, presence of plant functional groups) and soil (organic carbon concentration) affect soil water in a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment). Both plant species richness and the presence of particular functional groups affected soil water content, while functional group richness played no role. The effect of species richness changed from positive to negative and expanded to deeper soil with time. Shortly after establishment, increased topsoil water content was related to higher leaf area index in species-rich plots, which enhanced shading. In later years, higher species richness increased topsoil organic carbon, likely improving soil aggregation. Improved aggregation, in turn, dried topsoils in species-rich plots due to faster drainage of rainwater. Functional groups affected soil water distribution, likely due to plant traits affecting root water uptake depths, shading, or water-use efficiency. For instance, topsoils in plots containing grasses were generally drier, while plots with legumes were moister. Synthesis. Our decade-long experiment reveals that the maturation of grasslands changes the effects of plant richness from influencing soil water content through shading effects to altering soil physical characteristics in addition to modification of water uptake depth. Functional groups affected the soil water distribution by characteristic shifts of root water uptake depth, but did not enhance exploitation of the overall soil water storage. Our results reconcile previous seemingly contradictory results on the relation between grassland species diversity and soil moisture and highlight the role of vegetation composition for soil processes.

Duckweed as human food. The influence of meal context and information on duckweed acceptability of Dutch consumers
Beukelaar, Myrthe F.A. de; Zeinstra, Gertrude G. ; Mes, Jurriaan J. ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 76 - 86.
Consumer attitude - Duckweed - Fit - Information - Meal - Protein

Duckweed is considered a promising source of protein for human food products due to its high protein content and environmentally friendly production properties. In order to achieve successful inclusion in the diet, duckweed should be presented to consumers in an acceptable way. This paper explores Western consumers’ perceptions towards duckweed as human food and investigates in what contexts duckweed could be acceptable to consumers who are not used to eating it. In a first interview study (N = 10), consumers generally responded positively towards duckweed as human food, although associations with turbid ponds also did come up. According to the respondents, duckweed belonged to the food category vegetables. So, duckweed was considered to fit best in meals where vegetables and greens are expected. In a larger online survey (N = 669), it was confirmed that consumers had a more positive deliberate evaluation of duckweed and were more likely to accept a meal with duckweed if duckweed was applied in a fitting meal. It was also shown that providing information about nutritional and sustainability benefits increased deliberate evaluation and acceptability for fitting meals, but decreased it for non-fitting meals. Automatic evaluations positively influenced deliberate evaluation and acceptability, supporting the ‘yuck’ effect, but they did not differ between the meal applications. The current paper shows that if applied in a meal context that fits with consumer expectations, under the assumption that sensory properties like taste are satisfactory, there appear no major objections from consumers against the introduction of duckweed as human food at a larger scale.

Forestry experts’ perspectives on public perceptions of NNTS in Europe
Arts, K.A.J. ; Fischer, A. ; Mohren, G.M.J. - \ 2018
High electrical conductivity and high porosity in a Guest@MOF material : Evidence of TCNQ ordering within Cu3BTC2 micropores
Schneider, Christian ; Ukaj, Dardan ; Koerver, Raimund ; Talin, A.A. ; Kieslich, Gregor ; Pujari, Sidharam P. ; Zuilhof, Han ; Janek, Jürgen ; Allendorf, Mark D. ; Fischer, Roland A. - \ 2018
Chemical Science 9 (2018)37. - ISSN 2041-6520 - p. 7405 - 7412.

The host-guest system TCNQ@Cu3BTC2 (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) is a striking example of how semiconductivity can be introduced by guest incorporation in an otherwise insulating parent material. Exhibiting both microporosity and semiconducting behavior such materials offer exciting opportunities as next-generation sensor materials. Here, we apply a solvent-free vapor phase loading under rigorous exclusion of moisture, obtaining a series of the general formula xTCNQ@Cu3BTC2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0). By using powder X-ray diffraction, infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy together with scanning electron microscopy and porosimetry, we provide the first structural evidence for a systematic preferential arrangement of TCNQ along the (111) lattice plane and the bridging coordination motif to two neighbouring Cu-paddlewheels, as was predicted by theory. For 1.0TCNQ@Cu3BTC2 we find a specific electrical conductivity of up to 1.5 × 10-4 S cm-1 whilst maintaining a high BET surface area of 573.7 m2 g-1. These values are unmatched by MOFs with equally high electrical conductivity, making the material attractive for applications such as super capacitors and chemiresistors. Our results represent the crucial missing link needed to firmly establish the structure-property relationship revealed in TCNQ@Cu3BTC2, thereby creating a sound basis for using this as a design principle for electrically conducting MOFs.

