Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Soil for life : Input values for the organic matter balance: catch crops and crop residues
Harms, Imke ; Postma, Romke ; Vegt, Kimberly van der; Haan, J.J. de - \ 2018
Nutriënten Management Instituut (NMI-report 1740.N.18) - 34 p.
Verification of CBI's intervention logic: Insights from the PRIME Toolbox
Rijn, Fédes van; Ton, Giel ; Maas, Karen ; Pamuk, Haki ; Harms, Job ; Dengerink, Just ; Waarts, Yuka ; Relou, Carly ; Vos, Birgit ; Hubers, Frank - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research - ISBN 9789463438520 - 42
Verification of PUM’s intervention logic: Insights from the PRIME toolbox
Rijn, Fédes van; Ton, Giel ; Maas, Karen ; Pamuk, Haki ; Harms, Job ; Dengerink, Just ; Waarts, Yuka ; Relou, Carly ; Vos, Birgit ; Hubers, Frank - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research - ISBN 9789463438513 - 36
Amine Metabolism Is Influenced by Dietary Protein Source
Kar, Soumya K. ; Jansman, Alfons J.M. ; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Kruijt, Leo ; Harms, Amy C. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Smits, Mari A. - \ 2017
Frontiers in Nutrition 4 (2017). - ISSN 2296-861X
Growth in world population will inevitably leads to increased demand for protein for humans and animals. Protein from insects and blood plasma are being considered as possible alternatives, but more research on their nutritional quality and health effects is needed. Here, we studied the effect of dietary protein source on metabolism and metabolic amine profiles in serum and urine of mice. Groups of mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 300 g/kg of soybean meal, casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray-dried plasma
protein, wheat gluten meal, and yellow mealworm. Feed and water intake as well as body weight gain were measured for 28 days. After 14 and 28 days, serum and urine samples were collected for measurement of a large panel of amine metabolites. MetaboAnalyst 3.0 was used for analysis of the raw metabolic data. Out of 68 targeted amine metabolites, we could detect 54 in urine and 41 in blood serum. Dietary protein sources were found to have profound effects on host metabolism, particularly in systemic amine profiles, considered here as an endophenotype. We recommend serum over urine to screen for the amine metabolic endophenotype based on partial least squares discriminant analysis. We concluded that metabolites like alpha-aminobutyric acid and methylhistidine are sensitive indicators of too much or too little availability of specific amino acids in the different protein diets. Furthermore, we concluded that amine metabolic profiles can be useful for assessing the nutritional quality of different protein sources.
Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity after Lean Donor Feces in Metabolic Syndrome Is Driven by Baseline Intestinal Microbiota Composition
Kootte, Ruud S. ; Levin, Evgeni ; Salojärvi, Jarkko ; Smits, Loek P. ; Hartstra, Annick V. ; Udayappan, Shanti D. ; Hermes, Gerben ; Bouter, Kristien E. ; Koopen, Annefleur M. ; Holst, Jens J. ; Knop, Filip K. ; Blaak, Ellen E. ; Zhao, Jing Hua ; Smidt, Hauke ; Harms, Amy C. ; Hankemeijer, Thomas ; Bergman, Jacques J.G.H.M. ; Romijn, Hans A. ; Schaap, Frank G. ; Olde Damink, Steven W.M. ; Ackermans, Mariette T. ; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M. ; Zoetendal, Erwin ; Vos, Willem M. de; Serlie, Mireille J. ; Stroes, Erik S.G. ; Groen, Albert K. ; Nieuwdorp, Max - \ 2017
Cell Metabolism 26 (2017)4. - ISSN 1550-4131 - p. 611 - 619.e6.
fecal microbiota transplantation - insulin sensitivity - intestinal microbiota composition - plasma metabolites

The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We therefore studied the effect of lean donor (allogenic) versus own (autologous) fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to male recipients with the metabolic syndrome. Whereas we did not observe metabolic changes at 18 weeks after FMT, insulin sensitivity at 6 weeks after allogenic FMT was significantly improved, accompanied by altered microbiota composition. We also observed changes in plasma metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid and show that metabolic response upon allogenic FMT (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 6 weeks after FMT) is dependent on decreased fecal microbial diversity at baseline. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of lean donor FMT on glucose metabolism are associated with changes in intestinal microbiota and plasma metabolites and can be predicted based on baseline fecal microbiota composition. Kootte et al. show that fecal microbiota transplantation from lean donors to obese patients with metabolic syndrome improves insulin sensitivity, a transient effect associated with changes in microbiota composition and fasting plasma metabolites. Baseline fecal microbiota composition in recipients predicts the response to lean donor fecal microbiota transplantation.

