Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Advice of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Seal Rehabilitation in the Netherlands
Zande, A.N. van der; Alphen, J.J.M. van; Goodman, S.J. ; Meijboom, F.L.B. ; Thompson, D. ; Kuindersma, W. ; Latour, J.B. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 90 p.
animal welfare - wild animals - seals - animal health - animal housing
Estimation of above-ground biomass of large tropical trees with terrestrial LiDAR
Gonzalez De Tanago, Jose ; Lau, Alvaro ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Herold, Martin ; Avitabile, Valerio ; Raumonen, Pasi ; Martius, Christopher ; Goodman, Rosa C. ; Disney, Mathias ; Manuri, Solichin ; Burt, Andrew ; Calders, Kim - \ 2018
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9 (2018)2. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 223 - 234.
1. Tropical forest biomass is a crucial component of global carbon emission estimations. However, calibration and validation of such estimates require accurate and effective methods to estimate in situ above-ground biomass (AGB). Present methods rely on allometric models that are highly uncertain for large tropical trees. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) tree modelling has demonstrated to be more accurate than these models to infer forest AGB. Nevertheless, applying TLS methods on tropical large trees is still challenging. We propose a method to estimate AGB of large tropical trees by three-dimensional (3D) tree modelling of TLS point clouds. 2. Twenty-nine plots were scanned with a TLS in three study sites (Peru, Indonesia and Guyana). We identified the largest tree per plot (mean diameter at breast height of 73.5 cm), extracted its point cloud and calculated its volume by 3D modelling its structure using quantitative structure models (QSM) and converted to AGB using species-specific wood density. We also estimated AGB using pantropical and local allometric models. To assess the accuracy of our and allometric methods, we harvest the trees and took destructive measurements. 3. AGB estimates by the TLS–QSM method showed the best agreement in comparison to destructive harvest measurements (28.37% coefficient of variation of root mean square error [CV-RMSE] and concordance correlation coefficient [CCC] of 0.95), outperforming the pantropical allometric models tested (35.6%–54.95% CV-RMSE and CCC of 0.89–0.73). TLS–QSM showed also the lowest bias (overall underestimation of 3.7%) and stability across tree size range, contrasting with the allometric models that showed a systematic bias (overall underestimation ranging 15.2%–35.7%) increasing linearly with tree size. The TLS–QSM method also provided accurate tree wood volume estimates (CV RMSE of 23.7%) with no systematic bias regardless the tree structural characteristics. 4. Our TLS–QSM method accounts for individual tree biophysical structure more effectively than allometric models, providing more accurate and less biased AGB estimates for large tropical trees, independently of their morphology. This non-destructive method can be further used for testing and calibrating new allometric models, reducing the current under-representation of large trees in and enhancing present and past estimates of forest biomass and carbon emissions from tropical forests.
Above-ground biomass assessment of tropical trees with Terrestrial LiDAR and 3D architecture models
Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Gonzalez de Tanago Meñaca, J. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Herold, M. ; Avitabile, V. ; Raumonen, Pasi ; Martius, Christopher ; Goodman, R.C. ; Disney, Mathias ; Manuri, Solichin ; Burt, Andrew ; Calders, Kim - \ 2017
In: SilviLaser 2017 Program. - Blacksburg : Virginia Tech - p. 123 - 124.
Terrestrial LiDAR and 3D Reconstruction Models for Estimation of Large Tree Biomass in the Tropics
Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Gonzalez de Tanago Meñaca, J. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Herold, M. ; Raumonen, P. ; Avitabile, V. ; Martius, Christopher ; Goodman, R.M. ; Manuri, Solichin - \ 2016
- 1 p.
Community assembly on isolated islands: macroecology meets evolution
Rominger, A.J. ; Goodman, K.R. ; Lim, J.Y. ; Armstrong, E. ; Becking, L.E. - \ 2016
Global Ecology and Biogeography 25 (2016)7. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 769 - 780.
Aim Understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes together determine patterns of biodiversity remains a central aim in biology.Guided by ecological theory, we use data from multiple arthropod lineages across the Hawaiian archipelago to explore the interplay between ecological (population dynamics, dispersal, trophic interactions) and evolutionary (genetic structuring, adaptation, speciation, extinction) processes. Our goal is to show how communities develop from the dynamic feedbacks that operate at different temporal and spatial scales. Location The Hawaiian islands (19–22° N, 155–160° W). Methods We synthesize genetic data from selected arthropods across the Hawaiian archipelago to determine the relative role of dispersal and in situ differentiation across the island chronosequence. From four sites on three high islands with geological ages ranging from <1 Ma to 5 Ma, we also generate ecological metrics on plant–herbivore bipartite networks drawn from the literature. We compare the structure of these networks with predictions derived from the principle of maximum information entropy. Results From the perspective of the island chronosequence we show that species at lower trophic levels develop population genetic structure at smaller temporal and spatial scales than species at higher trophic levels. Network nestedness decreases while modularity increases with habitat age. Single-island endemics exhibit more specialization than broadly distributed species, but both show the least specialization in communities on middle-aged substrates. Plant–herbivore networks also show the least deviation from theoretical predictions in middle-aged communities. Main conclusions The application of ecological theory to island chronosequences can illuminate feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes in community assembly. We show how patterns of population genetic structure, decreasing network nestedness, increasing network modularity and increased specialization shift from early assembly driven by immigration, to in situ diversification after > 1 Myr. Herbivore–plant communities only transiently achieve statistical steady state during assembly, presumably due to incomplete assembly from dispersal in the early stages, and the increasing influence of island ontogeny on older islands.
Communication of the international GMO workshop
Brookes, Graham ; Chen, Xiao Ya ; Chrispeels, Maarten J. ; Delmer, Deborah P. ; Dubock, Adrian ; Herrera-Estrella, Luis ; Goodman, Richard E. ; Newell-McGloughlin, Martina ; Montagu, Marc Van ; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima ; Obokoh, Nompumelelo H. ; Raven, Peter H. ; Wesseler, Justus ; Wu, Kongming ; Xu, Zhihong ; Yang, Xiaoguang ; Zehr, Usha Barwale ; Zhang, Qifa ; Zhang, Ya Ping ; Zhu, Zhen - \ 2015
Science Bulletin 60 (2015)2. - ISSN 2095-9273 - p. 283 - 285.
Scenarios and the art of worldmaking
Vervoort, Joost M. ; Bendor, Roy ; Kelliher, Aisling ; Strik, Oscar ; Helfgott, A.E.R. - \ 2015
Futures 74 (2015). - ISSN 0016-3287 - p. 62 - 70.
Agency - Deconstruction - Imagination - Pluralism - Scenarios - Worlds