Modifying the Contact Angle of Anisotropic Cellulose Nanocrystals : Effect on Interfacial Rheology and Structure
Berg, Merel E.H. van den; Kuster, Simon ; Windhab, Erich J. ; Adamcik, Jozef ; Mezzenga, Raffaele ; Geue, Thomas ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. ; Fischer, Peter - \ 2018
Langmuir 34 (2018)37. - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 10932 - 10942.

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are an emerging natural material with the ability to stabilize fluid/fluid interfaces. Native CNC is hydrophilic and does not change the interfacial tension of the stabilized emulsion or foam system. In this study, rodlike cellulose particles were isolated from hemp and chemically modified to alter their hydrophobicity, i.e., their surface activity, which was demonstrated by surface tension measurements of the particles at the air/water interface. The buildup and mechanical strength of the interfacial structure were investigated using interfacial shear and dilatational rheometry. In contrast to most particle or protein-based interfacial adsorption layers, we observe in shear flow a Maxwellian behavior instead of a glasslike frequency response. The slow and reversible buildup of the layer and its unique frequency dependence indicate a weakly aggregated system, which depends on the hydrophobicity and, thus, on the contact angle of the CNC particles at the air/water interface. Exposed to dilatational flow, the weakly aggregated particles cluster and form compact structures. The interfacial structure generated by the different flow fields is characterized by the contact angle, immersion depth, and layer roughness obtained by neutron reflectometry with contrast variation while the size and local structural arrangement of the CNC particles were investigated by AFM imaging.

Biocultural diversity: A novel concept to assess human-nature interrelations, nature conservation and stewardship in cities
Elands, B.H.M. ; Vierikko, K. ; Andersson, E. ; Fischer, L.K. ; Gonçalves, P. ; Haase, D. ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Luz, A.C. ; Niemelä,, J. ; Santos-Reis, M. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2018
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (2018). - ISSN 1618-8667
Biocultural diversity is an evolving perspective for studying the interrelatedness between people and their natural environment, not only in ecoregional hotspots and cultural landscapes, but also in urban green spaces. Developed in the 1990s in order to denote the diversity of life in all its manifestations―biological, cultural and linguistic―co-evolving within complex socio-ecological systems such as cities, biocultural diversity was identified in the GREEN SURGE project as a response to recent challenges cities face. Most important challenges are
the loss of nature and degradation of ecosystems in and around cities as well as an alienation of urban residents from and loss of interaction with nature. The notion of biocultural diversity is dynamic in nature and takes local values and practices of relating to biodiversity of different cultural groups as a starting point for sustainable living with biodiversity. The issue is not only how to preserve or restore biocultural practices and values, but also how to modify, adapt and create biocultural diversity in ways that resonate with urban transformations. As future societies will largely diverge from today’s societies, the cultural perspective on living with (urban) nature needs careful reconsideration. Biocultural diversity is not conceived as a definite concept providing prescriptions of what to see and study, but as a reflexive and sensitising concept that can be used to assess the different values and knowledge of people that reflect how they live with biodiversity. This short communication paper introduces a conceptual framework for studying the multi-dimensional features of biocultural diversity in cities along the three key dimensions of materialized, lived and stewardship, being departure points from which biocultural diversity can be studied.
Nonlinear shear and dilatational rheology of viscoelastic interfacial layers of cellulose nanocrystals
Berg, Merel van den; Kuster, Simon ; Windhab, E.J. ; Sagis, L.M.C. ; Fischer, P. - \ 2018
Physics of Fluids 30 (2018)7. - ISSN 1070-6631 - 11 p.
compressibility - contact angle - Hydrophobicity - nanomechanics - nanoparticles - polymers - Rheology - softening - viscoelasticity - work hardening
We present a nonlinear rheological investigation of model rod-like particles at the air/water interface in dilatation and shear. Cellulose nanocrystals were modified to vary their surface hydrophobicity, creating a range of surface-active particles with varying contact angle. The interfacial rheological properties were studied using a series of frequency sweeps in small amplitude oscillatory shear as well as strain sweeps under large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) and large amplitude oscillatory dilatation (LAOD) to include the nonlinear behavior. A multi-mode Maxwell model was used to fit the frequency sweeps that were obtained during formation of the interfacial layer. A shift toward longer
relaxation times was found, more pronounced for particles with higher hydrophobicity. Lissajous plots in LAOS revealed strain stiffening, yielding, and unconstrained flow of the interfacial layers.
Lissajous plots in LAOD revealed strain hardening in compression and strain softening in expansion, increasing with surface pressure and with particle hydrophobicity. While interfacial layers commonly show gel or solid-like behavior, our findings imply a weakly aggregated system. The rheological
behavior indicates the formation of larger clusters for particles with high hydrophobicity compared to smaller clusters for particles with low hydrophobicity. The particle-particle interactions therefore vary with hydrophobicity, suggesting that capillary interactions are important for the formation of these microstructures.
Consument zit niet te wachten op kweekvlees
Fischer, Arnout - \ 2018
Food choice motives, attitude towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition
Rankin, Audrey ; Bunting, Brendan P. ; Poínhos, Rui ; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Almeida, M.D.V. ; Markovina, Jerko ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J. - \ 2018
Public Health Nutrition 21 (2018)14. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 2606 - 2616.
Attitudes - Food choice motives - Food Choices Questionnaire - Food4Me - Intention - Nutrigenomics - Personalised nutrition - Survey