Inhibitory effect of coumarin on syntrophic fatty acid-oxidizing and methanogenic cultures and biogas reactor microbiomes
Popp, Denny ; Plugge, Caroline M. ; Kleinsteuber, Sabine ; Harms, Hauke ; Sträuber, Heike - \ 2017
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 83 (2017)13. - ISSN 0099-2240 - 14 p.
16S rRNA genes - Amplicon sequencing - Anaerobic digestion - McrA genes - Plant secondary metabolites

Coumarins are widely found in plants as natural constituents having antimicrobial activity. When considering plants that are rich in coumarins for biogas production, adverse effects on microorganisms driving the anaerobic digestion process are expected. Furthermore, coumarin derivatives, like warfarin, which are used as anticoagulating medicines, are found in wastewater, affecting its treatment. Coumarin, the structure common to all coumarins, inhibits the anaerobic digestion process. However, the details of this inhibition are still elusive. Here, we studied the impact of coumarin on acetogenesis and methanogenesis. First, coumarin was applied at four concentrations between 0.25 and 1 g · liter-1 to pure cultures of the methanogens Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanospirillum hungatei, which resulted in up to 25% less methane production. Acetate production of syntrophic propionate- and butyrate-degrading cultures of Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and Syntrophomonas wolfei was inhibited by 72% at a coumarin concentration of 1 g · liter-1. Coumarin also inhibited acetogenesis and acetoclastic methanogenesis in a complex biogas reactor microbiome. When a coumarin-adapted microbiome was used, acetogenesis and methanogenesis were not inhibited. According to amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and mcrA genes, the communities of the two microbiomes were similar, although Methanoculleus was more abundant and Methanobacterium less abundant in the coumarin-adapted than in the nonadapted microbiome. Our results suggest that well-dosed feeding with coumarin-rich feedstocks to full-scale biogas reactors while keeping the coumarin concentrations below 0.5 g · liter-1 will allow adaptation to coumarins by structural and functional community reorganization and coumarin degradation.

Are there ethical differences between stopping and not starting blood safety measures?
Kramer, K. ; Verweij, M.F. ; Zaaijer, H.L. - \ 2017
Vox Sanguinis 112 (2017)5. - ISSN 0042-9007 - p. 417 - 424.
Cost-effectiveness - Donor blood safety - Ethics - Transfusion-transmissible infections - Withdrawing vs. withholding
Background and Objectives: Concern with the costs of blood safety is growing, which raises the question whether safety measures that reduce risk only marginally should be discontinued. Withdrawing such safety measures would allow reallocating resources to more efficient health care interventions, but it might raise moral objections. Materials and Methods: This study evaluates two ethical arguments why discontinuing blood safety measures would be more objectionable than not implementing them. The first argument is that whereas withdrawing protective measures causes harm to patients, not starting protective measures 'merely' omits to prevent harm. The second argument is that patients who benefit from protective measures are historically entitled to the continuation of those protective measures. Results: Both arguments are unconvincing. There is only a weak causal connection between removing blood safety measures and harms that transfusion recipients suffer. Moreover, patients are not entitled to the continuation of protective measures that prove very inefficient, unless applying these protective measures rectifies past injustice towards them. Conclusion: Unless stronger ethical objections can be found, blood system operators and regulators should be more willing to withdraw inefficient safety measures.
Actief antirookbeleid is morele taak van overheid; Verantwoordelijkheid voor minder roken ligt bij individu én maatschappij
Verweij, Marcel - \ 2017
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 161 (2017)12. - ISSN 0028-2162

Tobacco discouragement, smoking cessation and tobacco endgame policies are sometimes criticised for being unduly paternalistic: governments should respect citizens' freedom and not take over their individual responsibility for healthy behaviour. In this commentary, I argue that very strict tobacco policies can be justified on multiple grounds, including the harm principle, the public good of maintaining a healthy society, and the reduction of health inequities. The moral reasons governments have to protect people against the harms of smoking do not limit or infringe upon the responsibility of each individual to take care of her own health: responsibility for healthy behaviour is not a zero-sum game.

