Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Model inter-comparison design for large-scale water quality models
Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Flörke, Martina ; Harrison, John A. ; Hofstra, Nynke ; Keller, Virginie ; Ludwig, Fulco ; Spanier, J.E. ; Strokal, Maryna ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Wen, Yingrong ; Williams, Richard J. - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 59 - 67.

Several model inter-comparison projects (MIPs) have been carried out recently by the climate, hydrological, agricultural and other modelling communities to quantify modelling uncertainties and improve modelling systems. Here we focus on MIP design for large-scale water quality models. Water quality MIPs can be useful to improve our understanding of pollution problems and facilitate the development of harmonized estimates of current and future water quality. This can provide new opportunities for assessing robustness in estimates of water quality hotspots and trends, improve understanding of processes, pollution sources, water quality model uncertainties, and to identify priorities for water quality data collection and monitoring. Water quality MIP design should harmonize relevant model input datasets, use consistent spatial/temporal domains and resolutions, and similar output variables to improve understanding of water quality modelling uncertainties and provide harmonized water quality data that suit the needs of decision makers and other users.

How to model algal blooms in any lake on earth
Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Janse, Jan H. ; Beusen, Arthur H.W. ; Chang, Manqi ; Harrison, John A. ; Huttunen, Inese ; Kong, Xiangzhen ; Rost, Jasmijn ; Teurlincx, Sven ; Troost, Tineke A. ; Wijk, Dianneke van; Mooij, Wolf M. - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 1 - 10.

Algal blooms increasingly threaten lake and reservoir water quality at the global scale, caused by ongoing climate change and nutrient loading. To anticipate these algal blooms, models to project future algal blooms worldwide are required. Here we present the state-of-the-art in algal projection modelling and explore the requirements of an ideal algal projection model. Based on this, we identify current challenges and opportunities for such model development. Since most building blocks are present, we foresee that algal projection models for any lake on earth can be developed in the near future. Finally, we think that algal bloom projection models at a global scale will provide a valuable contribution to global policymaking, in particular with respect to SDG 6 (clean water and sanitation).

Modeling phosphorus in rivers at the global scale : recent successes, remaining challenges, and near-term opportunities
Harrison, John A. ; Beusen, Arthur H.W. ; Fink, Gabriel ; Tang, Ting ; Strokal, Maryna ; Bouwman, Alexander F. ; Metson, Geneviève S. ; Vilmin, Lauriane - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 68 - 77.

Understanding and mitigating the effects of phosphorus (P) overenrichment of waters globally, including the evaluation of the global Sustainability Development Goals, requires the use of global models. Such models quantitatively link land use, global population growth and climate to aquatic nutrient loading and biogeochemical cycling. Here we describe, compare, and contrast the existing global models capable of predicting P transport by rivers at a global scale. We highlight important insights gained from the development and application of these models, and identify important near-term opportunities for model improvements as well as additional insight to be gained through new model analysis.

Models for assessing engineered nanomaterial fate and behaviour in the aquatic environment
Williams, Richard J. ; Harrison, Samuel ; Keller, Virginie ; Kuenen, Jeroen ; Lofts, Stephen ; Praetorius, Antonia ; Svendsen, Claus ; Vermeulen, Lucie C. ; Wijnen, Jikke van - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 105 - 115.

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs, material containing particles with at least one dimension less than 100 nm) are present in a range of consumer products and could be released into the environment from these products during their production, use or end-of-life. The high surface to volume ratio of nanomaterials imparts a high reactivity, which is of interest for novel applications but may raise concern for the environment. In the absence of measurement methods, there is a need for modelling to assess likely concentrations and fate arising from current and future releases. To assess the capability that exists to do such modelling, progress in modelling ENM fate since 2011 is reviewed. ENM-specific processes represented in models are mainly limited to aggregation and, in some instances, dissolution. Transformation processes (e.g. sulphidation), the role of the manufactured coatings, particle size distribution and particle form and state are still usually excluded. Progress is also being made in modelling ENMs at larger scales. Currently, models can give a reasonable assessment of the fate of ENMs in the environment, but a full understanding will likely require fuller inclusion of these ENM-specific processes.

Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Bien, Stephanie A. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Chen, Sai ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Conti, David V. ; Qu, Conghui ; Jeon, Jihyoun ; Edlund, Christopher K. ; Greenside, Peyton ; Wainberg, Michael ; Schumacher, Fredrick R. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Levine, David M. ; Nelson, Sarah C. ; Sinnott-armstrong, Nasa A. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Alonso, M.H. ; Anderson, Kristin ; Arnau-Collell, Coral ; Arndt, Volker ; Bamia, Christina ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Baron, John A. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Bishop, D.T. ; Boehm, Juergen ; Boeing, Heiner ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Buch, Stephan ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Burnett-hartman, Andrea ; Butterbach, Katja ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores ; Cho, Sang Hee ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Huang, Wen-Yi ; Li, Li - \ 2018
Nature Genetics (2018). - ISSN 1061-4036
To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10−8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.
Forest gaps, edge, and interior support different ant communities in a tropical peat-swamp forest in Borneo
Schreven, Stijn ; Perlett, Eric D. ; Jarrett, Benjamin J.M. ; Marchant, Nicholas C. ; Harsanto, Franciskus Agus ; Purwanto, Ari ; Sykora, K.V. ; Harrison, Mark E. - \ 2018
Asian Myrmecology 10 (2018). - ISSN 1985-1944 - 5 p.
Southeast Asia’s tropical peat-swamp forests (TPSF) are globally important for carbon storage and biodiversity conservation, but are at risk from multiple threats and urgently require improved management. Ants are often used as ecological indicators in monitoring programmes to guide adaptive management, but data on TPSF ants are scarce. We conducted a twelve-month study on ants in the Sabangau TPSF in Indonesian Borneo using baited traps, to compare community composition across three disturbance categories (forest gaps, forest edge and relatively undisturbed interior forest) and between dry and wet season. The three disturbance categories supported distinct ant communities across seasons. Differences in canopy cover likely underlie these changes in ant community composition. Surveying was more effective in the dry season, because ant capture rates were higher and more indicator taxa were identified than in the wet season, but overall ant community composition did not differ significantly between seasons. These findings suggest a potentially useful role of ants as ecological indicators in TPSF. Further surveys should be conducted in Sabangau and other TPSFs to test the transferability of our findings.
New European socio-economic scenarios for climate change research : operationalising concepts to extend the shared socio-economic pathways
Kok, Kasper ; Pedde, Simona ; Gramberger, Marc ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Holman, Ian P. - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change (2018). - ISSN 1436-3798 - 12 p.
Europe - Multi-scale - Narratives - Shared socio-economic pathways - Socio-economic scenario

Scenarios have been recognised as a useful tool for planning, which have resulted in a strong increase in the number of (multi-scale) scenarios in climate change research. This paper addresses the need for methodological progress and testing of conceptual considerations, by extending the global shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). We present a set of four European SSPs until 2100 and a novel method to develop qualitative stories for Europe equivalent to the global SSPs starting from an existing set of European scenarios. Similar to the global SSPs, the set includes a sustainable future with global cooperation and less intensive lifestyles (We are the World; Eur-SSP1); a future in which countries struggle to maintain living standards in a high-carbon intensive Europe (Icarus; Eur-SSP3); a world in which power becomes concentrated in a small elite and where Europe becomes an important player (Riders on the Storm; Eur-SSP4); and one where a lack of environmental concern leads to the over-exploitation of fossil fuel resources addressed by technological solutions (Fossil-fuelled Development; Eur-SSP5). We conclude that the global SSPs are a good starting point for developing equivalent continental scale scenarios that, in turn, can serve multiple purposes. There are, however, methodological challenges related to the choice for equivalence and the exact methods by which scenarios are constructed that need to be tested further.

