Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Genetic Dissection of Morphometric Traits Reveals that Phytochrome B Affects Nucleus Size and Heterochromatin Organization in Arabidopsis thaliana
Snoek, L.B. ; Pavlova, P. ; Tessadori, F. ; Fransz, P.F. ; Zanten, M. van; Peeters, A.J.M. ; Bourbousse, Clara ; Barneche, Fredy ; Jong, J.H.S.G.M. de; Fransz, Paul ; Zanten, M. van - \ 2017
G3 : Genes Genomes Genetics 7 (2017)8. - ISSN 2160-1836 - p. 2519 - 2531.
Microscopically visible chromatin is partitioned into two major components in Arabidopsis thaliana nuclei. Chromocenters on one hand are conspicuous foci of highly condensed 'heterochromatic' domains that contain mostly repeated sequences. On the other hand, less condensed and gene-rich 'euchromatin' emanates from these chromocenters. This differentiation, together with the dynamic nature of chromatin compaction in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, makes Arabidopsis a powerful system for studying chromatin organization and dynamics. Heterochromatin dynamics can be monitored by measuring the Heterochromatin Index, i.e. the proportion of nuclei displaying well-defined chromocenters, or the DNA fraction of chromocenters (Relative Heterochromatin Fraction). Both measures are composite traits, thus their values represent the sum of effects of various underlying morphometric properties. We exploited genetic variation between natural occurring accessions to determine the genetic basis of individual nucleus and chromocenter morphometric parameters; Area, Perimeter, Density, Roundness and Heterogeneity, that together determine chromatin compaction. Our novel reductionistic genetic approach revealed Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for all measured traits. Genomic co-localization among QTLs was limited, which suggests a complex genetic regulation of chromatin compaction. Yet, genomic intervals of QTLs for nucleus size (Area and Perimeter) both overlap with a known QTL for heterochromatin compaction that is explained by natural polymorphism in the red/far-red light and temperature receptor Phytochrome B. Mutant analyses and genetic complementation assays show that Phytochrome B is a negative regulator of nucleus size, unveiling that perception of climatic conditions by a phytochrome-mediated hub is a major determinant for coordinating nucleus size and heterochromatin compaction
Molecular, genetic and evolutionary analysis of a paracentric inversion in Arabidopsis thaliana
Fransz, Paul ; Linc, Gabriella ; Lee, Cheng Ruei ; Aflitos, Saulo Alves ; Lasky, Jesse R. ; Toomajian, Christopher ; Ali, Hoda ; Peters, Janny ; Dam, Peter van; Ji, Xianwen ; Kuzak, Mateusz ; Gerats, Tom ; Schubert, Ingo ; Schneeberger, Korbinian ; Colot, Vincent ; Martienssen, Rob ; Koornneef, Maarten ; Nordborg, Magnus ; Juenger, Thomas E. ; Jong, Hans de; Schranz, Eric - \ 2016
The Plant Journal 88 (2016)2. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 159 - 178.
Arabidopsis thaliana - Chromosome rearrangement - Haplotype pattern - Introgression - Phylogenetic relationship - Transposon

Chromosomal inversions can provide windows onto the cytogenetic, molecular, evolutionary and demographic histories of a species. Here we investigate a paracentric 1.17-Mb inversion on chromosome 4 of Arabidopsis thaliana with nucleotide precision of its borders. The inversion is created by Vandal transposon activity, splitting an F-box and relocating a pericentric heterochromatin segment in juxtaposition with euchromatin without affecting the epigenetic landscape. Examination of the RegMap panel and the 1001 Arabidopsis genomes revealed more than 170 inversion accessions in Europe and North America. The SNP patterns revealed historical recombinations from which we infer diverse haplotype patterns, ancient introgression events and phylogenetic relationships. We find a robust association between the inversion and fecundity under drought. We also find linkage disequilibrium between the inverted region and the early flowering Col-FRIGIDA allele. Finally, SNP analysis elucidates the origin of the inversion to South-Eastern Europe approximately 5000 years ago and the FRI-Col allele to North-West Europe, and reveals the spreading of a single haplotype to North America during the 17th to 19th century. The 'American haplotype' was identified from several European localities, potentially due to return migration.

