Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Chimeric O1K foot-and-mouth disease virus with SAT2 outer capsid as an FMD vaccine candidate
Kotecha, Abhay ; Perez-Martin, Eva ; Harvey, Yongjie ; Zhang, Fuquan ; Ilca, Serban L. ; Fry, Elizabeth E. ; Jackson, Ben ; Maree, Francois ; Scott, Katherine ; Hecksel, Corey W. ; Harmsen, Michiel M. ; Mioulet, Valérie ; Wood, Britta ; Juleff, Nick ; Stuart, David I. ; Charleston, Bryan ; Seago, Julian - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and infects cloven-hoofed domestic livestock leading to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). FMD outbreaks have severe economic impact due to production losses and associated control measures. FMDV is found as seven distinct serotypes, but there are numerous subtypes within each serotype, and effective vaccines must match the subtypes circulating in the field. In addition, the O and Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes, are relatively more thermolabile and their viral capsids readily dissociate into non-immunogenic pentameric subunits, which can compromise the effectiveness of FMD vaccines. Here we report the construction of a chimeric clone between the SAT2 and O serotypes, designed to have SAT2 antigenicity. Characterisation of the chimeric virus showed growth kinetics equal to that of the wild type SAT2 virus with better thermostability, attributable to changes in the VP4 structural protein. Sequence and structural analyses confirmed that no changes from SAT2 were present elsewhere in the capsid as a consequence of the VP4 changes. Following exposure to an elevated temperature the thermostable SAT2-O1K chimera induced higher neutralizing-antibody titres in comparison to wild type SAT2 virus.

Models of Geochemical Speciation : Structure and Applications
Bonito, Marcello Di; Lofts, Sthephen ; Groenenberg, Jan E. - \ 2018
In: Environmental Geochemistry / De Vivo, Benedetto, Belkin, Harvey E., Lima, Annamaria, Elsevier - ISBN 9780444637635 - p. 237 - 305.
Bioavailability - Biotic-ligand model - Ion-binding - Modeling - Speciation - Surface complexation - Thermodynamic databases - Toxicity

Being able to predict the behavior of trace elements in the environment is crucial for environmental risk assessment studies. For this reason, modeling, in addition to experimental methods, has become an indispensable tool to better understand the (bio)-geochemistry of trace elements and the processes involved in their availability, transport and ecotoxicity. In this chapter we briefly outline the development of geochemical modeling over time and its basic principles. A comprehensive description of the state-of-the-art ion-binding and surface complexation models presently available for dissolved and particulate organic matter, metal (hydr)oxides of aluminum, iron, manganese and silica and clay minerals is given. A significant part of this chapter is dedicated to the application of these models for studying surface waters and soils. The most common model platforms used for this purpose together with the available (thermodynamic) databases of model parameters are summarized. In two separate sections we highlight the application of an assemblage model (with submodels for the various adsorbents) to describe trace element solid-solution partitioning and speciation in surface waters and soils; here particular attention is given to the derivation of site-specific inputs concerning the geochemical reactive metal content and the contents of adsorbents metal (hydr)oxides, clay and organic matter). Consideration is therefore given to the most recent developments in bio-geochemical modeling to link metal speciation to bioavailability, biotic accumulation and toxicity. Finally, future prospects of geochemical modeling are discussed, giving an overview of the potential directions for development.

Ant-like Traits in Wingless Parasitoids Repel Attack from Wolf Spiders
Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Visser, Bertanne ; Lammers, Marl ; Marien, Janine ; Gershenzon, Jonathan ; Ode, Paul J. ; Heinen, Robin ; Gols, Rieta ; Ellers, Jacintha - \ 2018
Journal of Chemical Ecology (2018). - ISSN 0098-0331
Batesian mimicry; Müllerian mimicry - Chemical defense - Formica - Gelis - Hymenoptera - Lasius - Predation

A recent study showed that a wingless parasitoid, Gelis agilis, exhibits a suite of ant-like traits that repels attack from wolf spiders. When agitated, G. agilis secreted 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone), which a small number of ant species produce as an alarm/panic pheromone. Here, we tested four Gelis parasitoid species, occurring in the same food chain and microhabitats, for the presence of sulcatone and conducted two-species choice bioassays with wolf spiders to determine their degree of susceptibility to attack. All four Gelis species, including both winged and wingless species, produced sulcatone, whereas a closely related species, Acrolyta nens, and the more distantly related Cotesia glomerata, did not. In two-choice bioassays, spiders overwhelmingly rejected the wingless Gelis species, preferring A. nens and C. glomerata. However, spiders exhibited no preference for either A. nens or G. areator, both of which are winged. Wingless gelines exhibited several ant-like traits, perhaps accounting for the reluctance of spiders to attack them. On the other hand, despite producing sulcatone, the winged G. areator more closely resembles other winged cryptines like A. nens, making it harder for spiders to distinguish between these two species. C. glomerata was also preferred by spiders over A. nens, suggesting that other non-sulcatone producing cryptines nevertheless possess traits that make them less attractive as prey. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Cryptinae reveals that G. hortensis and G. proximus are ‘sister’species, with G. agilis, and G.areator in particular evolving along more distant trajectories. We discuss the possibility that wingless Gelis species have evolved a suite of ant-like traits as a form, of mimicry to repel predators on the ground.