The Precautionary Principle and the Tolerability of Blood Transfusion Risks
Kramer, Koen ; Zaaijer, Hans L. ; Verweij, Marcel F. - \ 2017
The American Journal of Bioethics 17 (2017)3. - ISSN 1526-5161 - p. 32 - 43.
donor blood safety - MSM and blood donation - opportunity costs - precautionary principle - risk - risk-based decision-making - transfusion-transmissible infections
Tolerance for blood transfusion risks is very low, as evidenced by the implementation of expensive blood tests and the rejection of gay men as blood donors. Is this low risk tolerance supported by the precautionary principle, as defenders of such policies claim? We discuss three constraints on applying (any version of) the precautionary principle and show that respecting these implies tolerating certain risks. Consistency means that the precautionary principle cannot prescribe precautions that it must simultaneously forbid taking, considering the harms they might cause. Avoiding counterproductivity requires rejecting precautions that cause more harm than they prevent. Proportionality forbids taking precautions that are more harmful than adequate alternatives. When applying these constraints, we argue, attention should not be restricted to harms that are human caused or that affect human health or the environment. Tolerating transfusion risks can be justified if available precautions have serious side effects, such as high social or economic costs.
Identifying Environmental and Human Factors Associated With Tick Bites using Volunteered Reports and Frequent Pattern Mining
Garcia-Martí, Irene ; Zurita-Milla, Raul ; Swart, Arno ; Wijngaard, Kees C. van den; Vliet, Arnold J.H. van; Bennema, Sita ; Harms, Margriet - \ 2017
Transactions in GIS 21 (2017)2. - ISSN 1361-1682 - p. 277 - 299.

Tick populations and tick-borne diseases like Lyme borreliosis have been steadily increasing since the mid-1990s. Realizing the threat that ticks pose to public health, two Dutch citizen science projects have collected tick bite reports since 2006. This unique volunteered geographical dataset, which currently has nearly 35,000 reports, was used to identify environmental and other circumstantial factors associated with tick bites. For this, we first enriched the tick bite reports with temperature, precipitation, vegetation and volunteered data associated with the location of the tick bite. Using this enriched dataset, we then derived a series of features to characterize the environmental and volunteer-related conditions in which each tick bite occurred. Next, we discretized these features using the Jenks Natural Breaks algorithm and, after that, we mined frequent environmental patterns associated with tick bites using the AprioriClose algorithm. Finally, we checked that these patterns are specifically associated with the tick bites by comparing them with the frequent patterns mined from pseudo-random locations. The frequent patterns were visualized using heat maps and ring maps and two representative patterns associated with tick bites were projected into geographic space to study their spatio-temporal distribution. Our results show that factors linked to human activity are more relevant to model tick bites than seasonal accumulations of temperature, vegetation or precipitation. In particular, the number of warm and dry days per season are present in a significant number of patterns and the majority of tick bites are produced within a distance of half a kilometer of a forest, recreational or built-up area. The study of patterns in the time-series revealed that there are several persistent patterns consistently occurring each year and the validation process showed that the volunteer tick bites collection is capturing environmental conditions associated with tick bites, suggesting that these reports have a high scientific value. These results support the creation of a Dutch tick bite risk map that, in turn, will open the door to the design of public health interventions to reduce the incidence of Lyme disease.