ICTV virus taxonomy profile : Baculoviridae
Harrison, Robert L. ; Herniou, Elisabeth A. ; Jehle, Johannes A. ; Theilmann, David A. ; Burand, John P. ; Becnel, James J. ; Krell, Peter J. ; Oers, Monique M. van; Mowery, Joseph D. ; Bauchan, Gary R. ; Lefkowitz, Elliot J. ; Davison, Andrew J. ; Siddell, Stuart G. ; Simmonds, Peter ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Smith, Donald B. ; Orton, Richard J. ; Harrach, Balázs - \ 2018
Journal of General Virology 99 (2018)9. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 1185 - 1186.
Baculoviridae - ICTV Report - Taxonomy

The family Baculoviridae comprises large viruses with circular dsDNA genomes ranging from 80 to 180 kbp. The virions consist of enveloped, rod-shaped nucleocapsids and are embedded in distinctive occlusion bodies measuring 0.15–5 µm. The occlusion bodies consist of a matrix composed of a single viral protein expressed at high levels during infection. Members of this family infect exclusively larvae of the insect orders Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Baculoviridae, which is available at

Novel Common Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Colorectal Cancer
Schmit, S.L. ; Edlund, C.K. ; Schumacher, F.R. ; Gong, Jian ; Harrison, T.A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2018
Journal of the National Cancer Institute (2018). - ISSN 0027-8874
Background: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10−8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk. Methods: We conducted a GWAS in European descent CRC cases and control subjects using a discovery–replication design, followed by examination of novel findings in a multiethnic sample (cumulative n = 163 315). In the discovery stage (36 948 case subjects/30 864 control subjects), we identified genetic variants with a minor allele frequency of 1% or greater associated with risk of CRC using logistic regression followed by a fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. All novel independent variants reaching genome-wide statistical significance (two-sided P < 5 × 10−8) were tested for replication in separate European ancestry samples (12 952 case subjects/48 383 control subjects). Next, we examined the generalizability of discovered variants in East Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics (12 085 case subjects/22 083 control subjects). Finally, we examined the contributions of novel risk variants to familial relative risk and examined the prediction capabilities of a polygenic risk score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The discovery GWAS identified 11 variants associated with CRC at P < 5 × 10−8, of which nine (at 4q22.2/5p15.33/5p13.1/6p21.31/6p12.1/10q11.23/12q24.21/16q24.1/20q13.13) independently replicated at a P value of less than .05. Multiethnic follow-up supported the generalizability of discovery findings. These results demonstrated a 14.7% increase in familial relative risk explained by common risk alleles from 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9% to 13.7%; known variants) to 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2% to 15.5%; known and novel variants). A polygenic risk score identified 4.3% of the population at an odds ratio for developing CRC of at least 2.0. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the architecture of common genetic variation contributing to CRC etiology and improves risk prediction for individualized screening.
Differences between low-end and high-end climate change impacts in Europe across multiple sectors
Harrison, Paula A. ; Dunford, Rob W. ; Holman, Ian P. ; Cojocaru, George ; Madsen, Marianne S. ; Chen, Pei Yuan ; Pedde, Simona ; Sandars, Daniel - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change (2018). - ISSN 1436-3798 - 15 p.
Cross-sectoral - High-end scenarios - Impacts - Modelling - Paris agreement

The Paris Agreement established the 1.5 and 2 °C targets based on the recognition “that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change”. We tested this assertion by comparing impacts at the regional scale between low-end (< 2 °C; RCP2.6) and high-end (> 4 °C; RCP8.5) climate change scenarios accounting for interactions across six sectors (agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, water, coasts and urban) using an integrated assessment model. Results show that there are only minor differences in most impact indicators for the 2020s time slice, but impacts are considerably greater under high-end than low-end climate change in the 2050s and 2080s. For example, for the 2080s, mitigation consistent with the Paris Agreement would reduce aggregate Europe-wide impacts on the area of intensive agriculture by 21% (on average across climate models), on the area of managed forests by 34%, on water stress by 14%, on people flooded by 10% and on biodiversity vulnerability by 16%. Including socio-economic scenarios (SSPs 1, 3, 4, 5) results in considerably greater variation in the magnitude, range and direction of change of the majority of impact indicators than climate change alone. In particular, socio-economic factors much more strongly drive changes in land use and food production than changes in climate, sometimes overriding the differences due to low-end and high-end climate change. Such impacts pose significant challenges for adaptation and highlight the importance of searching for synergies between adaptation and mitigation and linking them to sustainable development goals.

