Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Optimizing FRET-FLIM labeling conditions to detect nuclear protein interactions at native expression levels in living Arabidopsis roots
Long, Yuchen ; Stahl, Yvonne ; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie ; Smet, Wouter ; Du, Yujuan ; Gadella, Theodorus W.J. ; Goedhart, Joachim ; Scheres, Ben ; Blilou, Ikram - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Fluorescent proteins - In vivo FRET-FLIM - Protein complexes - Protein-protein interaction - SCARECROW - SHORT-ROOT

Protein complex formation has been extensively studied using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). However, implementing this technology to detect protein interactions in living multicellular organism at single-cell resolution and under native condition is still difficult to achieve. Here we describe the optimization of the labeling conditions to detect FRET-FLIMin living plants. This study exemplifies optimization procedure involving the identification of the optimal position for the labels either at the N or C terminal region and the selection of the bright and suitable, fluorescent proteins as donor and acceptor labels for the FRET study. With an effective optimization strategy, we were able to detect the interaction between the stem cell regulators SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW at endogenous expression levels in the root pole of living Arabidopsis embryos and developing lateral roots by FRET-FLIM. Using this approach we show that the spatial profile of interaction between two transcription factors can be highly modulated in reoccurring and structurally resembling organs, thus providing new information on the dynamic redistribution of nuclear protein complex configurations in different developmental stages. In principle, our optimization procedure for transcription factor complexes is applicable to any biological system.

Development and validation of IPM strategies for the cultivation of cisgenically modified late blight resistant potato
Kessel, Geert J.T. ; Mullins, Ewen ; Evenhuis, Albartus ; Stellingwerf, Jeroen ; Cortes, Vilma Ortiz ; Phelan, Sinead ; Bosch, Trudy van den; Förch, Marieke G. ; Goedhart, Paul ; Voet, Hilko van der; Lotz, Lambertus A.P. - \ 2018
European Journal of Agronomy 96 (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 146 - 155.
Cisgenic modification - GM potato - Host resistance - Integrated pest management - Phytophthora infestans
Potato late blight disease remains the primary stressor of commercial potato production across the EU, typically requiring >10 fungicide applications per growing season to offset crop losses. In response, the goal of this study was to test and validate a novel, more durable, control strategy for potato late blight. This IPM2.0 strategy is based on the principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) which sees the deployment of a late blight resistant potato genotype, a cisgenically modified, Desiree based resistant potato line here, in conjunction with pathogen population monitoring for virulence to the resistance genes (R genes) deployed and a “do not spray unless”, low input fungicide spray strategy. Field evaluations were completed in the Netherlands and in Ireland in 2013, 2014 and in Ireland in 2015. Comparators used in this study included the original but susceptible potato variety Desiree and the conventional but highly resistant variety Sarpo Mira. The novel IPM2.0 strategy was compared to local common practice (fungicide applications on a near weekly basis) and an untreated control. Overall, the IPM2.0 control strategy validated here reduced the average fungicide input by 80–90% without compromising control efficacy. Corresponding environmental side-effects were reduced proportionally. The results underline the pragmatic role host resistance can provide to commercial potato production systems and to society at large if employed as part of an integrated late blight control system.
Modelling mobile agent-based ecosystem services using kernel weighted predictors
Goedhart, Paul W. ; Lof, Marjolein E. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Baveco, Hans J.M. ; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2018
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9 (2018)5. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 1241 - 1249.