In this exploratory paper we propose 'worldmaking' as a framework for pluralistic, imaginative scenario development. Our points of departure are the need in scenario practice to embrace uncertainty, discomfort and knowledge gaps, and the connected need to capture and make productive fundamental plurality among understandings of the future. To help respond to these needs, we introduce what Nelson Goodman calls worldmaking. It holds that there is no singular, objective world (or "real reality"), and instead that worlds are multiple, constructed through creative processes instead of given, and always in the process of becoming. We then explore how worldmaking can operationalise discordant pluralism in scenario practice by allowing participants to approach not only the future but also the present in a constructivist and pluralistic fashion; and by extending pluralism to ontological domains. Building on this, we investigate how scenario worldmaking could lead to more imaginative scenarios: worldmaking is framed as a fully creative process which gives participants ontological agency, and it helps make contrasts, tensions and complementarities between worlds productive. We go on to propose questions that can be used to operationalize scenario worldmaking, and conclude with the expected potential and limitations the approach, as well as suggestions for practical experimentation.

Terrestrial LiDAR and 3D tree Quantitative Structure Model for quantification of aboveground biomass loss from selective logging in a tropical rainforest of Peru
Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Herold, M. ; Avitabile, V. ; Goodman, R.M. ; Raumonen, P. ; Burt, A. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings of SilviLaser 2015. - - p. 119 - 121.
Terrestrial LiDAR and 3D tree reconstruction modeling for quantification of biomass loss and characterization of impacts of selective logging in tropical forest of Peruvian Amazon. Multi-sensor assessment, combining near and remote sensing
Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Herold, M. ; Goodman, R.M. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Avitabile, V. ; Raumonen, P. ; Calders, K. ; Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Janovec, J. - \ 2014
Why maintaining tropical forests is essential and urgent for a stable climate
Goodman, R.C. ; Herold, M. - \ 2014
Washington DC : Center for Global Development (CGD Climate and Forest Paper Series/CGD Working Paper 385) - 51 p.
Governance of global organic agro-food networks from Africa
Glin, L.C. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570245 - 200
biologische landbouw - basisproducten - netwerken - samenwerking - milieubeleid - goederenmarkten - beleid - afrika - organic farming - commodities - networks - cooperation - environmental policy - commodity markets - policy - africa