Economic feasibility and climate benefits of using struvite from the Netherlands as a phosphate (P) fertilizer in West Africa
Vries, Sander de; Postma, Romke ; Scholl, Laura van; Blom-Zandstra, Greet ; Verhagen, Jan ; Harms, Imke - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research (Wageningen Plant Research report 673) - 47
Not everyone dealing with agricultural issues in Malawi appreciates the fact that smallholders in this country face challenges which are unique in Africa. No other country in Sub-Saharan Africa has population densities of up to 250 to the square km combined with a single rainy season of five months. The five areas with comparable population densities to those of Malawi have rain all the year or have two rainy seasons. Their smallholders can grow perennial food crops and, on a small piece of land, establish high value perennial cash crops such as tea, coffee and vanilla. On the other hand farmers living in areas with comparable rainfall to Malawi occupy comparatively thinly populated countries and so are able to grow larger areas of food crops to meet their needs and larger areas of low value annual cash crops such as cotton and legumes and so raise some cash for their family requirements. Many Malawian smallholders can adopt neither of these options. The overwhelming majority cannot grow coffee or tea because of inadequate rainfall and the limitations of small farm size means that they can only produce small amounts of any crop other than their basic staples. About 15% grow burley tobacco but that number cannot be increased as the crop is already over-produced. A further 10% raise cash from rice, groundnuts, maize and horticultural crops but the great majority have to allocate all of their land to producing food for the family and rely on low paid casual occupations to raise the cash that they need. It is for this reason that the majority of rural Malawians are classified as being below the poverty line. An appreciation of this situation can help in an understanding of the current state of smallholder farming in Malawi and it is hoped that these notes may cast a little more light on the plight of this country’s millions of small scale farmers and provide some indicators as to how best they can be helped.
Fulbright Arctic Initiative: An Innovative Model for Policy Relevant Research & Public Outreach
Virgina, Ross A. ; Sfraga, Michael ; Arnbom, Tom ; Chamberlain, Linda ; Chatwood, Susan ; Tepecik Dis, Asli ; Hoogensen Gjorv, Gunhild ; Harms, Tamara K. ; Hansen, Anne ; Holdmann, Gwen ; Johnson, Noor ; Lantz, Trevor ; Magnússon, Bjarni ; Neuhaus, Itty S. ; Poelzer, Gregory ; Sokka, Laura ; Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Varpe, Oystein ; Vestergaard, Niels - \ 2016
Arctic Yearbook 2016 (2016). - ISSN 2298-2418 - p. 212 - 224.
Decrease in tick bite consultations and stabilization of early Lyme borreliosis in the Netherlands in 2014 after 15 years of continuous increase
Hofhuis, Agnetha ; Bennema, Sita ; Harms, Margriet ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Takken, W. ; Wijngaard, C.C. van den; Pelt, Wilfrid van - \ 2016
BMC Public Health 16 (2016). - ISSN 1471-2458
Background
Nationwide surveys have shown a threefold increase in general practitioner (GP) consultations for tick bites and early Lyme borreliosis from 1994 to 2009 in the Netherlands. We now report an update on 2014, with identical methods as for the preceding GP surveys.

Methods
To all GPs in the Netherlands, a postal questionnaire was sent inquiring about the number of consultations for tick bites and erythema migrans diagnoses (most common manifestation of early Lyme borreliosis) in 2014, and the size of their practice populations.

Results
Contrasting to the previously rising incidence of consultations for tick bites between 1994 and 2009, the incidence decreased in 2014 to 488 consultations for tick bites per 100,000 inhabitants, i.e., 82,000 patients nationwide. This survey revealed a first sign of stabilization of the previously rising trend in GP diagnosed erythema migrans, with 140 diagnoses per 100,000 inhabitants of the Netherlands. This equals about 23,500 annual diagnoses of erythema migrans nationwide in 2014.