1. Agriculture benefits from ecosystem services provided by mobile agents, such as biological pest control by natural enemies and pollination by bees. However, methods that can generate spatially explicit predictions and maps of these ecosystem services based on empirical data are still scarce. 2. Here we propose a generic statistical model to derive kernel functions to characterize the spatial distribution of ecosystem services provided by mobile agents. The model is similar in spirit to a generalized linear model, and uses data of landscape composition and ecosystem services assessed at target sites to estimate parameters of the kernel. The approach is tested in a simulation study and illustrated by an empirical case study on parasitism rates of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. 3. The simulation study shows that the scale parameter of the exponential power kernel can be estimated with limited bias, whereas estimation of the shape parameter is difficult. For the case study the model provides biologically relevant estimates for the kernel associated with parasitism of Plutella xylostella. These estimates can be used to generate ecosystem service maps for existing or planned landscapes. The case study reveals that predictions can be sensitive to the parameter values for the width and shape of the kernel, and to the link function used in the statistical model. 4. In the last two decades numerous empirical studies assessed ecosystem services at target sites and related these to the surrounding landscape. Our method can take advantage of these data by estimating underlying kernels that can be used to map the spatial distribution of ecosystem services. However, empirical data that can discriminate between alternative kernel shapes remain critical.
Data from: Modelling mobile agent-based ecosystem services using kernel weighted predictors
Goedhart, P.W. ; Lof, M.E. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2018
conservation planning - biocontrol - natural pest control - pollination - source-sonk dynamics - kernel - landscape - statistical model - spatial distribution - spatial extent
1. Agriculture benefits from ecosystem services provided by mobile agents, such as biological pest control by natural enemies and pollination by bees. However, methods that can generate spatially explicit predictions and maps of these ecosystem services based on empirical data are still scarce. 2. Here we propose a generic statistical model to derive kernel functions to characterize the spatial distribution of ecosystem services provided by mobile agents. The model is similar in spirit to a generalized linear model, and uses data of landscape composition and ecosystem services assessed at target sites to estimate parameters of the kernel. The approach is tested in a simulation study and illustrated by an empirical case study on parasitism rates of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. 3. The simulation study shows that the scale parameter of the exponential power kernel can be estimated with limited bias, whereas estimation of the shape parameter is difficult. For the case study the model provides biologically relevant estimates for the kernel associated with parasitism of Plutella xylostella. These estimates can be used to generate ecosystem service maps for existing or planned landscapes. The case study reveals that predictions can be sensitive to the parameter values for the width and shape of the kernel, and to the link function used in the statistical model. 4. In the last two decades numerous empirical studies assessed ecosystem services at target sites and related these to the surrounding landscape. Our method can take advantage of these data by estimating underlying kernels that can be used to map the spatial distribution of ecosystem services. However, empirical data that can discriminate between alternative kernel shapes remain critical.
A model for estimating seasonal trends of ammonia emission from cattle manure applied to grassland in the Netherlands
Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Vermeulen, G.D. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2018
Atmospheric Environment 173 (2018). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 231 - 238.
Ammonia emission - Application techniques - Grassland - Manure - Model - Weather
Field data on ammonia emission after liquid cattle manure (‘slurry’) application to grassland were statistically analysed to reveal the effect of manure and field characteristics and of weather conditions in eight consecutive periods after manure application. Logistic regression models, modelling the emission expressed as a percentage of the ammonia still present at the start of each period as the response variable, were developed separately for broadcast spreading, narrow band application (trailing shoe) and shallow injection. Wind speed, temperature, soil type, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content and dry matter content of the manure, application rate and grass height were selected as significant explanatory variables. Their effects differed for each application method and among periods. Temperature and wind speed were generally the most important drivers for emission. The fitted regression models were used to reveal seasonal trends in NH3 emission employing historical meteorological data for the years 1991–2014. The overall average emission was higher in early and midsummer than in early spring and late summer. This seasonal trend was most pronounced for broadcast spreading followed by narrow band application, and was almost absent for shallow injection. However, due to the large variation in weather conditions, emission on a particular day in early spring can be higher than on a particular day in summer. The analysis further revealed that, in a specific scenario and depending on the application technique, emission could be reduced with 20–30% by restricting manure application to favourable days, i.e. with weather conditions with minimal emission levels.
Methods for the quantification of resistance of apple genotypes to European fruit tree canker caused by Neonectria ditissima
Wenneker, M. ; Goedhart, Paul ; Steeg, P.A.H. van der; Weg, W.E. van de; Schouten, H.J. - \ 2017
In: Abstracts of the Third International Workshop on Apple Canker and Replant Disease. - - p. 13 - 13.