Data from: Symbiotic polydnavirus and venom reveal parasitoid to its hyperparasitoids
Zhu, F. ; Cusumano, Antonino ; Bloem, J. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Nunes Villela, A. ; Fatouros, N.E. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. ; Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Vogel, Heiko ; Poelman, E.H. - \ 2018
multitrophic interactions - plant-mediated interaction network - herbivore saliva - herbivore-induced plant volatiles - parasitic wasp - Cotesia glomerata - Lysibia nana - Pieris brassicae - Brassica oleracea
Symbiotic relationships may provide organisms with key innovations that aid in the establishment of new niches. For example, during oviposition, some species of parasitoid wasps, whose larvae develop inside the bodies of other insects, inject polydnaviruses into their hosts. These symbiotic viruses disrupt host immune responses, allowing the parasitoid’s progeny to survive. Here, we show that symbiotic polydnaviruses also have a downside to the parasitoid’s progeny by initiating a multi-trophic chain of interactions that reveals the parasitoid larvae to their enemies. These enemies are hyperparasitoids that use the parasitoid progeny as host for their own offspring. We found that the virus and venom injected by the parasitoid during oviposition, but not the parasitoid progeny itself, affected hyperparasitoid attraction towards plant volatiles induced by feeding of parasitized caterpillars We identified activity of virus-related genes in the caterpillar salivary gland. Moreover, the virus affected the activity of elicitors of salivary origin that induce plant responses to caterpillar feeding. The changes in caterpillar saliva were critical in inducing plant volatiles that are used by hyperparsitoids to locate parasitized caterpillars. Our results show that symbiotic organisms may be key drivers of multi-trophic ecological interactions. We anticipate that this phenomenon is widespread in nature, because of the abundance of symbiotic microorganisms across trophic levels in ecological communities. Their role should be more prominently integrated in community ecology to understand organization of natural and managed ecosystems as well as adaptations of individual organisms that are part of these communities.
Climate change impacts and adaptation among smallholder farmers in Central America
Harvey, Celia A. ; Saborio-Rodríguez, Milagro ; Martinez-Rodríguez, M.R. ; Viguera, Barbara ; Chain-Guadarrama, Adina ; Vignola, Raffaele ; Alpizar, Francisco - \ 2018
Agriculture & Food Security 7 (2018)1. - ISSN 2048-7010
Adaptation strategies - Climate change - Coffea arabica - Ecosystem-based Adaptation - Smallholder farmers - Zea mays

Background: Smallholder farmers are one of the most vulnerable groups to climate change, yet efforts to support farmer adaptation are hindered by the lack of information on how they are experiencing and responding to climate change. More information is needed on how different types of smallholder farmers vary in their perceptions and responses to climate change, and how to tailor adaptation programs to different smallholder farmer contexts. We surveyed 860 smallholder coffee and basic grain (maize/bean) farmers across six Central American landscapes to understand farmer perceptions of climate change and the impacts they are experiencing, how they are changing their agricultural systems in response to climate change, and their adaptation needs. Results: Almost all (95%) of the surveyed smallholder farmers have observed climate change, and most are already experiencing impacts of rising temperatures, unpredictable rainfall and extreme weather events on crop yields, pest and disease incidence, income generation and, in some cases, food security. For example, 87% of maize farmers and 66% of coffee farmers reported negative impacts of climate change on crop production, and 32% of all smallholder farmers reported food insecurity following extreme weather events. Of the farmers perceiving changes in climate, 46% indicated that they had changed their farming practices in response to climate change, with the most common adaptation measure being the planting of trees. There was significant heterogeneity among farmers in the severity of climate change impacts, their responses to these impacts, and their adaptation needs. This heterogeneity likely reflects the wide diversity of socioeconomic and biophysical contexts across smallholder farms and landscapes. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that climate change is already having significant adverse impacts on smallholder coffee and basic grain farmers across the Central American region. There is an urgent need for governments, donors and practitioners to ramp up efforts to help smallholder farmers cope with existing climate impacts and build resiliency to future changes. Our results also highlight the importance of tailoring of climate adaptation policies and programs to the diverse socioeconomic conditions, biophysical contexts, and climatic stresses that smallholder farmers face.