Objective: The present study explored associations between food choice motives, attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition, to inform communication strategies based on consumer priorities and concerns. Design/Setting: A survey was administered online which included the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and items assessing attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Subjects: Nationally representative samples were recruited in nine EU countries (n 9381). Results: Structural equation modelling indicated that the food choice motives ‘weight control’, ‘mood’, ‘health’ and ‘ethical concern’ had a positive association and ‘price’ had a negative association with attitude towards, and intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. ‘Health’ was positively associated and ‘familiarity’ negatively associated with attitude towards personalised nutrition. The effects of ‘weight control’, ‘ethical concern’, ‘mood’ and ‘price’ on intention to adopt personalised nutrition were partially mediated by attitude. The effects of ‘health’ and ‘familiarity’ were fully mediated by attitude. ‘Sensory appeal’ was negatively and directly associated with intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Conclusions: Personalised nutrition providers may benefit from taking into consideration the importance of underlying determinants of food choice in potential users, particularly weight control, mood and price, when promoting services and in tailoring communications that are motivationally relevant.

Unexpected slowdown of US pollutant emission reduction in the past decade
Jiang, Zhe ; McDonald, Brian C. ; Worden, Helen ; Worden, John R. ; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki ; Qu, Zhen ; Henze, Daven K. ; Jones, Dylan B.A. ; Arellano, Avelino F. ; Fischer, Emily V. ; Zhu, Liye ; Folkert Boersma, K. - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)20. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 5099 - 5104.
Decadal scale variation - Emission regulations - Nitrogen oxides

Ground and satellite observations show that air pollution regulations in the United States (US) have resulted in substantial reductions in emissions and corresponding improvements in air quality over the last several decades. However, large uncertainties remain in evaluating how recent regulations affect different emission sectors and pollutant trends. Here we show a significant slowdown in decreasing US emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) for 2011–2015 using satellite and surface measurements. This observed slowdown in emission reductions is significantly different from the trend expected using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bottom-up inventories and impedes compliance with local and federal agency air-quality goals. We find that the difference between observations and EPA’s NOx emission estimates could be explained by: (i) growing relative contributions of industrial, area, and off-road sources, (ii) decreasing relative contributions of on-road gasoline, and (iii) slower than expected decreases in on-road diesel emissions.