Accounting for uncertainties in ammonia emission from manure applied to grassland
Goedhart, P.W. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2017
Soil Use and Management 33 (2017)4. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 599 - 602.
A recent study has raised doubts about the ammonia emission reduction achieved in the Netherlands when applying manure to grassland by means of low-emission techniques such as narrow band and shallow injection. The critics claim that percentages of ammonia released to the atmosphere associated with low-emission techniques might even overlap with that from surface broadcast spreading given the large alleged experimental uncertainties in measurements. Consequently, the rationale behind the regulations to which farmers are exposed is questioned. In this study, it is shown that the alleged large uncertainties were obtained by means of an erroneous statistical method and that the real uncertainties are much smaller. It is also shown that, even when there is a large uncertainty in individual measurements, previous conclusions about differences in emission between different manure application techniques are still valid. It is further argued in this study that uncertainty in the percentage of applied ammonia emitted is implicitly taken into account in any comparative statistical analysis conducted in the past.
Response to Briggs, Hanekamp & Crok
Goedhart, P.W. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2017
Soil Use and Management 33 (2017)4. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 605 - 606.
Methods for the quantification of resistance of apple genotypes to european fruit tree canker caused by Neonectria Ditissima
Wenneker, M. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Steeg, P. Van der; Weg, W.E. Van de; Schouten, H.J. - \ 2017
Plant Disease 101 (2017)12. - ISSN 0191-2917 - p. 2012 - 2019.
European fruit tree canker, caused by Neonectria ditissima, is an important disease of pome fruit worldwide. Apple cultivars differ in their levels of susceptibility to N. ditissima. In order to design an effective plant resistance test, we examined the effectiveness of two resistance parameters: infection frequency and lesion growth. Both parameters were evaluated in parallel tests using 10 apple cultivars in three experimental years, applying seminatural infection of leaf scars (infection frequency) or inoculation of artificial wounds (lesion growth). We compared six parameters for lesion growth, of which a new parameter, lesion growth rate (LGR), appeared to be the best with respect to reproducibility and statistical significance. LGR is defined as the slope of the regression of lesion size versus time. The slope was estimated for each lesion, employing a common start date and a lesion-specific end date determined by the girdling of the lesion. The two parameters (infection frequency and LGR) were examined in separate experiments and in three successive years, and provided complementary information and resulted in reproducible conclusions on the relative resistance levels to N. ditissima of the tested cultivars. The presented methods can be used to develop strategies for the control of European fruit tree canker (e.g., in the breeding of new apple cultivars with high levels of resistance to N. ditissima).
Equivalence testing using existing reference data: An example with genetically modified and conventional crops in animal feeding studies
Voet, Hilko van der; Goedhart, Paul W. ; Schmidt, Kerstin - \ 2017
Food and Chemical Toxicology 109 (2017). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 472 - 485.
An equivalence testing method is described to assess the safety of regulated products using relevant data obtained in historical studies with assumedly safe reference products. The method is illustrated using data from a series of animal feeding studies with genetically modified and reference maize varieties. Several criteria for quantifying equivalence are discussed, and study-corrected distribution-wise equivalence is selected as being appropriate for the example case study. An equivalence test is proposed based on a high probability of declaring equivalence in a simplified situation, where there is no between-group variation, where the historical and current studies have the same residual variance, and where the current study is assumed to have a sample size as set by a regulator. The method makes use of generalized fiducial inference methods to integrate uncertainties from both the historical and the current data.
In vivo FRET-FLIM reveals cell-type-specific protein interactions in Arabidopsis roots
Long, Yuchen ; Stahl, Yvonne ; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie ; Postma, Marten ; Zhou, Wenkun ; Goedhart, Joachim ; Sánchez-Pérez, María Isabel ; Gadella, Theodorus W.J. ; Simon, Rüdiger ; Scheres, Ben ; Blilou, Ikram - \ 2017
Nature 548 (2017)7665. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 97 - 102.