Responses of insect herbivores and their food plants to wind exposure and the importance of predation risk
Chen, Cong ; Biere, Arjen ; Gols, Rieta ; Halfwerk, Wouter ; Oers, Kees van; Harvey, Jeffrey A. - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Ecology 87 (2018)4. - ISSN 0021-8790 - p. 1046 - 1057.
Abiotic factors - Brassica nigra - Development - Parus major - Pieris brassicae - Plant-herbivore interactions - Plutella xylostella - Predator

Wind is an important abiotic factor that influences an array of biological processes, but it is rarely considered in studies on plant-herbivore interactions. Here, we tested whether wind exposure could directly or indirectly affect the performance of two insect herbivores, Plutella xylostella and Pieris brassicae, feeding on Brassica nigra plants. In a greenhouse study using a factorial design, B. nigra plants were exposed to different wind regimes generated by fans before and after caterpillars were introduced on plants in an attempt to separate the effects of direct and indirect wind exposure on herbivores. Wind exposure delayed flowering, decreased plant height and increased leaf concentrations of amino acids and glucosinolates. Plant-mediated effects of wind on herbivores, that is effects of exposure of plants to wind prior to herbivore feeding, were generally small. However, development time of both herbivores was extended and adult body mass of P. xylostella was reduced when they were directly exposed to wind. By contrast, wind-exposed adult P. brassicae butterflies were significantly larger, revealing a trade-off between development time and adult size. Based on these results, we conducted a behavioural experiment to study preference by an avian predator, the great tit (Parus major) for last instar P. brassicae caterpillars on plants that were exposed to either control (no wind) or wind (fan-exposed) treatments. Tits captured significantly more caterpillars on still than on wind-exposed plants. Our results suggest that P. brassicae caterpillars are able to perceive the abiotic environment and to trade off the costs of extended development time against the benefits of increased size depending on the perceived risk of predation mediated by wind exposure. Such adaptive phenotypic plasticity in insects has not yet been described in response to wind exposure.

Symbiotic polydnavirus and venom reveal parasitoid to its hyperparasitoids
Zhu, Feng ; Cusumano, Antonino ; Bloem, Janneke ; Weldegergis, Berhane T. ; Villela, Alexandre ; Fatouros, Nina E. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel ; Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Vogel, Heiko ; Poelman, Erik H. - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)20. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 5205 - 5210.
Herbivore - Herbivore-induced plant volatiles - Interaction network - Multitrophic interactions - Parasitic wasp - Plant-mediated - Saliva

Symbiotic relationships may provide organisms with key innovations that aid in the establishment of new niches. For example, during oviposition, some species of parasitoid wasps, whose larvae develop inside the bodies of other insects, inject polydnaviruses into their hosts. These symbiotic viruses disrupt host immune responses, allowing the parasitoid’s progeny to survive. Here we show that symbiotic polydnaviruses also have a downside to the parasitoid’s progeny by initiating a multitrophic chain of interactions that reveals the parasitoid larvae to their enemies. These enemies are hyperparasitoids that use the parasitoid progeny as host for their own offspring. We found that the virus and venom injected by the parasitoid during oviposition, but not the parasitoid progeny itself, affected hyperparasitoid attraction toward plant volatiles induced by feeding of parasitized caterpillars. We identified activity of virus-related genes in the caterpillar salivary gland. Moreover, the virus affected the activity of elicitors of salivary origin that induce plant responses to caterpillar feeding. The changes in caterpillar saliva were critical in inducing plant volatiles that are used by hyperparasitoids to locate parasitized caterpillars. Our results show that symbiotic organisms may be key drivers of multitrophic ecological interactions. We anticipate that this phenomenon is widespread in nature, because of the abundance of symbiotic microorganisms across trophic levels in ecological communities. Their role should be more prominently integrated in community ecology to understand organization of natural and managed ecosystems, as well as adaptations of individual organisms that are part of these communities.