Bridging uncertainty concepts across narratives and simulations in environmental scenarios
Pedde, S. ; Kok, K. ; Onigkeit, J. ; Brown, Calum ; Holman, Ian ; Harrison, P. - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change (2018). - ISSN 1436-3798 - 12 p.
Uncertainties in our understanding of current and future climate change projections, impacts and vulnerabilities are structured by scientists using scenarios, which are generally in qualitative (narrative) and quantitative (numerical) forms. Although conceptually strong, qualitative and quantitative scenarios have limited complementarity due to the lack of a fundamental bridge between two different concepts of uncertainty: linguistic and epistemic. Epistemic uncertainty is represented by the range of scenarios and linguistic variables within them, while linguistic uncertainty is represented by the translation of those linguistic variables via the fuzzy set approach. Both are therefore incorporated in the models that utilise the final quantifications. The application of this method is demonstrated in a stakeholder-led development of socioeconomic scenarios. The socio-economic scenarios include several vague elements due to heterogeneous linguistic interpretations of future change on the part of stakeholders. We apply the so-called ‘Centre of Gravity’ (CoG) operator to defuzzify the quantifications of linguistic values provided by stakeholders. The results suggest that, in these cases, uniform distributions provide a close fit to the membership functions derived from ranges of values provided by stakeholders. As a result, the 90% or 95% intervals of the probability density functions are similar to the 0.1 or 0.05 degrees of membership of the linguistic values of linguistic variables. By bridging different uncertainty concepts (linguistic and epistemic uncertainties), this study offers a substantial step towards linking qualitative and quantitative scenarios.