Herhaling is geen verspilling
Fischer, Arnout - \ 2018

Herhaling is geen verspilling

Veel vindingen in de moderne wetenschap worden ontkracht. Goede wetenschap koppelt nieuwe ontdekkingen aan precies uitzoeken hoe goed die ontdekking is. Dat komt vaak neer op twee stappen vooruit, en een stap terug. Herhalingsonderzoek is essentieel om uit te zoekem welke stap teruggezet moet worden.

De valversnelling die Tonie Mudde in Sir Edmund (26 mei) noemt is hier een mooi voorbeeld van. De impetustheorie , het idee dat iets pas gaat vallen als de beginsnelheid is uitgeput, is lang dominant geweest. Dit zien we nog in tekenfllms, bijvoorbeeld als Wile E. Coyote over de rand van een ravijn rent, vertraagt, blijft hangen en dan recht naar naar beneden valt.

Het waren herhalingen van val-experimenten door Galileo en anderen waardoor deze theorie werd verworpen. Gelukkkig werden die herhalingsstudies niet als verspilling van geld, energie en denkkracht gezien.

HEx : A heterologous expression platform for the discovery of fungal natural products
Harvey, Colin J.B. ; Tang, Mancheng ; Schlecht, Ulrich ; Horecka, Joe ; Fischer, Curt R. ; Lin, Hsiao Ching ; Li, Jian ; Naughton, Brian ; Cherry, James ; Miranda, Molly ; Li, Yong Fuga ; Chu, Angela M. ; Hennessy, James R. ; Vandova, Gergana A. ; Inglis, Diane ; Aiyar, Raeka S. ; Steinmetz, Lars M. ; Davis, Ronald W. ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Sattely, Elizabeth ; Khosla, Chaitan ; Onge, Robert P.S. ; Tang, Yi ; Hillenmeyer, Maureen E. - \ 2018
Science Advances 4 (2018)4. - ISSN 2375-2548
For decades, fungi have been a source of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved natural products such as penicillin, cyclosporine, and the statins. Recent breakthroughs in DNA sequencing suggest that millions of fungal species exist on Earth, with each genome encoding pathways capable of generating as many as dozens of natural products. However, the majority of encoded molecules are difficult or impossible to access because the organisms are uncultivable or the genes are transcriptionally silent. To overcome this bottleneck in natural product discovery, we developed the HEx (Heterologous EXpression) synthetic biology platform for rapid, scalable expression of fungal biosynthetic genes and their encoded metabolites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We applied this platform to 41 fungal biosynthetic gene clusters from diverse fungal species from around the world, 22 of which produced detectable compounds. These included novel compounds with unexpected biosynthetic origins, particularly from poorly studied species. This result establishes the HEx platform for rapid discovery of natural products from any fungal species, even those that are uncultivable, and opens the door to discovery of the next generation of natural products.
Application of Behavior Change Techniques in a Personalized Nutrition Electronic Health Intervention Study: Protocol for the Web-Based Food4Me Randomized Controlled Trial
Macready, Anna L. ; Fallaize, Rosalind ; Butler, Laurie T. ; Ellis, Judi A. ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Celis-Morales, Carlos ; Livingstone, Katherine M. ; Araújo-Soares, Vera ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J. ; Mathers, John C. ; Lovegrove, Julie A. - \ 2018
JMIR Research Protocols 7 (2018)4. - ISSN 1929-0748 - p. e87 - e87.
Background: To determine the efficacy of behavior change techniques applied in dietary and physical activity intervention studies, it is first necessary to record and describe techniques that have been used during such interventions. Published frameworks used in dietary and smoking cessation interventions undergo continuous development, and most are not adapted for Web-based delivery. The Food4Me study (N=1607) provided the opportunity to use existing frameworks to describe standardized Web-based techniques employed in a large-scale, internet-based intervention to change dietary behavior and physical activity.
Objective: The aims of this study were (1) to describe techniques embedded in the Food4Me study design and explain the selection rationale and (2) to demonstrate the use of behavior change technique taxonomies, develop standard operating procedures for training, and identify strengths and limitations of the Food4Me framework that will inform its use in future studies.
Methods: The 6-month randomized controlled trial took place simultaneously in seven European countries, with participants receiving one of four levels of personalized advice (generalized, intake-based, intake+phenotype–based, and intake+phenotype+gene–based). A three-phase approach was taken: (1) existing taxonomies were reviewed and techniques were identified a priori for possible inclusion in the Food4Me study, (2) a standard operating procedure was developed to maintain consistency in the use of methods and techniques across research centers, and (3) the Food4Me behavior change technique framework was reviewed and updated post intervention. An analysis of excluded techniques was also conducted.
Results: Of 46 techniques identified a priori as being applicable to Food4Me, 17 were embedded in the intervention design; 11 were from a dietary taxonomy, and 6 from a smoking cessation taxonomy. In addition, the four-category smoking cessation framework structure was adopted for clarity of communication. Smoking cessation texts were adapted for dietary use where necessary. A posteriori, a further 9 techniques were included. Examination of excluded items highlighted the distinction between techniques considered appropriate for face-to-face versus internet-based delivery.
Conclusions: The use of existing taxonomies facilitated the description and standardization of techniques used in Food4Me. We recommend that for complex studies of this nature, technique analysis should be conducted a priori to develop standardized procedures and training and reviewed a posteriori to audit the techniques actually adopted. The present framework description makes a valuable contribution to future systematic reviews and meta-analyses that explore technique efficacy and underlying psychological constructs. This was a novel application of the behavior change taxonomies and was the first internet-based personalized nutrition intervention to use such a framework remotely.