Seasonal and herbivore-induced dynamics of foliar glucosinolates in wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea)
Gols, Rieta ; Dam, Nicole M. van; Reichelt, Michael ; Gershenzon, Jonathan ; Raaijmakers, Ciska E. ; Bullock, James M. ; Harvey, Jeffrey A. - \ 2018
Chemoecology 28 (2018)3. - ISSN 0937-7409 - p. 77 - 89.
Brassica oleracea - Cabbage - Glucosinolates - Plant defence - Plant insect interactions - Secondary plant metabolites
Levels of plant secondary metabolites are not static and often change in relation to plant ontogeny. They also respond to abiotic and biotic changes in the environment, e.g., they often increase in response to biotic stress, such as herbivory. In contrast with short-lived annual plant species, especially those with growing periods of less than 2–3 months, investment in defensive compounds of vegetative tissues in biennial and perennial species may also vary over the course of an entire growing season. In garden experiments, we investigated the dynamics of secondary metabolites, i.e. glucosinolates (GSLs) in the perennial wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea), which was grown from seeds originating from three populations that differ in GSL chemistry. We compared temporal long-term dynamics of GSLs over the course of two growing seasons and short-term dynamics in response to herbivory by Pieris rapae caterpillars in a more controlled greenhouse experiment. Long-term dynamics differed for aliphatic GSLs (gradual increase from May to December) and indole GSLs (rapid increase until mid-summer after which concentrations decreased or stabilized). In spring, GSL levels in new shoots were similar to those found in the previous year. Short-term dynamics in response to herbivory primarily affected indole GSLs, which increased during the 2-week feeding period by P. rapae. Herbivore-induced changes in the concentrations of aliphatic GSLs were population-specific and their concentrations were found to increase in primarily one population only. We discuss our results considering the biology and ecology of wild cabbage.
HEx : A heterologous expression platform for the discovery of fungal natural products
Harvey, Colin J.B. ; Tang, Mancheng ; Schlecht, Ulrich ; Horecka, Joe ; Fischer, Curt R. ; Lin, Hsiao Ching ; Li, Jian ; Naughton, Brian ; Cherry, James ; Miranda, Molly ; Li, Yong Fuga ; Chu, Angela M. ; Hennessy, James R. ; Vandova, Gergana A. ; Inglis, Diane ; Aiyar, Raeka S. ; Steinmetz, Lars M. ; Davis, Ronald W. ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Sattely, Elizabeth ; Khosla, Chaitan ; Onge, Robert P.S. ; Tang, Yi ; Hillenmeyer, Maureen E. - \ 2018
Science Advances 4 (2018)4. - ISSN 2375-2548
For decades, fungi have been a source of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved natural products such as penicillin, cyclosporine, and the statins. Recent breakthroughs in DNA sequencing suggest that millions of fungal species exist on Earth, with each genome encoding pathways capable of generating as many as dozens of natural products. However, the majority of encoded molecules are difficult or impossible to access because the organisms are uncultivable or the genes are transcriptionally silent. To overcome this bottleneck in natural product discovery, we developed the HEx (Heterologous EXpression) synthetic biology platform for rapid, scalable expression of fungal biosynthetic genes and their encoded metabolites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We applied this platform to 41 fungal biosynthetic gene clusters from diverse fungal species from around the world, 22 of which produced detectable compounds. These included novel compounds with unexpected biosynthetic origins, particularly from poorly studied species. This result establishes the HEx platform for rapid discovery of natural products from any fungal species, even those that are uncultivable, and opens the door to discovery of the next generation of natural products.
Introduction: The Multiple Challenges and Layers of Water Justice Struggles
Boelens, R.A. ; Vos, J.M.C. ; Perreault, Tom - \ 2018
In: Water Justice / Boelens, R., Perreault, T., Vos, J., Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107179080 - p. 1 - 32.
Introduction Water is a resource that triggers profound conflicts and close collaboration, a source of deep injustices, and fierce struggles for life. In many regions of the world, rising demand and declining availability of adequate-quality water foster severe competition and ferocious clashes among different water uses and users. People also suffer from flooding; contamination caused by industry and mining; privatization of public water utilities; corruption; and displacement by large dam projects. Climate change intensifies most human-made water problems. In struggles for water security, the poor tend to lose (e.g. Crow et al., 2014; Escobar, 2006; Harvey, 1996; Perreault et al., 2011). Through exemplary cases, the chapters in this book show how new competitors - including megacities, mining, forestry, and agribusiness companies - demand and usurp a mounting share of available surface and groundwater resources (e.g., Donahue and Johnston, 1998; GRAIN, 2012). Water deprivation and water insecurity affect marginalized urban households, and rural smallholder families and communities. In many regions, this poses profound threats to environmental sustainability and local and national food security (e.g., Escobar, 2008; Mehta et al., 2012; Mena et al., 2016). Such proliferating problems of material and social “water injustices” provide the backdrop for this book. Distribution of access water rights and water-related decision-making is extremely skewed. Smallholder communities’ water-based livelihoods and rights in many countries of the global South are constantly