Conclusions
In contrast to the constantly rising incidence of GP consultations for tick bites and erythema migrans diagnoses in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2009, the current survey of 2014 showed a first sign of stabilization of erythema migrans diagnoses and a decreased incidence for tick bite consultations.
Tekenradar.nl: een webplatform voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar tekenbeten en de ziekte van Lyme
Wijngaard, C.C. van den; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Vrijmoeth, H.D. ; Ursinus, J. ; Harms, Margriet - \ 2016
MFM- praktijkgerichte nascholing over farmacotherapie 1 (2016).
Tekenradar.nl is een webplatform voor onderzoek naar teken en tekenoverdraagbare aandoeningen zoals de ziekte van Lyme. Het RIVM en Wageningen University hebben de website in 2012 gezamenlijk opgericht. De website geeft informatie over tekenbeten en de ziekte van Lyme en een voorspelling van de tekenactiviteit in Nederland. Mensen kunnen hun tekenbeet, erythema migrans of andere vorm van de ziekte van Lyme en de vermoedelijke locatie waar de tekenbeet is opgelopen, melden op de website. Patiënten die beginnen met een antibioticumkuur tegen de ziekte van Lyme worden sinds 2015 op de website uitgenodigd om deel te nemen aan de LymeProspect studie, waarbij hun gezondheid een jaar lang wordt gevolgd.1 Het doel van dit onderzoek is meer inzicht te verkrijgen in het beloop van de ziekte van Lyme en de oorzaken van aanhoudende klachten na behandeling. In dit artikel geven wij een overzicht van het bereik van Tekenradar.nl onder het Nederlands publiek, en beschrijven wij het lopende onderzoek.
Decades of population genetic research reveal the need for harmonization of molecular markers : The grey wolf Canis lupus as a case study
Groot, G.A. de; Nowak, Carsten ; Skrbinšek, Tomaž ; Andersen, Liselotte W. ; Aspi, Jouni ; Fumagalli, Luca ; Godinho, Raquel ; Harms, Verena ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Liberg, Olof ; Marucco, Francesca ; Mysłajek, Robert W. ; Nowak, Sabina ; Pilot, Małgorzata ; Randi, Ettore ; Reinhardt, Ilka ; Śmietana, Wojciech ; Szewczyk, Maciej ; Taberlet, Pierre ; Vilà, Carles ; Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta - \ 2016
Mammal Review 46 (2016)1. - ISSN 0305-1838 - p. 44 - 59.
Collaboration - Genetic monitoring - Recommendations - Reference collection - Transnational research

Following protection measures implemented since the 1970s, large carnivores are currently increasing in number and returning to areas from which they were absent for decades or even centuries. Monitoring programmes for these species rely extensively on non-invasive sampling and genotyping. However, attempts to connect results of such studies at larger spatial or temporal scales often suffer from the incompatibility of genetic markers implemented by researchers in different laboratories. This is particularly critical for long-distance dispersers, revealing the need for harmonized monitoring schemes that would enable the understanding of gene flow and dispersal dynamics. Based on a review of genetic studies on grey wolves Canis lupus from Europe, we provide an overview of the genetic markers currently in use, and identify opportunities and hurdles for studies based on continent-scale datasets. Our results highlight an urgent need for harmonization of methods to enable transnational research based on data that have already been collected, and to allow these data to be linked to material collected in the future. We suggest timely standardization of newly developed genotyping approaches, and propose that action is directed towards the establishment of shared single nucleotide polymorphism panels, next-generation sequencing of microsatellites, a common reference sample collection and an online database for data exchange. Enhanced cooperation among genetic researchers dealing with large carnivores in consortia would facilitate streamlining of methods, their faster and wider adoption, and production of results at the large spatial scales that ultimately matter for the conservation of these charismatic species.

Automated detection of Mycosphaerella melonis infected cucumber fruits
Polder, Gerrit - \ 2015
Mycosphaerella melonis is a fungus that infects cucurbits. It harms all parts of the plant besides the roots and in all stages of plant development. We focus on the fruit infection that causes internal rot to cucumbers which is not visible on the outside during in the early stage. The infected cucumbers could infect the healthy fruits. During sorting, the contaminated cucumbers are difficult to recognize, even by experienced personnel.
Website Tekenradar.nl
Vliet, A.J.H. van; Bron, W.A. ; Wijngaard, K. van den; Pelt, W. van; Harms, M. ; Hofhuis, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University & RIVM : Wageningen University & RIVM
tekenbeten - lyme-ziekte - tekenbesmettingen - tick bites - lyme disease - tick infestations
Met het onderzoek via Tekenradar.nl willen we te weten komen hoe vaak mensen na een tekenbeet een erythema migrans of een andere vorm van de ziekte van Lyme krijgen, en hoe vaak dit leidt tot (ernstige) gezondheidsklachten. Ook willen we onderzoeken hoe dit samenhangt met de mate waarin de teek zelf besmet is, de tijd dat de teek heeft vastgezeten en andere mogelijke risicofactoren. Met deze informatie hopen we meer te weten te komen over de kans dat mensen ziek worden na een tekenbeet. Daarnaast vragen we aan de deelnemers hoe een tekenbeet of de ziekte van Lyme hun kwaliteit van leven beïnvloedt en welke zorgkosten de ziekte met zich meebrengt.
The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex (Leguminosae : Caesalpinioideae), Central Africa
Burgt, X.M. van der; Mackinder, B.A. ; Wieringa, J.J. ; Estrella, Manuel de la - \ 2015
Kew Bulletin 70 (2015)2. - ISSN 0075-5974
Conservation - Macrolobium - new species - taxonomy