Introgression Browser: High throughput whole-genome SNP visualization
Aflitos, S.A. ; Sanchez Perez, G.F. ; Ridder, D. de; Fransz, P. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Jong, J.H.S.G.M. de; Peters, S.A. - \ 2015
The Plant Journal 82 (2015)1. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 174 - 182.
in-situ hybridization - alien chromosomes - recombination - tomato - markers - thaliana - potato - identification - organization - improvement
Breeding by introgressive hybridization is a pivotal strategy to broaden the genetic basis of crops. Usually, the desired traits are monitored in consecutive crossing generations by marker-assisted selection, but their analyses fail in chromosome regions where crossover recombinants are rare or not viable. Here, we present the Introgression Browser (IBROWSER), a bioinformatics tool aimed at visualizing introgressions at nucleotide or SNP accuracy. The software selects homozygous SNPs from Variant Call Format (VCF) information and filters out heterozygous SNPs, Multi-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (MNPs) and insertion-deletions (InDels). For data analysis IBROWSER makes use of sliding windows, but if needed it can generate any desired fragmentation pattern through General Feature Format (GFF) information. In an example of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions we visualize SNP patterns and elucidate both position and boundaries of the introgressions. We also show that our tool is capable of identifying alien DNA in a panel of the closely related S. pimpinellifolium by examining phylogenetic relationships of the introgressed segments in tomato. In a third example, we demonstrate the power of the IBROWSER in a panel of 597 Arabidopsis accessions, detecting the boundaries of a SNP-free region around a polymorphic 1.17 Mbp inverted segment on the short arm of chromosome 4. The architecture and functionality of IBROWSER makes the software appropriate for a broad set of analyses including SNP mining, genome structure analysis, and pedigree analysis. Its functionality, together with the capability to process large data sets and efficient visualization of sequence variation, makes IBROWSER a valuable breeding tool.
Signals of speciation within Arabidopsis thaliana in comparison with its relatives
Alcazar, R. ; Pecinka, A. ; Aarts, M.G.M. ; Fransz, P.F. ; Koornneef, M. - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Plant Biology 15 (2012)2. - ISSN 1369-5266 - p. 205 - 211.
evolutionary history - natural variation - local adaptation - a-thaliana - self-incompatibility - genetic-basis - genome - lyrata - hybrid - plants
The species within the now well-defined Arabidopsis genus provide biological materials suitable to investigate speciation and the development of reproductive isolation barriers between related species. Even within the model species A. thaliana, genetic differentiation between populations due to environmental adaptation or demographic history can lead to cases where hybrids between accessions are non-viable. Experimental evidence supports the importance of genome duplications and genetic epistatic interactions in the occurrence of reproductive isolation. Other examples of adaptation to specific environments can be found in Arabidopsis relatives where hybridization and chromosome doubling lead to new amphidiploid species. Molecular signals of speciation found in the Arabidopsis genus should provide a better understanding of speciation processes in plants from a genetic, molecular and evolutionary perspective
Seed maturation in Arabidopsis is characterised by nuclear size reduction and increased chromatin condensation
Zanten, M. van; Koini, M.A. ; Geyer, R. ; Liu, Y. ; Brambilla, V. ; Bartels, D. ; Koornneef, M. ; Fransz, P. ; Soppe, W.J.J. - \ 2011
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (2011)50. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 20219 - 20224.
plant craterostigma-plantagineum - desiccation tolerance - gene-regulation - dormancy - germination - heterochromatin - mutants - establishment - transcription - organization
Most plant species rely on seeds for their dispersal and survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Seeds are characterized by their low moisture content and significantly reduced metabolic activities. During the maturation phase, seeds accumulate storage reserves and become desiccation-tolerant and dormant. Growth is resumed after release of dormancy and the occurrence of favorable environmental conditions. Here we show that embryonic cotyledon nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds have a significantly reduced nuclear size, which is established at the beginning of seed maturation. In addition, the chromatin of embryonic cotyledon nuclei from mature seeds is highly condensed. Nuclei regain their size and chromatin condensation level during germination. The reduction in nuclear size is controlled by the seed maturation regulator ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 3, and the increase during germination requires two predicted nuclear matrix proteins, LITTLE NUCLEI 1 and LITTLE NUCLEI 2. Our results suggest that the specific properties of nuclei in ripe seeds are an adaptation to desiccation, independent of dormancy. We conclude that the changes in nuclear size and chromatin condensation in seeds are independent, developmentally controlled processes
From nucleosome to chromosome: a dynamic organization of genetic information
Fransz, P.F. ; Jong, J.H.S.G.M. de - \ 2011
The Plant Journal 66 (2011)1. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 4 - 17.