threatened by bureaucratic administrations, market-driven policies, and top-down project intervention practices. Despite the fact that water injustices have existed throughout human history, water justice problems and related policy interventions have changed rapidly over recent decades (Zwarteveen and Boelens, 2014). For instance, rather than focusing on simply enlarging water flows through new hydraulic engineering projects, new perspectives focus on water saving and conservation (Vos and Marshall, 2017; Zwarteveen, 2015). New scientific fields and water professionals have entered the water policy-making and intervention worlds to accompany (increasingly high-tech) hydraulic engineering (Buscher and Fletcher, 2015; Goldman, 2007, 2011). Also, climate change threats and water-related disasters have changed science and policy debates and water funding projects related to issues such as “mitigation and adaptation,” flood control and drought prevention (Heynen et al., 2007; Lynch, 2012; Martínez-Alier, 2002). Further, global neoliberalism has assured that water development and governance are no longer seen as the exclusive realm of the state, with water knowledge and authority concentrated in powerful public agencies (Hommes et al., 2016; Loftus, 2009; Zwarteveen, 2015).
Effects of plant-mediated differences in host quality on the development of two related endoparasitoids with different host-utilization strategies
Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Gols, Rieta - \ 2018
Journal of Insect Physiology 107 (2018). - ISSN 0022-1910 - p. 110 - 115.
Brassica oleracea - Cotesia vestalis - Dolichogenidea sicaria - Host quality - Life-history - Plutella xylostella
Among parasitoids that develop inside the bodies of feeding, growing hosts (so-called ‘koinobiont’ endoparasitoids), two strategies have evolved to dispose of host resources. The larvae of one group consumes most host tissues before pupation, whereas in the other the parasitoid larvae consume only host hemolymph and fat body and at maturity emerge through the host cuticle to pupate externally. Here we compared development and survival (to adult emergence) of two related larval endoparasitoids (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Larvae of Dolichogenidea sicaria are tissue feeders whereas larvae of Cotesia vestalis are hemolymph feeders. Here, development of P. xylostella and the two parasitoids was compared on three populations (one cultivar [Cyrus], two wild, [Winspit and Kimmeridge]) of cabbage that have been shown to vary in direct defense and hence quality. Survival of P. xylostella and C. vestalis (to adult eclosion) did not vary with cabbage population, but did so in D. sicaria, where survival was lower when reared on the wild populations than on the cultivar. Furthermore, adult herbivore mass was significantly higher and development was significantly shorter in moths reared on the cultivar. The tissue-feeing D. sicaria was larger but took longer to develop than the hemolymph-feeder C. vestalis. The performance of both parasitoids was better on the cabbage cultivar than on the wild populations, although the effects were less apparent than in the host. Our results show that (1) differences in plant quality are diffused up the food chain, and (2) the effects of host quality are reflected on the development of both parasitoids.
Genetic variation in neurodegenerative diseases and its accessibility in the modelorganism Caenorhabditis elegans
Wang, Yiru ; Kammenga, J.E. ; Harvey, S.C. - \ 2017
Human Genomics 11 (2017). - ISSN 1473-9542
Background: Neurodegenerative diseases (NGDs) such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s are debilitating and largely untreatable conditions strongly linked to age. The clinical, neuropathological, and genetic components of NGDs indicate that neurodegeneration is a complex trait determined by multiple genes and by the environment. Main body: The symptoms of NGDs differ among individuals due to their genetic background, and this variation affects the onset and progression of NGD and NGD-like states. Such genetic variation affects the molecular and cellular processes underlying NGDs, leading to differential clinical phenotypes. So far, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms of individual background variation. Here, we consider how variation between genetic backgrounds affects the mechanisms of aging and proteostasis in NGD phenotypes. We discuss how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can be used to identify the role of variation between genetic backgrounds. Additionally, we review advance s in C. elegans methods that can facilitate the identification of NGD regulators and/or networks. Conclusion: Genetic variation both in disease genes and in regulatory factors that modulate onset and progression of NGDs are incompletely understood. The nematode C. elegans represents a valuable system in which to address such questions.
The molecular basis of natural variation in cold stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans
Stastna, J. ; Snoek, L.B. ; Nei, Nell ; Wang, Yiru ; Riksen, J.A.G. ; Kammenga, J.E. ; Harvey, S.C. - \ 2017
Temperature regulation is generally a critical requirement for survival and proliferation, with the ability to survive both chronic and acute cold stress often being essential for wild-type fitness. Understanding how eukaryotic cells respond to low temperatures is also crucially important in aspects of biotechnology and medicine. In general, effects of low temperature depend on the severity of the stress and has been implicated the genes and pathways that regulate membrane lipid composition in cold stress survival. In comparison to what is known about the response to high temperature stress, low temperature stress is less well understood.