The increasing global concerns with regard to agro-food risks and the subsequent consumerist turn in the global food economy challenges the conventional chemical-intensive agricultural production. In fact, the post-war dominant agro-industrial development fostered the intensive use of chemical inputs, corporate concentration, and standardization of products for mass consumption (Goodman et al. 1987; Raynolds et al. 2007). This prompted a rapid agricultural development, which contributed to overall growth, reducing poverty and food insecurity (Koning and Mol, 2009). Despite the success so far achieved, this Fordist regime generated several externalities on natural ecosystems and human and animal health. In addition, the further modernization of production techniques (for instance the genetically modified organisms) combined with globalization processes extended the scope and character of agro-food risks, which became global and cross-border. The global organization of the food system crystallized the ‘globalization’ of food related risks through the growing time and distance compression and the subsequent intensification of commodity flows and exchanges globally. Thus, to be effectively handled, these risks must be addressed from a global perspective; hence within supra nation-state institutions. In parallel, the concerns about the impacts of chemical use in agriculture also expanded over time to include others, such as animal welfare, food safety, energy use, landscape, biodiversity and climate change (Oosterveer and Sonnenfeld, 2012). However, state-led international regimes (WTO and environmental regimes) failed to adequately address modern agro-food related risks, particularly sustainability issues (including environmental, social, ethical, and animal welfare). However, globalization processes also facilitated networking processes and alliance and coalition buildings between various stakeholders within and across regions, aiming for sustainable food provision; hence the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. Thus, several non-state regimes, i.e. market- and civil society-led mechanisms emerged around standards and labeling schemes to respond to these issues while restructuring agro-food production and trade towards more sustainability and rebuilding consumer trust in food. Organic agro-food production and trade is of particular importance among these non-state regimes as this constitutes a major innovation towards the greening of the (global) agro-food economy and the fastest growing food sector worldwide with around 170% increase from 2002 to 2011 (Sahota, 2013).

In Africa, organic agriculture emerged as response to the environmental and health burden of conventional farming techniques and the growing demand for organic products from the North as a result of the emergence of new consumption patterns. Owing to globalization, agricultural products flows and exchanges between Africa and the other regions of the globe, particularly the Europe Union, have been intensified. The Europe Union is a major destination of most agricultural product exports from Africa. Thus, more demand in sustainable agro-foods in global and EU markets affects agricultural production systems in Africa towards more sustainability. In all, given the particular importance of agricultural exports for national and household economies, the fragility of natural resources and the vulnerability of livelihoods Africa is witnessing the double phenomenon of ‘globalization of agro-food risks’ and the ‘reflexive globalization of alternative agro-food’. In this respect, it may be expected

that the introduction of organic agriculture in Africa could help address the pressing challenges of income generation for smallholder farmers, poverty alleviation, and resilience of production systems and natural resources (land, water, forests, etc.).

Broadly, this thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of the governance arrangements of transnational organic commodity networks from Africa to inform policy makers, development organizations, civil society and business actors as well as scientists and academia about the underlying rationalities and processes, the challenges and prospects of organic agriculture in the continent. More specifically, this research aims to understand the governing (f)actors, i.e. rationalities and processes that steered the development of organic commodity networks from Africa and to highlight whether and how these processes transform civil society-business-state relationships. In this respect, the following research questions are addressed: (1) how did different rationalities and stakeholders initiate and co-structure the development and further transformation of organic commodity networks from Africa across time and space? (2) how is trust (re)created to establish and mediate relationships between the different stakeholders and material substances involved in the production, processing and marketing nodes across the organic commodity networks? (3) how and to what extent have governance arrangements within the organic commodity networks subsequently reshaped civil society-business-state relationships?

For this purpose we adopted a qualitative and holistic methodology by employing the (global) commodity network perspective (See Chapter 2). The commodity network approach is rooted in the (global) commodity chain tradition of investigation and analysis of the links between production, processing, and distribution of commodities. The commodity network perspective aims to provide a more holistic analysis of actors, institutions, and their interrelations. Governance in this lens refers to how social and political as well as economic actors ideologically and materially construct, maintain, transform, and sustain commodity networks (Raynolds, 2004). Purposively, three cases are selected and investigated in this thesis: the organic cotton from Benin, the organic cocoa from Ghana, and the organic sesame from Burkina-Faso.