histone variant h2a.z - 30-nm chromatin fiber - arabidopsis-thaliana - dna methylation - interphase chromosomes - in-vivo - nuclear architecture - insitu hybridization - regulatory regions - h4-k16 acetylation
Gene activity is controlled at different levels of chromatin organization, which involve genomic sequences, nucleosome structure, chromatin folding and chromosome arrangement. These levels are interconnected and influence each other. At the basic level nucleosomes generally occlude the DNA sequence from interacting with DNA-binding proteins. Evidently, nucleosome positioning is a major factor in gene control and chromatin organization. Understanding the biological rules that govern the deposition and removal of the nucleosomes to and from the chromatin fiber is the key to understanding gene regulation and chromatin organization. In this review we describe and discuss the relationship between the different levels of chromatin organization in plants and animals
Immunocytological Analysis of Chromatin in Isolated Nuclei
Pavlova, P. ; Tessadori, F. ; Jong, J.H.S.G.M. de; Fransz, P. - \ 2010
In: Plant Developmental Biology: Methods and Protocols / Kohler, C., Hennig, L., 2010 : Humana Press Inc. (Methods in Molecular Biology 655) - ISBN 9781607617648 - p. 413 - 432.
All cells in a multicellular organism have the same genetic constitution, yet their appearance and function may differ enormously, due to differences in the nuclear program. Central in the establishment of this cell diversity are epigenetic marks, which are largely based on covalent modifications of histones and methylated cytosine residues in the DNA sequence. The study of these epigenetic factors in individual cells requires the microscopic visualization of chromatin components. Here we describe a number of protocols to study chromatin in isolated nuclei
PHYTOCHROME B and HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 Control Light-Induced Chromatin Compaction in Arabidopsis thaliana
Tessadori, F. ; Zanten, M. van; Pavlova, P. ; Clifton, R. ; Pontvianne, F. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Millenaar, F.F. ; Schulkes, R.K. ; Driel, R. van; Voesenek, L.A.C.J. ; Spillane, C. ; Pikaard, C.S. ; Fransz, P.F. ; Peeters, A.J.M. - \ 2009
Plos Genetics 5 (2009)9. - ISSN 1553-7404 - 13 p.
natural allelic variation - inbred line population - dna methylation - flowering time - genome regulation - genetic-variation - circadian clock - linkage map - h3 lysine-9 - heterochromatin
Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana exists for many traits and often reflects acclimation to local environments. Studying natural variation has proven valuable in the characterization of phenotypic traits and, in particular, in identifying genetic factors controlling these traits. It has been previously shown that chromatin compaction changes during development and biotic stress. To gain more insight into the genetic control of chromatin compaction, we investigated the nuclear phenotype of 21 selected Arabidopsis accessions from different geographic origins and habitats. We show natural variation in chromatin compaction and demonstrate a positive correlation with latitude of geographic origin. The level of compaction appeared to be dependent on light intensity. A novel approach, combining Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping and microscopic examination, pointed at PHYTOCHROME-B (PHYB) and HISTONE DEACETYLASE-6 (HDA6) as positive regulators of light-controlled chromatin compaction. Indeed, mutant analyses demonstrate that both factors affect global chromatin organization. HDA6, in addition, strongly promotes the light-mediated compaction of the Nucleolar Organizing Regions (NORs). The accession Cape Verde Islands-0 (Cvi-0), which shows sequence polymorphism in the PHYB gene and in the HDA6 promotor, resembles the hda6 mutant in having reduced chromatin compaction and decreased methylation levels of DNA and histone H3K9 at the NORs. We provide evidence that chromatin organization is controlled by light intensity. We propose that chromatin plasticity is associated with acclimation of Arabidopsis to its environment. The polymorphic alleles such as PHYB and HDA6 control this process
Expression of ENOD40 during tomato plant development
Vleghels, I.J.E. ; Hontelez, J.G.J. ; Ribeiro, A. ; Fransz, P.F. ; Bisseling, T. ; Franssen, H.G.J.M. - \ 2003
Planta 218 (2003). - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 42 - 49.