During multicellular development, specification of distinct cell fates is often regulated by the same transcription factors operating differently in distinct cis-regulatory modules, either through different protein complexes, conformational modification of protein complexes, or combinations of both. Direct visualization of different transcription factor complex states guiding specific gene expression programs has been challenging. Here we use in vivo FRET-FLIM (Förster resonance energy transfer measured by fluorescence lifetime microscopy) to reveal spatial partitioning of protein interactions in relation to specification of cell fate. We show that, in Arabidopsis roots, three fully functional fluorescently tagged cell fate regulators establish cell-type-specific interactions at endogenous expression levels and can form higher order complexes. We reveal that cell-type-specific in vivo FRET-FLIM distributions reflect conformational changes of these complexes to differentially regulate target genes and specify distinct cell fates.
Development of a method for detection of latent European fruit tree canker (Neonectria ditissima) infections in apple and pear nurseries
Wenneker, Marcel ; Jong, Peter F. de; Joosten, Nina N. ; Goedhart, Paul W. ; Thomma, Bart P.H.J. - \ 2017
European Journal of Plant Pathology 148 (2017)3. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 631 - 635.
Latency - Nectria canker - Nectria galligena - Nursery trees
Fruit tree canker caused by Neonectria ditissima is a serious problem in apple-producing regions with moderate temperatures and high rainfall throughout the year; especially in northwestern Europe, Chile, and New Zealand. Control measures are applied to protect primary infection sites, mainly leaf scars, from invasion by external inoculum. However, latent infections may occur when young apple trees are infected symptomlessly during propagation. This study aimed to develop a method for detection of latent fruit tree canker infections. Inoculations with conidiospore suspensions of N. ditissima were carried out in tree nurseries on the main stems of two-year-old trees of three apple cultivars and one pear cultivar. The inoculations were carried out during the natural abscission period in the autumn. No visible lesion or canker formations were present at the time when the inoculated trees were uprooted. It appeared that the infections may remain latent during the period from infection to uprooting (2 months) and during the subsequent 4 months of cold storage of the trees. Nevertheless, symptoms were generally induced within 8 weeks after transfer of infecting planting material from the nursery field into a climate chamber with high temperature and high relative humidity. The methodology presented is developed to detect latent infections of N. ditissima in nursery trees, prior to planting in the orchards, and it may contribute in reducing the problem with European fruit tree canker in commercial production.
LPS challenge in jonge biggen : VDI-12: effect voerinterventie op biggen
Greeff, Astrid de; Allaart, Janneke ; Bruijn, Carlijn de; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Roubos, Petra ; Winkelman-Goedhart, Hélène ; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie ; Ruuls, Lisette ; Rebel, Johanna ; Smits, Mari - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1009) - 21
biggen - maatregel op voedingsgebied - adequate immuniteit - diergezondheid - lipopolysacchariden - varkenshouderij - dierhouderij - immunologie - piglets - nutritional intervention - immune competence - animal health - lipopolysaccharides - pig farming - animal husbandry - immunology
Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of grass-clover leys and of farmyard manure in an arable rotation. Part I : Grass-clover leys
Berge, H.F.M. Ten; Pikula, D. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Schröder, J.J. - \ 2016
Soil Use and Management 32 (2016)S1. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 9 - 19.