Prior to these case studies, Chapter 3 provides an overview of organic agriculture in Africa. The trends in certified organic production as well as the history and development of organic agriculture in the continent are presented. The organic sector in Africa is relatively young and dynamic with some nuances and differentiations across sub-regions in terms of orientation, driving forces and leading stakeholders. Overall, the organic sector in Africa relies mainly on NGO networks, private stakeholders and development funds while government support is lacking. However, there are some recent experiences of engagement from state agencies, mostly through public-private partnerships and other hybrid arrangements. Chapter 3 also presents some features of trade and regulation of organic commodities in Africa and highlights the major challenges that face the development of organic agriculture on the continent.

Chapter 4 addresses the case of the organic cotton network from Benin by responding specifically to the question how the organic cotton production–consumption network is governed locally and internationally. The findings reveal that beyond the traditional producer versus buyer dualism, intermediate stakeholders, namely transnational and local environmental NGO networks, are instrumental in the construction, maintenance and transformation of the organic cotton network. It is also apparent that farmers’ leaders play an important role in mediating and (re)building trust among organic farmers, though they exert insufficient vertical power in the organic cotton network to control it. International conferences and events provided important occasions for establishing linkages between organic cotton promoters and businesses, and they strengthened the organic movement. The findings favour widening the concept of Global Value Chain beyond economics by acknowledging and including environmental rationalities and the representatives of their interests, not as external elements, but rather as co-governing or co-structuring factors (or actors) of sustainable value chains.

Chapter 5 presents the case study on the organic cocoa network from Ghana and addresses particularly the question how the state responded to and engaged with civil society actors in the evolving organic cocoa network and to what extent state involvement reshaped state-business-civil society relationships. While most of the literature argues that globalization and liberalization processes weakened the state’s position as key player in the development and management of agro-food networks, the case of the (organic) cocoa sector in Ghana is often depicted as an exception because of the strong position the state still occupies in it. The chapter demonstrates that although the state is still a major player in the contemporary (organic) cocoa network some hybrid governance arrangements, involving state, transnational and national NGO-networks, and businesses, are emerging. It came out that the tendency toward sustainability in the global cocoa industry with its increased attention for transversal critical matters (eradication of child labor, health safety, good farming practices) offers a fertile ground for newcomers (civil society and business actors) and the hybridization of the governance arrangements of the organic cocoa network. The organic cocoa network also prompted a double process of ‘dis- and re-embedding’ at the local level that helped shape and strengthen the organic cocoa network.

Chapter 6 addresses the case study on the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso. Specifically, this chapter examines the structure and development of this network to explain the declining trend in organic sesame export and addresses the question whether the organic sesame network is structurally (re)shaped as a conventional mainstream market or whether it still presents a real alternative to conventional sesame production and trade. For this purpose, the chapter elaborates on the concept of conventionalization of ‘alternative’ food economies from governance perspective. It is found that over the last decade organic sesame is increasingly incorporated into mainstream market channels. But contrary to the well-known case of conventionalization in California, where organic agriculture grew into mainstream agro-food arrangements, this study illustrates a case where organic sesame agriculture shrank into mainstream agro-food arrangements. In fact, the organic sesame trading system is strongly affected by fierce price competition and volatility in the conventional sesame sector and the free market behavior of conventional sesame traders. This makes the organic sesame network vulnerable and permeable to the international commercial pressure from the mainstream conventional sesame market. The weak coherence in the organic sesame chain resulted in failures to vertically mediate information, balance power relationships in and across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing across sesame chains, build trust, and limit price volatility and speculation, resulting in a shrinking organic sesame market. For developing a viable alternative to conventional sesame trading, relations between production and trading nodes in the organic networks need to be strengthened through public-private partnerships, combined with other public and legal reinforcement.