A predictive model for flavor partitioning and protein-flavor interactions in fat-free dairy protein solutions
Viry, Ombeline ; Boom, Remko ; Avison, Shane ; Pascu, Mirela ; Bodnár, Igor - \ 2018
Food Research International 109 (2018). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 52 - 58.
APCI-MS - Flavor - Hydrophobicity - Partitioning - Sodium caseinate - Whey protein isolate
Flavor perception is directly related to the concentration of aroma compounds in the headspace above a food matrix before and during consumption. With the knowledge of flavor partition coefficients, the distribution of aroma compounds within the food matrix and towards the headspace can be calculated. In this study static headspace measurements and modelling are combined to predict flavor partitioning of a wide range of flavor compounds above fat-free dairy protein mixture solutions. AFFIRM® (based on Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Mass Spectrometry) was used to measure the static headspace concentrations of 9 flavor compounds (3 esters, 3 aldehydes and 3 alcohols) above protein solutions with different concentrations and ratios of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate. Proteins had a small pushing out effect, leading to increased release of hydrophilic flavor compounds. This effect was negligible for more hydrophobic compounds, where clear retention was observed. An increased total protein concentration and higher whey to casein ratio increased the retention for all flavor compounds. Within the same chemical class, the retention increased with chain length. The experimental data was interpreted with a model describing flavor partitioning in protein solutions (Harrison & Hills, 1997), thereby enabling to extract protein-flavor binding constants. A clear power law was found between the protein-flavor binding constant and log P (octanol-water partition coefficient). Assuming solely non-specific hydrophobic interactions gave satisfying partitioning predictions for the esters and alcohols. For aldehydes specific chemical interactions with proteins turned out to be significant. This rendered a binding constant for whey protein that is 5 times higher than for caseinate in case of esters and alcohols, and 3 times higher in case of aldehydes. The model can accurately predict equilibrium flavor partitioning in dairy protein mixtures with only the knowledge of the octanol-water partition coefficients of the flavor compounds, and the composition of the protein mixture.
Arguments for biodiversity conservation : factors influencing their observed effectiveness in European case studies
Tinch, Rob ; Bugter, Rob ; Blicharska, Malgorzata ; Harrison, Paula ; Haslett, John ; Jokinen, Pekka ; Mathieu, Laurence ; Primmer, Eeva - \ 2018
Biodiversity and Conservation 27 (2018). - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1763 - 1788.
Argument framing - Arguments for biodiversity conservation - Biodiversity policy - Ecosystem services - Science policy interfaces
Making a strong case for biodiversity protection is central to meeting the biodiversity targets in international agreements such as the CBD and achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Effective arguments are needed to convince diverse actors that protection is worthwhile, and can play a crucial role in closing the implementation gap between biodiversity policy targets and outcomes. Drawing on a database of arguments from 11 European case studies, along with additional interview and case study material from all 13 case studies of the BESAFE project, we analysed relationships between potential and observed effectiveness of arguments. Our results show that strong logic, robustness, and timing of arguments are necessary but not sufficient conditions for arguments to be effective. We find that use of multiple and diverse arguments can enhance effectiveness by broadening the appeal to wider audiences, especially when arguments are repeated and refined through constructive dialogue. We discuss the role of framing, bundling and tailoring arguments to audiences in increasing effectiveness. Our results provide further support for the current shift towards recognition of value pluralism in biodiversity science and decision-making. We hope our results will help to demonstrate more convincingly the value of biodiversity to stakeholders in decision processes and thus build better cases for its conservation.
Making a better case for biodiversity conservation : the BESAFE project
Bugter, Rob ; Harrison, Paula ; Haslett, John ; Tinch, Rob - \ 2018
Biodiversity and Conservation 27 (2018)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1549 - 1560.
Arguments for biodiversity conservation - Ecosystem services - Science policy interfaces
This Editorial to the BESAFE special issue introduces the project and its approach and case studies. The BESAFE (EC 7th Framework programme) project investigated how the effectiveness of different types of arguments for biodiversity conservation depends on the context in which they are used. Our results show that tailoring of argumentation to audience within the course of decision processes is the main factor determining effectiveness. We consistently found arguments linked to intrinsic value (e.g. moral or ethical obligation arguments) as shared and supported widely, and thus offering common ground between parties. Economic arguments are effective as additional ones, but not as replacements. Next generation biodiversity conservation strategies can probably improve their effectiveness by emphasizing and better explaining the synergies between traditional conservation and especially regulating and cultural services.
Reviewing research priorities in weed ecology, evolution and management: a horizon scan
Neve, P. ; Barney, J.N. ; Buckley, Y. ; Cousens, R.D. ; Graham, S. ; Jordan, N.R. ; Lawton-Rauh, A. ; Liebman, M. ; Mesgaran, M.B. ; Shaw, J. ; Storkey, J. ; Baraibar, B. ; Baucom, R.S. ; Chalak, M. ; Childs, D.Z. ; Christensen, S. ; Eizenberg, H. ; Fernández-Quintanilla, C. ; French, K. ; Harsch, M. ; Heijting, S. ; Harrison, L. ; Loddo, D. ; Macel, M. ; Maczey, N. ; Merotto, A. ; Mortensen, D. ; Necajeva, J. ; Peltzer, D.A. ; Recasens, J. ; Renton, M. ; Riemens, M. ; Sønderskov, M. ; Williams, M. ; Rew, Lisa - \ 2018
Weed Research 58 (2018)4. - ISSN 0043-1737 - p. 250 - 258.
Weedy plants pose a major threat to food security, biodiversity, ecosystem services and consequently to human health and wellbeing. However, many currently used weed management approaches are increasingly unsustainable. To address this knowledge and practice gap, in June 2014, 35 weed and invasion ecologists, weed scientists, evolutionary biologists and social scientists convened a workshop to explore current and future perspectives and approaches in weed ecology and management. A horizon scanning exercise ranked a list of 124 pre‐submitted questions to identify a priority list of 30 questions. These questions are discussed under seven themed headings that represent areas for renewed and emerging focus for the disciplines of weed research and practice. The themed areas considered the need for transdisciplinarity, increased adoption of integrated weed management and agroecological approaches, better understanding of weed evolution, climate change, weed invasiveness and finally, disciplinary challenges for weed science. Almost all the challenges identified rested on the need for continued efforts to diversify and integrate agroecological, socio‐economic and technological approaches in weed management. These challenges are not newly conceived, though their continued prominence as research priorities highlights an ongoing intransigence that must be addressed through a more system‐oriented and transdisciplinary research agenda that seeks an embedded integration of public and private research approaches. This horizon scanning exercise thus set out the building blocks needed for future weed management research and practice; however, the challenge ahead is to identify effective ways in which sufficient research and implementation efforts can be directed towards these needs.
Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