Crop rotation - Farmyard manure - Fertilizer saving - Grass-clover - Mixed ley - N use efficiency - Nitrogen replacement value - Phosphorus deficiency - Potassium deficiency

Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement values of grass-clover leys (NFRVGCL) and farmyard manure (NFRVFYM) were studied in a long-term (24 years) experiment. This paper reports the results for grass-clover leys (GCL). Five rates of farmyard manure (FYM) and four rates of fertilizer nitrogen (N) were applied to two arable rotations (RotA - arable+silage maize; RotB - arable+GCL). Polynomial response surfaces fitted to dry matter (DM) yield and N offtake in the three arable crops were used to assess NFRVGCL by interpolation, at high (Method H) and low (Method L) N fertilizer rates, always comparing RotA and RotB at equal FYM rates. In Expt1 (started in 1980), arable crops in RotB required 188, 246, 270, 295 and 312 kg N/ha less fertilizer per cycle than in RotA, to match the DM yields found at highest fertilizer rate in RotA (Method H). These values refer to FYM rates of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 t/ha per cycle, respectively. Corresponding fertilizer savings in Expt2 (started in 1981) were 287, 323, 341, 346 and 337 kg N/ha per cycle. These NFRVGCL values represent savings of 50-83% (Expt1) or 77-92% (Expt2) in N fertilizer applied to the arable phase. Slightly lower NFRVGCL was found by Method L. Extra N offtake in RotB over RotA was a poor estimator of NFRVGCL, showing much lower values and different responses to FYM and fertilizer than NFRVGCL. Mixed leys enable large fertilizer savings in arable rotations. Journal compilation

Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of grass-clover leys and of farmyard manure in an arable rotation. Part II : Farmyard manure
Pikula, D. ; Berge, H.F.M. Ten; Goedhart, P.W. ; Schröder, J.J. - \ 2016
Soil Use and Management 32 (2016)S1. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 20 - 31.
ANE - ANR - Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value - Crop rotation - Deficiency - Farmyard manure - Grass-clover ley - Non-nitrogen effects - Phosphorus - Potassium

The apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of farmyard manure (NFRVFYM) was studied in a long-term experiment on a loamy sand soil at Grabow, Poland. The experiment combined five rates of FYM with four nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates in two rotations (RotA and RotB) started in 1980 (Expt1) and, in parallel, 1981 (Expt2). Rotations consisted of potatoes, winter wheat and spring barley, followed by silage maize (RotA) or grass-clover ley (GCL, RotB). We analysed six consecutive cycles. NFRVFYM was much larger in RotB than RotA, due to high N supply from GCL residues combined with likely deficiencies in potassium (K) and/or phosphorus (P), causing weak crop responses to N fertilizer in RotB relative to FYM effects. Devoid of non-N effects, 'true' (as opposed to apparent) NFRVFYM was estimated at 2.0 kg fertilizer-N per tonne of FYM (at equal N offtake), or 2.7 kg/t (at equal DM yield). These values correspond with equivalencies of 0.37 and 0.50 kg fertilizer-N per kg FYM-N. RotB required 25 kg P and 350 kg K/ha/cycle more input than RotA to compensate for higher P and K offtake in GCL compared to maize. The study highlights differences between approaches to assess NFRVFYM, giving larger values at high compared with low N fertilizer rate, and larger values at low compared with high FYM rate. These contrasts reflect drift in the ratio between the agronomic N-use efficiencies of FYM and fertilizer, respectively, and in the ratio between the apparent recoveries of N from these sources. Journal compilation

SCARECROW-LIKE23 and SCARECROW jointly specify endodermal cell fate but distinctly control SHORT-ROOT movement
Long, Yuchen ; Goedhart, Joachim ; Schneijderberg, Martinus ; Terpstra, Inez ; Shimotohno, Akie ; Bouchet, Benjamin P. ; Akhmanova, Anna ; Gadella, Theodorus W.J. ; Heidstra, Renze ; Scheres, Ben ; Blilou, Ikram - \ 2015
The Plant Journal 84 (2015)4. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 773 - 784.
Arabidopsis thaliana - endodermal fate - intercellular movement - mobile protein - protein interaction - SCL23 - SCR-SHR complex

Intercellular signaling through trafficking of regulatory proteins is a widespread phenomenon in plants and can deliver positional information for the determination of cell fate. In the Arabidopsis root meristem, the cell fate determinant SHORT-ROOT (SHR), a GRAS domain transcription factor, acts as a signaling molecule from the stele to the adjacent layer to specify endodermal cell fate. Upon exiting the stele, SHR activates another GRAS domain transcription factor, SCARCROW (SCR), which, together with several BIRD/INDETERMINATE DOMAIN proteins, restricts movement of SHR to define a single cell layer of endodermis. Here we report that endodermal cell fate also requires the joint activity of both SCR and its closest homologue SCARECROW-LIKE23 (SCL23). We show that SCL23 protein moves with zonation-dependent directionality. Within the meristem, SCL23 exhibits short-ranged movement from ground tissue to vasculature. Away from the meristem, SCL23 displays long-range rootward movement into meristematic vasculature and a bidirectional radial spread, respectively. As a known target of SHR and SCR, SCL23 also interacts with SCR and SHR and can restrict intercellular outspread of SHR without relying on nuclear retention as SCR does. Collectively, our data show that SCL23 is a mobile protein that controls movement of SHR and acts redundantly with SCR to specify endodermal fate in the root meristem. Significance Statement In plants, cell-cell trafficking of transcription factors is widely used for intercellular communication during cell fate specification. Here we show that SCARECROW-LIKE 23 (SCL23) is an additional component of the SCARECROW-SHORT-ROOT(SCR-SHR) complex that can traffic between cell layers, restricting SHR spread and redundantly specifying endodermal fate with its closest homologue SCR.