Chapter 7 elaborates on the major findings from the case studies to draw conclusions on the governing (f)actors, i.e. the rationalities and processes that steer the initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks from Africa. By doing so, this chapter also responds to the research questions of the thesis. From the empirical findings, it came out that various rationalities, stakeholders, processes, values and practices from different spheres (political, environmental, social, and economic) interfere to co-structure and shape the development and life of the commodity network. Several networking processes, different in their scope and importance, are instrumental in the construction, (re)shaping, and (re)configuration of the organic commodity networks. These networking processes include: (1) mobilization of personal social networks and interpersonal social ties; (2) mediation of material and natural resources; (3) market networking and relations and (4) transnational events and gatherings. However, this does not suggest that the governance arrangements and dynamics are linear or similar across the three cases. In fact, it stands out that the degree and relative engagement of each category of stakeholders and rationality evolved over time and differs from one case to another. As Coe et al. (2008: 271) argue unraveling the complexities of the global economy, with its fundamental geographical unevenness and huge inequalities, poses immense conceptual and empirical difficulties. The commodity network perspective applied in this thesis helped to conceptualize and capture the diverse, fluid, and dynamic processes involved in the governance of organic commodities from Africa. The research methodology based on a multi-case study and a qualitative approach unraveled the multifaceted factors, rationalities, processes, and realities of the governance arrangements and dynamics of the organic commodity networks from Africa.

Trust appears to be a major determinant of connectivity and networking among individuals, organizations, places, and material objects involved in the organic commodity networks from local to global level and vice versa. Three trust building mechanisms are identified including trust in persons, trust in organizations/institutions, and trust in things. In organic commodity networks practices these forms of trust often intermingle. However, this trust is sometimes challenged because of opportunism, information and power asymmetry, and suspicion between producer groups and traders, potentially resulting in severe consequences for the success of organic commodity networks. In this case, a mediation process (often led by farmer leaders or a third-party, in general a development organization) may be necessary to rebuild trust and reconnect the ties between these categories. Otherwise, this situation may ultimately lead to mistrust and distrust in, and put at risk the viability of the organic commodity network.

It also appears that the governance of organic commodity networks opened up the way for (further) collaboration and partnerships between civil society organizations, private enterprises and public agencies. In fact, throughout the processes of initiation, development and further transformation of the organic commodity networks the relationships between the three key players (State, Businesses, and CSOs) have been reshaped as result of ongoing .