Handling a messy world : Lessons learned when trying to make the ecosystem services concept operational
Jax, Kurt ; Furman, Eeva ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Barton, David N. ; Delbaere, Ben ; Dick, Jan ; Duke, Guy ; Görg, Christoph ; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Maes, Joachim ; Pérez-Soba, Marta ; Saarela, Sanna Riikka ; Turkelboom, Francis ; Dijk, Jiska van; Watt, Allan D. - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 415 - 427.
Conceptual frameworks - Ecosystem services - Guiding principles - Integrative tools - OpenNESS project
The concept of ecosystem services is widely used in the scientific literature and increasingly also in policy and practice. Nevertheless, operationalising the concept, i.e. putting it into practice, is still a challenge. We describe the approach of the EU-project OpenNESS (Operationalisation of Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital), which was created in response to this challenge to critically evaluate the concept when applied to real world problems at different scales and in different policy sectors. General requirements for operationalization, the relevance of conceptual frameworks and lessons learnt from 27 case study applications are synthesized in a set of guiding principles. We also briefly describe some integrative tools as developed in OpenNESS which support the implementation of the principles. The guiding principles are grouped under three major headlines: ". Defining the problem and opening up the problem space", ". Considering ethical issues" and ". Assessing alternative methods, tools and actions". Real world problems are often "wicked" problems, which at first are seldom clear-cut and well-defined, but often rather complex and subject to differing interpretations and interests. We take account of that complexity and emphasise that there is not one simple and straightforward way to approach real world problems involving ecosystem services. The principles and tools presented are meant to provide some guidance for tackling this complexity by means of a transdisciplinary methodology that facilitates the operationalisation of the ecosystem services concept.
(Dis) integrated valuation – Assessing the information gaps in ecosystem service appraisals for governance support
Barton, D.N. ; Kelemen, E. ; Dick, J. ; Martin-Lopez, B. ; Gómez-Baggethun, E. ; Jacobs, S. ; Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Termansen, M. ; García- Llorente, M. ; Primmer, E. ; Dunford, R. ; Harrison, P.A. ; Turkelboom, F. ; Saarikoski, H. ; Dijk, J. Van; Rusch, G.M. ; Palomo, I. ; Yli-Pelkonen, V.J. ; Carvalho, L. ; Baró, F. ; Langemeyer, J. ; Tjalling Van Der Wal, J. ; Mederly, P. ; Priess, J.A. ; Luque, S. ; Berry, P. ; Santos, R. ; Odee, D. ; Martines Pastur, G. ; García Blanco, G. ; Saarela, S.R. ; Silaghi, D. ; Pataki, G. ; Masi, F. ; Vădineanu, A. ; Mukhopadhyay, R. ; Lapola, D.M. - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 529 - 541.
Integrated valuation - Ecosystem service appraisal - Ecosystem service governance - Information costs - Uncertainty - Valuation - Ecosystem services cascade
The operational challenges of integrated ecosystem service (ES) appraisals are determined by study purpose, system complexity and uncertainty, decision-makers’ requirements for reliability and accuracy of methods, and approaches to stakeholder–science interaction in different decision contexts. To explore these factors we defined an information gap hypothesis, based on a theory of cumulative uncertainty in ES appraisals. When decision context requirements for accuracy and reliability increase, and the expected uncertainty of the ES appraisal methods also increases, the likelihood of methods being used is expected to drop, creating a potential information gap in governance. In order to test this information gap hypothesis, we evaluate 26 case studies and 80 ecosystem services appraisals in a large integrated EU research project. We find some support for a decreasing likelihood of ES appraisal methods coinciding with increasing accuracy and reliability requirements of the decision-support context, and with increasing uncertainty. We do not find that information costs are the explanation for this information gap, but rather that the research project interacted mostly with stakeholders outside the most decision-relevant contexts. The paper discusses how alternative definitions of integrated valuation can lead to different interpretations of decision-support information, and different governance approaches to dealing with uncertainty.