From urban gardening to planetary stewardship : human–nature relationships and their implications for environmental management1
Buijs, Arjen ; Fischer, Anke ; Muhar, Andreas - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 61 (2018)5-6. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 747 - 755.
citizens - conservation - governance - human–nature relationship - nature experience
All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others
Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Steenbekkers, L.P.A. - \ 2018
British Food Journal 120 (2018)4. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 852 - 863.
Consumer acceptance - Entomophagy - Insect - Sub-categorisation
Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which Dutch consumers, with and without insect tasting experience, are more or less willing to eat different insects. Design/methodology/approach: In a quasi-experimental study (n=140), the participants with and without prior experience in eating insects were asked to give their willingness to eat a range of insects, and their attitudes and disgust towards eating insects. Findings: Insects promoted in the market were more preferred than the less marketed insects, and a subgroup of preferred insects for participants with experience in eating insects was formed. Research limitations/implications: Although well-known insects were more preferred, general willingness to eat remained low for all participants. The results indicate that in future research on insects as food the specific insects used should be taken into account. Practical implications: Continued promotion of specific, carefully targeted, insects may not lead to short-term uptake of insects as food, but may contribute to willingness to eat insects as human food in the long term. Originality/value: The paper shows substantial differences between consumers who have and who have not previously tasted insects, with higher acceptance of people with experience in tasting insects for the specific insects that are frequently promoted beyond their generally more positive attitude towards eating insects.
Plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae
Rozwandowicz, M. ; Brouwer, M.S.M. ; Fischer, J. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Gonzalez-Zorn, B. ; Guerra, B. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Hordijk, J. - \ 2018
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 73 (2018)5. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 1121 - 1137.
Bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is constantly evolving and horizontal gene transfer through plasmids plays a major role. The identification of plasmid characteristics and their association with different bacterial hosts provides crucial knowledge that is essential to understand the contribution of plasmids to the transmission of AMR determinants. Molecular identification of plasmid and strain genotypes elicits a distinction between spread of AMR genes by plasmids and dissemination of these genes by spread of bacterial clones. For this reason several methods are used to type the plasmids, e.g. PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) or relaxase typing. Currently, there are 28 known plasmid types in Enterobacteriaceae distinguished by PBRT. Frequently reported plasmids [IncF, IncI, IncA/C, IncL (previously designated IncL/M), IncN and IncH] are the ones that bear the greatest variety of resistance genes. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of all known AMR-related plasmid families in Enterobacteriaceae, the resistance genes they carry and their geographical distribution.
Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

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