Here we present an analysis of natural variation in cold stress resistance in the nematode C. elegans. Several approaches were taken to study this, these included testing in novel 4-parent recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and wild isolates. The results uncovered extensive variation in response to cold shock treatment and, for the first time, linked cold stress survival to the regulation of translation in C. elegans. Critically, genes previously identified in cold response cannot explain the variation detected. We have identified variation in eftu-2 (a homologue of human eEF-2), a gene important for the elongation step in protein synthesis, as the main genetic variant explaining the response to cold stress.
Microarray profiling of gene expression in Alpha-Synuclein aggregations and its alteration by natural genetic variation in Caenorhabditis elegans
Wang, Yiru ; Snoek, L.B. ; Sterken, M.G. ; Riksen, J.A.G. ; Cook, D. ; Tanny, R.E. ; Andersen, E.C. ; Kammenga, J.E. ; Harvey, S. - \ 2017
Neurodegenerative diseases (NGDs), such as Alzheimer’s diseases (AD) and Parkinson’s diseases (PD), are characterized by progressive degeneration in the human nervous system. The nematode C. elegans is an excellent model in which to study NGDs due to the high level of conservation of gene functions compared to humans. However, C. elegans research largely relies on a single worm genotype – the canonical N2 strain – limiting the ability to explore how naturally varying alleles alter pathological mechanisms in NGDs. In order to identify how genetic variation acts on NGDs, we analyzed transgenic animals that express aggregating human proteins associated with molecular pathogenic progression of NGDs in five genetic backgrounds.