nodule development - medicago-truncatula - seed-germination - lotus-japonicus - binding protein - genes - patterns - mutant - pachytene - symbiosis
In legumes, ENOD40 expression is increased upon interaction of plants with rhizobia. Little is known of the expression pattern of ENOD40 during other stages of the plant life cycle. Studies of ENOD40 expression in non-legume development may give an indication of the function of the gene. To investigate the ENOD40 expression pattern during plant development, a fusion between the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and 150 bp of the 5' untranslated region plus 3,000 bp of 5' untranscribed tomato ENOD40 sequence was constructed and introduced into Lycopersicon esculentum Miller. Based on the observed GUS expression patterns in transgenic tomato we speculate that ENOD40 in tomato has a role in counteracting ethylene-provoked responses.
Cytogenetic tools for Arabidopsis thaliana
Koornneef, M. ; Fransz, P.F. ; Jong, J.H.S.G.M. de - \ 2003
Chromosome Research 11 (2003)3. - ISSN 0967-3849 - p. 183 - 194.
in-situ hybridization - dna-sequences - interphase chromosomes - genomic organization - centromeric regions - gamma-irradiation - repetitive dna - linkage groups - plants - meiosis
Although the first description of chromosomes of Arabidopsis dates as far back as 1907, little attention was paid to its cytogenetics for a long time. The spectacular interest in chromosome research for this species that now is the model plant species by excellence came with the introduction of molecular cytogenetical research including FISH technology, genome sequence data and immunodetection of chromatin proteins. In this paper, we present an overview of the most important cytogenetic tools that were developed for Arabidopsis in recent decades. It shows the power of meiosis for studying synaptic mutants and FISH technology, and the development of numerical and structural chromosome mutant series like trisomics, telotrisomics and translocations for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes. Its small genome and chromosome size and relatively simple organization of heterochromatin have been the key to a successful characterization of the molecular organization of repetitive and single copy sequences on the chromosomes, both in metaphase and pachytene complements, but also in interphase nuclei and extended DNA fibres. Finally, Arabidopsis is the first plant species in which a heterochromatin knob could be analysed in full detail and in which chromosome painting with BAC clones covering whole chromosome arms could be established. All these achievements are probably only the very first steps in a promising new era in plant cytogenetics and chromatin research yet to come.
Interphase chromosomes in Arabidopsis are organized as well defined chromocenters from which euchromatin loops emanate
Fransz, P.F. ; Jong, J.H. ; Lysak, M. ; Ruffini Castilione, M. ; Schubert, I. - \ 2002
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99 (2002). - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 14584 - 14589.
Heterochromatin in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is confined to small pericentromeric regions of all five chromosomes and to the nucleolus organizing regions. This clear differentiation makes it possible to study spatial arrangement and functional properties of individual chromatin domains in interphase nuclei. Here, we present the organization of Arabidopsis chromosomes in young parenchyma cells. Heterochromatin segments are organized as condensed chromocenters (CCs), which contain heavily methylated, mostly repetitive DNA sequences. In contrast, euchromatin contains less methylated DNA and emanates from CCs as loops spanning 0.2-2 Mbp. These loops are rich in acetylated histones, whereas CCs contain less acetylated histones. We identified individual CCs and loops by fluorescence in situ hybridization by using rDNA clones and 131 bacterial artificial chromosome DNA clones from chromosome 4. CC and loops together form a chromosome territory. Homologous CCs and territories were associated frequently. Moreover, a considerable number of nuclei displayed perfect alignment of homologous subregions, suggesting physical transinteractions between the homologs. The arrangement of interphase chromosomes in Arabidopsis provides a well defined system to investigate chromatin organization and its role in epigenetic processes.