Variation in European harbour seal immune response genes and susceptibility to phocine distemper virus (PDV)
McCarthy, A.J. ; Shaw, M. ; Jepson, P.D. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Reijnders, P.J.H. ; Goodman, S.J. - \ 2011
Infection, genetics and evolution 11 (2011)7. - ISSN 1567-1348 - p. 1616 - 1623.
subacute sclerosing-panencephalitis - measles-virus - conservation genetics - cellular receptor - whole-genome - disease - association - vitulina - polymorphisms - populations
Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused two mass mortalities of European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in recent decades. Levels of mortality varied considerably among European populations in both the 1988 and 2002 epidemics, with higher mortality in continental European populations in comparison to UK populations. High levels of genetic differentiation at neutral makers among seal populations allow for the possibility that there could be potential genetic differences at functional loci that may account for some of the variation in mortality. Recent genome sequencing of carnivore species and development of genomic tools have now made it possible to explore the possible contribution of variation in candidate genes from harbour seals in relation to the differential mortality patterns. We assessed variation in eight genes (CD46, IFNG, IL4, IL8, IL10, RARa, SLAM and TLR2) encoding key proteins involved in host cellular interactions with Morbilliviruses and the relationship of variants to disease status. This work constitutes the first genetic association study for Morbillivirus disease susceptibility in a non-model organism, and for a natural mortality event. We found no variation in harbour seals from across Europe in the protein coding domains of the viral receptors SLAM and CD46, but SNPs were present in SLAM intron 2. SNPs were also present in IL8 p2 and RARa exon 1. There was no significant association of SLAM or RARa polymorphisms with disease status implying no role of these genes in determining resistance to PDV induced mortality, that could be detected with the available samples and the small number of polymorphisms indentified. However there was significant differentiation of allele frequencies among populations. PDV and other morbilliviruses are important models for wildlife epidemiology, host switches and viral evolution. Despite a negative result in this case, full sequencing of pinniped and other 'non-model' carnivore genomes will help in refining understanding the role of host genetics in disease susceptibility for these viruses
Landscape - identity through involvement
Pedroli, B. ; Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2010
In: Landscape as a project. A survey of views amongst UNISCAPE Members. Reactions to a Position Paper of Franco Zagari / Pedroli, B., Goodman, T., Melfi, Italia : Casa Editrice Libria - ISBN 9788896075128 - p. 25 - 28.
Preface
Magnani, C. ; Pedroli, B. - \ 2010
In: Landscape as a project. A survey of views amongst UNISCAPE Members. Reactions to a Position Paper of Franco Zagari / Pedroli, B., Goodman, T., Melfi, Italia : Casa Editrice Libria - ISBN 9788896067512 - p. 11 - 12.
Landscape as a project. A survey of views amongst UNISCAPE Members. Reactions to a Position Paper of Franco Zagari
Pedroli, B. ; Goodman, T. - \ 2010
Melfi, Italia : Casa Editrice Libria - ISBN 9788896075128 - 181 p.
Measurement with Persons: A European Network
Pendrill, L.R. ; Emardson, R. ; Berglund, B. ; Gröning, M. ; Höglund, A. ; Cancedda, A. ; Quinti, G. ; Crenna, F. ; Rossi, G.B. ; Drnovek, J. ; Gersak, G. ; Goodman, T. ; Harris, S. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Kallinen, K. ; Ravaja, N. - \ 2010
Measure 5 (2010)2. - ISSN 0162-6248 - p. 42 - 54.
The European ‘Measuring the Impossible’ Network MINET promotes new research activities in measurement dependent on human perception and/or interpretation. This includes the perceived attributes of products and services, such as quality or desirability, and societal parameters such as security and well-being. Work has aimed at consensus about four ‘generic’ metrological issues: (1) Measurement Concepts & Terminology; (2) Measurement Techniques: (3) Measurement Uncertainty; and (4) Decision-making & Impact Assessment, and how these can be applied specificallyto the ‘Measurement of Persons’ in terms of ‘Man as a Measurement Instrument’ and ‘Measuring Man.’ Some of the main achievements of MINET include a research repository with glossary; training course; book; series of workshops;think tanks and study visits, which have brought together a unique constellation of researchers from physics, metrology,physiology, psychophysics, psychology and sociology. Metrology (quality-assured measurement) in this area is relativelyunderdeveloped, despite great potential for innovation, and extends beyond traditional physiological metrology in thatit also deals with measurement with all human senses as well as mental and behavioral processes. This is particularlyrelevant in applications where humans are an important component of critical systems, where for instance health andsafety are at stake.
Model development to predict perceived degree of naturalness
Bialek, A. ; Forbes, A. ; Goodman, T. ; Montgomery, R. ; Rides, M. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Voet, H. van der; Polder, G. ; Overvliet, K. - \ 2009
Measuring Physical and visual material properties to determine their perceives degree of naturalness
Montgomery, R. ; Goodman, T. ; Bialek, A. ; Forbes, A. ; Rides, M. ; Whitaker, A. ; Overliet, K. ; McGlone, F. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der - \ 2008
In: Materials & Sensations 2008, Pau, France, 22 - 24 October, 2008. - Pau : - p. 103 - 106.
The Measurement of Naturalness
Goodman, T. ; Montgomery, R. ; Bialek, A. ; Forbes, A. ; Rides, M. ; Whitaker, A. ; Overliet, K. ; McGlone, F. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der - \ 2008
The FEMA GRAS assessment of a,b-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients
Adams, T.B. ; Lucas-Gavin, C. ; Taylor, S.V. ; Waddell, W.J. ; Cohen, S.M. ; Feron, V.J. ; Goodman, J. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Marnett, L.J. ; Portoghese, P.S. ; Smith, R.L. - \ 2008
Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (2008)9. - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 2935 - 2967.
sister-chromatid exchanges - glutathione s-transferases - acid nitrite invivo - long-term toxicity - sorbic acid - lipid-peroxidation - cytochrome-c - dna-damage - allyl alcohol - 1,n(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts
This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2200 chemically-defined substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, toxicodynamics and toxicology. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation for the use of aliphatic, linear ¿,ß-unsaturated aldehydes and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their low level of flavor use; the rapid absorption and metabolism of low in vivo concentrations by well-recognized biochemical pathways; adequate metabolic detoxication at much higher levels of exposure in humans and animals; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies. While some of the compounds described here have exhibited positive in vitro genotoxicity results, evidence of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity occurs only under conditions in which animals are repeatedly and directly exposed to high irritating concentrations of the aldehyde. These conditions are not relevant to humans who consume ¿,ß-unsaturated aldehydes as flavor ingredients at low concentrations distributed in a food or beverage matrix.
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