Here, starting with the original transgenic strain expressing the human synaptic protein alpha-synuclein in an N2 genetic background, we have introgressed the PD transgene (unc-54:: α-Syn:: YFP) into four different wild type genetic backgrounds. Analysis of these new transgenic introgressed lines indicates that transgene effects vary greatly depending on the genetic background. To understand the genetic bases of these phenotypic differences, we have sequenced these new lines to recognize confounder of the heterogeneity in transgenes, measured various aspects of the life history, and investigated gene expression differences by microarray. These analyses identified genes that are up- and down-regulated in all genotypes and genes that expressed at a specific stage to particular genetic backgrounds. For example, the differential developments of those lines have been also confirmed from microarray data that the gene vit-1 expressed at different levels between the lines. Functional enrichment links these genes to the aggregation of alpha-synuclein, which is causative of PD, to the associated developmental arrest, metabolic, and cellular repair mechanisms.

Our studies provide opportunities to observe alterations in traits, including global gene expression, associated with the toxicity of misfolded protein aggregation that could not be readily observed in the canonical N2 background. This is a necessary and important step to identify the alleles responsible for individual variation in the onset and progression of NGDs.

Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance
Fei, Minghui ; Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Yin, Yi ; Gols, Rieta - \ 2017
Journal of Chemical Ecology 43 (2017)6. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 617 - 629.
Brassicaceae - Butterfly oviposition choice - Glucosinolates - Insect herbivores - Insect performance - Plant development - Plant ontogeny - Primary metabolites - Secondary metabolites - 017-4030
The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adult female butterflies lay variable clusters of eggs on the underside of short-lived annual species in the family Brassicaceae, including the short-lived annuals Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, which are important food plants for P. brassicae in The Netherlands. Here, we compared oviposition preference and larval performance of P. brassicae on three age classes (young, mature, and pre-senescing) of B. nigra and S. arvensis plants. Oviposition preference of P. brassicae declined with plant age in both plant species. Whereas larvae performed similarly on all three age classes in B. nigra, preference and performance were weakly correlated in S. arvensis. Analysis of primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (glucosinolates) chemistry in the plant shoots revealed that differences in their quality and quantity were more pronounced with respect to tissue type (leaves vs. flowers) than among different developmental stages of both plant species. Butterflies of P. brassicae may prefer younger and smaller plants for oviposition anticipating that future plant growth and size is optimally synchronized with the final larval instar, which contributes >80% of larval growth before pupation.
Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects
Desrues, Olivier ; Mueller-Harvey, Irene ; Pellikaan, Wilbert F. ; Enemark, Heidi L. ; Thamsborg, Stig M. - \ 2017
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65 (2017)7. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 1420 - 1427.
Cooperia oncophora - diet - digesta - feces - helminth parasite - Ostertagia ostertagi - proanthocyanidins
Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2.3% of DM; expt 1) compared with the rumen and intestines, along with higher mean size and prodelphinidins percentage, corroborating CTs efficacy reported only against Ostertagia ostertagi in the abomasum. In expt 2, the dietary levels of CTs were probably too low to demonstrate anthelmintic effects in the rumen. Overall, the level of CTs accessible to thiolysis is favored under the acidic conditions of the abomasum, which seems critical for anthelmintic activity.
Comparing and contrasting life history variation in four aphid hyperparasitoids
Buitenhuis, Rosemarije ; Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Vet, Louise E.M. ; Boivin, Guy ; Brodeur, Jacques - \ 2017
Ecological Entomology 42 (2017)3. - ISSN 0307-6946 - p. 325 - 335.
Idiobiont - Koinobiont - Life history - Parasitoid development
1. In primary parasitoids, significant differences in life history and reproductive traits are observed among parasitoids attacking different stages of the same host species. Much less is known about hyperparasitoids, which attack different stages of primary parasitoids. 2. Parasitoids exploit hosts in two different ways. Koinobionts attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobionts paralyse hosts before oviposition or attack non-growing host stages, e.g. eggs or pupae. 3. Koino-/idiobiosis in primary parasitoids are often associated with different expression of life history trade-offs, e.g. endo- versus ectoparasitism, high versus low fecundity and short versus long life span. 4. In the present study, life history parameters of two koinobiont endoparasitic species (Alloxysta victrix; Syrphophagus aphidivorus), and two idiobiont ectoparasitic species (Asaphes suspensus; Dendrocerus carpenteri) of aphid hyperparasitoids were compared. These hyperparasitoids attack either the parasitoid larva in the aphid before it is killed and mummified by the primary parasitoid or the parasitoid prepupa or pupa in the dead aphid mummy. 5. There was considerable variation in reproductive success and longevity in the four species. The idiobiont A. suspensus produced the most progeny by far and had the longest lifespan. In contrast, the koinobiont A. victrix had the lowest fecundity. Other developments and life history parameters in the different species were variable. 6. The present results reveal that there was significant overlap in life history and reproductive traits among hyperparasitoid koinobionts and idiobionts, even when attacking the same host species, suggesting that selection for expression of these traits is largely association specific.