Integrating methods for ecosystem service assessment : Experiences from real world situations
Dunford, Rob ; Harrison, Paula ; Smith, Alison ; Dick, Jan ; Barton, David N. ; Martin-Lopez, Berta ; Kelemen, Ezsther ; Jacobs, Sander ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Turkelboom, Francis ; Verheyden, Wim ; Hauck, Jennifer ; Antunes, Paula ; Aszalós, Réka ; Badea, Ovidu ; Baró, Francesc ; Berry, Pam ; Carvalho, Laurence ; Conte, Giulio ; Czúcz, Bálint ; Garcia Blanco, Gemma ; Howard, Dave ; Giuca, Relu ; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik ; Grizetti, Bruna ; Izakovicova, Zita ; Kopperoinen, Leena ; Langemeyer, Johannes ; Luque, Sandra ; Lapola, David M. ; Martinez-Pastur, Guillermo ; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima ; Roy, S.B. ; Niemelä, Jari ; Norton, Lisa ; Ochieng, John ; Odee, David ; Palomo, Ignacio ; Pinho, Patricia ; Priess, Joerg ; Rusch, Graciella ; Saarela, Sanna Riikka ; Santos, Rui ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der; Vadineanu, Angheluta ; Vári, Ágnes ; Woods, Helen ; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 499 - 514.
The Ecosystem Services (ES) concept highlights the varied contributions the environment provides to humans and there are a wide range of methods/tools available to assess ES. However, in real-world decision contexts a single tool is rarely sufficient and methods must be combined to meet practitioner needs. Here, results from the OpenNESS project are presented to illustrate the methods selected to meet the needs of 24 real-world case studies and better understand why and how methods are combined to meet practical needs. Results showed that within the cases methods were combined to: i) address a range of ES; ii) assess both supply and demand of ES; iii) assess a range of value types; iv) reach different stakeholder groups v) cover weaknesses in other methods used and vi) to meet specific decision context needs. Methods were linked in a variety of ways: i) as input-output chains of methods; ii) through learning; iii) through method development and iv) through comparison/triangulation of results. The paper synthesises these case study-based experiences to provide insight to others working in practical contexts as to where, and in what contexts, different methods can be combined and how this can add value to case study analyses.
Maximising the value of research on ecosystem services : Knowledge integration and guidance tools mediating the science, policy and practice interfaces
Pérez-Soba, Marta ; Verweij, Peter ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Barton, David N. ; Furman, Eeva - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 599 - 607.
Assessment tools and methods - Case study finder - Ecosystem services - Knowledge transfer - Web-platform
Progress towards sustainable development ultimately depends on policy makers' and practitioners' capacities to protect Natural Capital (NC) stocks so that they are not exploited beyond Earth's capability to renew them. This involves a sound understanding of the benefits and values derived by society from NC and ecosystem services (ES). Scientific evidence to support this understanding is growing rapidly, but access to the data, methods, tools and expertise that underpins this evidence base is fragmented, particularly at the science - policy - practice interfaces. Two large EU research projects have therefore developed a joint knowledge platform - called Oppla - aimed at providing access to a wide range of resources on NC and ES. This new approach in the EU Research Area aims not only at integrating knowledge into one single platform, but also at making this knowledge operational amongst communities of science, policy and practice. Furthermore, it fosters the more efficient use of research funds by providing an open and freely available platform in which existing and new NC and ES projects can integrate their outcomes. This paper focuses on the knowledge integration and some guidance tools within Oppla to help users to find research outcomes.
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