Chromatin dynamics in plants
Fransz, P.F. ; Jong, J.H. de - \ 2002
Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5 (2002). - ISSN 1369-5266 - p. 560 - 567.
Recent studies in yeast, animals and plants have provided major breakthroughs in unraveling the molecular mechanism of higher-order gene regulation. In conjunction with the DNA code, proteins that are involved in chromatin remodeling, histone modification and epigenetic imprinting form a large network of interactions that control the nuclear programming of cell identity. New insight into how chromatin conformations are regulated in plants sheds light on the relationships between chromosome function, cell differentiation and developmental patterns.
Chromosome painting in plants.
Schubert, I. ; Fransz, P.F. ; Fuchs, J. ; Jong, J.H. de - \ 2001
Methods in cell science : an official journal of the society for in vitro biology 23 (2001). - ISSN 1381-5741 - p. 57 - 69.
The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in situ suppression' (CISS) hybridisation with chromosome-derived DNA probes and blocking of interchromosomally dispersed repeats by total genomic or C0 t-1 DNA in excess, iii) exceptional cases of single chromosome painting by probes containing chromosome-specific dispersed repeats, and iv) Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with extended contigs of large insert clones for painting of those chromosomes of a euploid complement which harbour the cloned sequences. While GISH was successfully applied in most plant hybrids and/or their derivatives, painting of individual chromosomes by CISS hybridisations of chromosome-specific DNA probes have so far not revealed convincing results in plants. The reason for this failure and the use of possible alternative approaches are discussed. At least for small plant genomes, painting by large insert single sequence clones provides a promising alternative tool to solve cytogenetic questions, which up to now could not be tackled otherwise. An example of such a painting is described in detail for Arabidopsis thaliana.
Integration of the FISH pachytene and genetic maps of Medicago truncatula.
Kulikova, O. ; Gualtieri, G. ; Geurts, R. ; Kim, D.J. ; Cook, D. ; Huguet, T. ; Jong, J.H. de; Fransz, P.F. ; Bisseling, T. - \ 2001
The Plant Journal 27 (2001)1. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 49 - 58.
A molecular cytogenetic map of Medicago truncatula (2n = 2x = 16) was constructed on the basis of a pachytene DAPI karyogram. Chromosomes at this meiotic prophase stage are 20 times longer than at mitotic metaphase, and display a well differentiated pattern of brightly fluorescing heterochromatin segments. We describe here a pachytene karyogram in which all chromosomes can be identified based on chromosome length, centromere position, heterochromatin patterns, and the positions of three repetitive sequences (5S rDNA, 45S rDNA and the MtR1 tandem repeat), visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We determined the correlation between genetic linkage groups and chromosomes by FISH mapping of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, with two to five BACs per linkage group. In the cytogenetic map, chromosomes were numbered according to their corresponding linkage groups. We determined the relative positions of the 20 BACs and three repetitive sequences on the pachytene chromosomes, and compared the genetic and cytological distances between markers. The mapping resolution was determined in a euchromatic part of chromosome 5 by comparing the cytological distances between FISH signals of clones of a BAC contig with their corresponding physical distance, and showed that resolution in this region is about 60 kb. The establishment of this FISH pachytene karyotype, with a far better mapping resolution and detection sensitivity compared to those in the highly condensed mitotic metaphase complements, has created the basis for the integration of molecular, genetic and cytogenetic maps in M. truncatula.
Expression pattern of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtEP3/AtchitIV endocitinase gene
Passarinho, P.A. ; Hengel, A.J. van; Fransz, P.F. ; Vries, S.C. de - \ 2001
Planta 212 (2001). - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 556 - 567.