The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex consists of 14 tree species. Eight species are here newly described and one is here reinstated: G. bambolense Burgt; G. breteleri Burgt; G. ebo Burgt & Mackinder; G. ecoukense (Pellegr.) Burgt; G. maximum Burgt & Wieringa; G. minkebense Burgt & Estrella; G. quinquejugum Burgt; G. scutatum Wieringa & Estrella and G. sulfureum Burgt. Five species in the complex were already recognised as accepted: G. brachystegioides (Harms) J. Léonard; G. klainei (Pierre ex Pellegr.) J. Léonard; G. newberyi Burgt; G. ngouniense (Pellegr.) J. Léonard and G. ogoouense (Pellegr.) J. Léonard. All 14 species are medium-sized or large trees of evergreen rain forest on well-drained or periodically inundated soil, at 0 – 900 m altitude. Each of the 14 species is distributed in one or more of the following Central African countries: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville), Angola (Cabinda) and Congo (Kinshasa). Included are a key, a table comparing the main morphological characters, illustrations drawn to the same scale and distribution maps of all species. The conservation status of all species is assessed according to IUCN categories and criteria: G. maximum is classified as Critically Endangered, G. ebo and G. newberyi as Endangered, G. breteleri, G. klainei, G. minkebense, G. ngouniense and G. scutatum as Vulnerable, and the remaining six species as Least Concern.

Global profiling of the muscle metabolome : method optimization, validation and application to determine exercise-induced metabolic effects
Alves, R.D.A.M. ; Dane, A.D. ; Harms, Amy ; Strassburg, Katrin ; Seifar, Reza Maleki ; Verdijk, L.B. ; Kersten, Sander ; Berger, Ruud ; Hankemeier, Thomas ; Vreeken, R.J. - \ 2015
Metabolomics 11 (2015)2. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 271 - 285.
Exercise - Mass spectrometry - Muscle metabolome - Muscle tissue biopsy - Validation

Skeletal muscle represents a crucial metabolic organ in the body characterized by a tremendous metabolic plasticity and the ability to influence important metabolic events elsewhere in the body. In order to understand the metabolic implications of skeletal muscle, it is imperative to characterize the metabolites within the tissue itself. In this work we aimed at developing a suitable analytical pipeline to analyze the metabolome of muscle tissue. Methanol/chloroform/water at neutral pH was selected as the method of choice for metabolite extraction prior to analysis by chromatographic-mass spectrometry systems in five different platforms covering a relevant part of the muscle metabolome: organic acids, amines, nucleotides, coenzymes, acylcarnitines and oxylipins. This analytical pipeline was extensively validated and proved to be robust, precise, accurate and biologically sound. The capability of our analytical method to capture metabolic alterations upon challenges was finally tested using a small proof-of-concept study involving an exercise intervention. Mild but consistent metabolic patterns were observed, allowing the discrimination between non-exercised and exercised muscles. Despite the low numbers of subjects enrolled in this study (5), these results are indicative that our method is suitable to determine intervention effects in skeletal muscle tissue whenever applied to adequately powered and well characterized studies.

Inventario y estado de conservación de puya raimondii (bromeliaceae) en el departamento de moquegua, Perú
Montesinos, D.B. - \ 2014
Chloris chilensis : revista chilena de flora y vegetacion 17 (2014)1. - ISSN 0717-4632 - p. 1 - 9.
El presente estudio recopilatorio informa de la existencia de Puya raimondii Harms (Bromeliaceae) en cinco localidades de la provincia General Sánchez Cerro, departamento de Moquegua, Perú, donde se han reportado 6040 ejemplares de la especie. Se establece el estado actual de conservación de cada uno de los rodales inventariados, indicando el efectivo poblacional, el estado vegetativo, factores geográficos y la diferente asociación con otras especies de flora vascular.
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