A biodiversity indicator for the assessment of nitrogen deposition
Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Mol, J.P. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Bonten, L.T.C. ; Jochem, R. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2015
- 1 p.
The power of statistical tests using field trial count data of non-target organisms in enviromental risk assessment of genetically modified plants
Voet, H. van der; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2015
Agricultural and Forest Entomology 17 (2015). - ISSN 1461-9555 - p. 164 - 172.
herbicide-tolerant crops - farm-scale evaluations - varieties - design - maize - taxa - corn
Publications on power analyses for field trial count data comparing transgenic and conventional crops have reported widely varying requirements for the replication needed to obtain statistical tests with adequate power. These studies are critically reviewed and complemented with a new simulation study. The reasons for the different reports are elucidated and can be classified as additional (but hidden) replication, selection of favourable endpoints with low variation, and reporting at an unusual scale. A new simulation study was performed to investigate the relationship between statistical power and replication under a variety of data-generating and analysis methods. Approximately 60 replications should be sufficient to detect a 50% (two-fold) decrease in taxon numbers, provided that the coefficient of variation in the counts does not exceed 100%. Replication can be accomplished not only by using multiple blocks in a single trial, but also by repeating the experiment in multiple years and/or at different sites. With other (e.g. agronomic) treatment factors in the field trial, without interaction with variety, the effective replication can be increased by investigating the main variety effect summed over the other treatment factors. Repeated measures may also increase the power if the expected difference is equal over time and the time points are sufficiently spaced.
The MCRA model for probabilistic single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides
Voet, H. van der; Boer, W.J. de; Kruisselbrink, J.W. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Kennedy, M.C. ; Boon, P.E. ; Klaveren, J.D. van - \ 2015
Food and Chemical Toxicology 79 (2015). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 5 - 12.
dietary exposure - carbamate insecticides - 21st-century roadmap - chemicals - food - organophosphorus - framework - residues - project
Pesticide risk assessment is hampered by worst-case assumptions leading to overly pessimistic assessments. On the other hand, cumulative health effects of similar pesticides are often not taken into account. This paper describes models and a web-based software system developed in the European research project ACROPOLIS. The models are appropriate for both acute and chronic exposure assessments of single compounds and of multiple compounds in cumulative assessment groups. The software system MCRA (Monte Carlo Risk Assessment) is available for stakeholders in pesticide risk assessment at mcra.rivm.nl. We describe the MCRA implementation of the methods as advised in the 2012 EFSA Guidance on probabilistic modelling, as well as more refined methods developed in the ACROPOLIS project. The emphasis is on cumulative assessments. Two approaches, sample-based and compound-based, are contrasted. It is shown that additional data on agricultural use of pesticides may give more realistic risk assessments. Examples are given of model and software validation of acute and chronic assessments, using both simulated data and comparisons against the previous release of MCRA and against the standard software DEEM-FCID used by the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA. It is shown that the EFSA Guidance pessimistic model may not always give an appropriate modelling of exposure.
Optimaal aantal monsters bij monitoring van diervoeders op nationaal niveau
Adamse, P. ; Boer, W.J. de; Goedhart, P.W. ; Nijs, M. de; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR - 63 p.
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