Denial of long-term issues with agriculture on tropical peatlands will have devastating consequences
Wijedasa, Lahiru S. ; Jauhiainen, Jyrki ; Könönen, Mari ; Lampela, Maija ; Vasander, Harri ; Leblanc, Marie-Claire ; Evers, Stephanie ; Smith, Thomas E.L. ; Yule, Catherine M. ; Varkkey, Helena ; Lupascu, Massimo ; Parish, Faizal ; Singleton, Ian ; Clements, Gopalasamy R. ; Aziz, Sheema Abdul ; Harrison, Mark E. ; Cheyne, Susan ; Anshari, Gusti Z. ; Meijaard, Erik ; Goldstein, Jenny E. ; Waldron, Susan ; Hergoualc'h, Kristell ; Dommain, Rene ; Frolking, Steve ; Evans, Christopher D. ; Posa, Mary Rose C. ; Glaser, Paul H. ; Suryadiputra, Nyoman ; Lubis, Reza ; Santika, Truly ; Padfield, Rory ; Kurnianto, Sofyan ; Hadisiswoyo, Panut ; Lim, Teck Wyn ; Page, Susan E. ; Gauci, Vincent ; Meer, Peter J. Van Der; Buckland, Helen ; Garnier, Fabien ; Samuel, Marshall K. ; Choo, Liza Nuriati Lim Kim ; O'reilly, Patrick ; Warren, Matthew ; Suksuwan, Surin ; Sumarga, Elham ; Jain, Anuj ; Laurance, William F. ; Couwenberg, John ; Joosten, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Hooijer, Aljosja ; Malins, Chris ; Cochrane, Mark A. ; Perumal, Balu ; Siegert, Florian ; Peh, Kelvin S.H. ; Comeau, Louis-Pierre ; Verchot, Louis ; Harvey, Charles F. ; Cobb, Alex ; Jaafar, Zeehan ; Wösten, Henk ; Manuri, Solichin ; Müller, Moritz ; Giesen, Wim ; Phelps, Jacob ; Yong, Ding Li ; Silvius, Marcel ; Wedeux, Béatrice M.M. ; Hoyt, Alison ; Osaki, Mitsuru ; Hirano, Takashi ; Takahashi, Hidenori ; Kohyama, Takashi S. ; Haraguchi, Akira ; Nugroho, Nunung P. ; Coomes, David A. ; Quoi, Le Phat ; Dohong, Alue ; Gunawan, Haris ; Gaveau, David L.A. ; Langner, Andreas ; Lim, Felix K.S. ; Edwards, David P. ; Giam, Xingli ; Werf, Guido Van Der; Carmenta, Rachel ; Verwer, Caspar C. ; Gibson, Luke ; Gandois, Laure ; Graham, Laura Linda Bozena ; Regalino, Jhanson ; Wich, Serge A. ; Rieley, Jack ; Kettridge, Nicholas ; Brown, Chloe ; Pirard, Romain ; Moore, Sam ; Capilla, B.R. ; Ballhorn, Uwe ; Ho, Hua Chew ; Hoscilo, Agata ; Lohberger, Sandra ; Evans, Theodore A. ; Yulianti, Nina ; Blackham, Grace ; Onrizal, O. ; Husson, Simon ; Murdiyarso, Daniel ; Pangala, Sunita ; Cole, Lydia E.S. ; Tacconi, Luca ; Segah, Hendrik ; Tonoto, Prayoto ; Lee, Janice S.H. ; Schmilewski, Gerald ; Wulffraat, Stephan ; Putra, Erianto Indra ; Cattau, Megan E. ; Clymo, R.S. ; Morrison, Ross ; Mujahid, Aazani ; Miettinen, Jukka ; Liew, Soo Chin ; Valpola, Samu ; Wilson, David ; Arcy, Laura D'; Gerding, Michiel ; Sundari, Siti ; Thornton, Sara A. ; Kalisz, Barbara ; Chapman, Stephen J. ; Su, Ahmad Suhaizi Mat ; Basuki, Imam ; Itoh, Masayuki ; Traeholt, Carl ; Sloan, Sean ; Sayok, Alexander K. ; Andersen, Roxane - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)3. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 977 - 982.
Honey and honey-based sugars partially affect reproductive trade-offs in parasitoids exhibiting different life-history and reproductive strategies
Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Essens, Tijl A. ; Las, Rutger A. ; Veen, Cindy van; Visser, B. ; Ellers, J. ; Heinen, R. ; Gols, R. - \ 2017
Journal of Insect Physiology 98 (2017). - ISSN 0022-1910 - p. 134 - 140.
Adult dietary regimes in insects may affect egg production, fecundity and ultimately fitness. This is especially relevant in parasitoid wasps where many species serve as important biological control agents of agricultural pests. Here, we tested the effect of honey and sugar diets on daily fecundity schedules, lifetime reproductive success and longevity in four species of parasitoid wasps when reared on their respective hosts. The parasitoid species were selected based on dichotomies in host usage strategies and reproductive traits. Gelis agilis and G. areator are idiobiont ecto-parasitoids that develop in non-growing hosts, feed on protein-rich host fluids to maximize reproduction as adults and produce small numbers of large eggs. Meteorus pulchricornis and Microplitis mediator are koinobiont endoparasitoids that develop inside the bodies of growing hosts, do not host-feed, and produce greater numbers of small eggs. Parasitoids were reared on diets of either pure honey (containing trace amounts of proteins), heated honey (with denatured proteins) and a honey-mimic containing sugars only. We hypothesized that the benefits of proteins in honey would enhance reproduction in the ectoparasitoids due to their high metabolic investment per egg, but not in the koinobionts. Pure honey diet resulted in higher lifetime fecundity in G. agilis compared with the honey-mimic, whereas in both koinobionts, reproductive success did not vary significantly with diet. Longevity was less affected by diet in all of the parasitoids, although there were variable trade-offs between host access and longevity in the four species. We argue that there are both trait-based and association-specific effects of supplementary nutrients in honey on reproductive investment and success in parasitoid wasps.
On Marx’s human significance, Harvey’s right to the city, and Nussbaum’s capability approach
Basta, C. - \ 2017
Planning Theory 16 (2017)4. - ISSN 1473-0952 - p. 345 - 363.
In this article, I juxtapose David Harvey’s idea of the ‘right to the city’ and Martha Nussbaum’s central human capability of ‘control over one’s environment’, and I approach them from the perspective of their mutual convergence on Marx’s conception of human significance. In particular,
I compare how Marx’s conception reverberates in Harvey’s right to the city as human right and in Nussbaum’s control over the environment as central human capability. I discuss how the language of capabilities through which the latter scholar articulates her political liberalism offers ‘important supplementations’ to the language of human rights through which the former scholar articulates his critical discourse. I conclude that the evaluative character of Nussbaum’s capability approach could advance a novel stream in planning theory centred on human development. To elaborate on such potential, I propose the notion of people’s ‘urban functionings’, and I discuss how this notion could provide new interpretative lenses through which to renew the idea of ‘right to the city’.
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