The carrot (Daucus carota L.) EP3 chitinase was shown to be essential for somatic embryo formation in a carrot mutant cell line. We identified the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ortholog of the carrot EP3-3 chitinase gene, designated as AtEP3/AtchitIV and analyzed its expression in Arabidopsis by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and promoter::#-glucuronidase and luciferase fusions. As in carrot, the gene is expressed during somatic embryogenesis in "nursing" cells surrounding the embryos but not in embryos themselves. In plants, gene expression is found in mature pollen and growing pollen tubes until they enter the receptive synergid, but not in endosperm and integuments as in carrot. Post-embryonically, expression is found in hydathodes, stipules, root epidermis and emerging root hairs, indicating that the Arabidopsis chitinase may have a function that is not restricted to embryogenesis.
Integrated cytogenetic map of chromosome arm 4S of A. thaliana : structural organization of heterochromatic knob and centromere region
Fransz, P.F. ; Armstrong, S. ; Jong, J.H. de; Parnell, L.D. ; Drunen, C. van; Dean, C. ; Zabel, P. ; Bisseling, T. ; Jones, G.H. - \ 2000
Cell 100 (2000). - ISSN 0092-8674 - p. 367 - 376.
We have constructed an integrated cytogenetic map of chromosome arm 4S of Arabidopsis thaliana. The map shows the detailed positions of various multicopy and unique sequences relative to euchromatin and heterochromatin segments. A quantitative analysis of the map positions at subsequent meiotic stages revealed a striking pattern of spatial and temporal variation in chromatin condensation for euchromatin and heterochromatin. For example, the centromere region consists of three domains with distinguishable structural, molecular, and functional properties. We also characterized a conspicuous heterochromatic knob of approximately 700 kb that accommodates a tandem repeat and several dispersed pericentromere-specific repeats. Moreover, our data provide evidence for an inversion event that relocated pericentromeric sequences to an interstitial position, resulting in the heterochromatic knob.
High resolution FISH reveals the molecular and chromosomal organisation of repetitive sequences of individual tomato chromosomes
Jong, J.H. de; Zhong, X.B. ; Fransz, P.F. ; Wennekes-van Eden, J. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Zabel, P. - \ 2000
In: Unknown - p. 267 - 275.
Cre/lox-mediated recombination in Arabidopsis : evidence for transmission of a translocation and a deletion event
Vergunst, A.C. ; Jansen, L.E.T. ; Fransz, P.F. ; Jong, J.H. de; Hooykaas, P.J.J. - \ 2000
Chromosoma 109 (2000). - ISSN 0009-5915 - p. 287 - 297.
FISH to meiotic pachytene chromosomes of tomato locates the root-knot nematode resistance gene Mi-1 and the acid phosphatase gene Aps-1 near the junction of euchromatin and pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome arms 6S and 6L, respectively
Zhong, X.B. ; Bodeau, J. ; Fransz, P.F. ; Williamson, V.M. ; Kammen, A. van; Jong, J.H. de; Zabel, P. - \ 1999
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 98 (1999). - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 3 - 4.
The root-knot nematode resistance gene Mi-1 in tomato has long been thought to be located in the pericentromeric heterochromatin region of the long arm of chromosome 6 because of its very tight genetic linkage (approx. 1 cM) to the markers Aps-1 (Acid phosphatase 1) and yv (yellow virescent). Using Mi-BAC clones and an Aps-1 YAC clone in fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to pachytene chromosomes we now provide direct physical evidence showing that Mi-1 is located at the border of the euchromatin and heterochromatin regions in the short arm (6S) and Aps-1 in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of the long arm (6L) close to the euchromatin. Taking into account both the estimated DNA content of hetero- and euchromatin regions and the compactness of the tomato chromosomes at pachytene (2rMb/wm), our data suggest that Mi-1 and Aps-1 are at least 40rMb apart, a base pair-to-centiMorgan relationship that is more than 50-fold higher than the average value of 750rkb/cM of the tomato genome. An integrated cytogenetic-molecular map of chromosome 6 is presented that provides a framework for physical mapping.
FISH analysis of the centromere gap in the physical map of chromosome 4 of Arabidopsis thaliana
Fransz, P. ; Jong, J.H. de; Zhang, P. ; Zabel, P. - \ 1999
In: Plant and Animal Genome Conference VII, San Diego. - [S.l.] : [s.n.], 1999 - p. 50 - 50.
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