Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Arsenic in Argentina : Technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater sources, investment costs and waste management practices
Litter, Marta I. ; Ingallinella, Ana M. ; Olmos, Valentina ; Savio, Marianela ; Difeo, Gonzalo ; Botto, Lía ; Torres, Elsa Mónica Farfán ; Taylor, Sergio ; Frangie, Sofía ; Herkovits, Jorge ; Schalamuk, Isidoro ; González, María José ; Berardozzi, Eliana ; García Einschlag, Fernando S. ; Bhattacharya, Prosun ; Ahmad, Arslan - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 690 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 778 - 789.
Argentina - Arsenic - Drinking water - Mitigation - Removal technologies

An overview about the presence of arsenic (As) in groundwaters of Argentina, made by a transdisciplinary group of experts is presented. In this second part, the conventional and emerging technologies for As removal, management of wastes, and the initial investment costs of the proposed technologies, with emphasis on developments of local groups are described. Successful examples of real application of conventional and emerging technologies for As removal in waters for human consumption, for medium, small and rural and periurban communities are reported. In the country, the two most applied technologies for arsenic removal at a real scale are reverse osmosis and coagulation-adsorption-filtration processes using iron or aluminum salts or polyelectrolytes as coagulants. A decision tree to evaluate the possible technologies to be applied, based on the population size, the quality of the water and its intended use, is presented, including preliminary and indicative investment costs. Finally, a section discussing the treatment and final disposal of the liquid, semiliquid and solid wastes, generated by the application of the most used technologies, is included. Conclusions and recommendations, especially for isolated rural and periurban regions, have been added.

Application of lactobacilli and prebiotic oligosaccharides for the development of a synbiotic semi-hard cheese
Langa, S. ; Bulck, E. van den; Peirotén, A. ; Gaya, P. ; Schols, H.A. ; Arqués, J.L. - \ 2019
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 114 (2019). - ISSN 0023-6438
Cheese - Lactobacillus - Prebiotic oligosaccharides - Probiotics - Synbiotic

The aim of this study was to test the compatibility of two selected Lactobacillus strains with different prebiotic carbohydrates in order to develop a synbiotic cheese. Initially, the growth of the probiotic lactobacilli with the prebiotic formulations was monitored in optimized growth medium and in milk. Afterwards, semi-hard cheeses were manufactured with the selected combination of Lb. paracasei INIA P272 and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Results showed that the addition of FOS did not affect Lb. paracasei viability in the cheese after 28 days of ripening, but a higher viability of this strain was achieved in the presence of FOS when cheese was tested in a colonic model. Thus, the inclusion of FOS in the cheese could have a beneficial effect by increasing the probiotic strain viability in the host.

Root architecture system of oilseed species from the Jatropha genus during seed development and germination
Brito, Cristiane D. de; Loureiro, Marta B. ; Ribeiro, Paulo R. ; Vasconcelos, Paulo Carvalho T. ; Moreno, Maria Lúcia V. ; Fernandez, Luzimar G. ; Hilhorst, Henk W.M. ; Lammeren, Andre van; Ligterink, Wilco ; Castro, Renato D. de - \ 2019
Industrial Crops and Products 139 (2019). - ISSN 0926-6690
Germination - Guard cells - Root development - Seed embryo

The life cycle of a seed plant involves subsequent stages of development including germination and seedling establishment. Morphological structures have a fundamental role in these phases, since they are strongly related to physiological adaptations to survival in a range of environments. The present study describes an important morphophysiological and anatomical pattern in embryos of Jatropha genus, involving adaptations for germination and seedling growth. Seed embryos of Jatropha curcas, J. gossypiifolia, J. podagrica and J. multifida were examined using different physiological and microscopic assays. Jatropha species present a multimeristematic embryo composed of one main apical primary meristem plus four radial primary meristems. Seed germination is completed by simultaneous protrusion of five functional roots and seedlings are able to survive even with only one of them. The hypocotyl-radicle transition zone exhibiting different stomata sizes, ontogenic phases and short lifespan limited to the germination. Stomata fractures at mid-region due to the fact that guard cells were not lengthen as neighboring epidermal cells, forming a large cavity in the epidermal tissue during seedling growth. The results showed an unusual and complex root structure for the Jatropha genus. The presence of stomata operating strictly during seed germination could be associated to intense energetic metabolism demanded for the simultaneous growth of the five roots originated from the multimeristematic radicle. This study provides important insights into the understanding of seed germination of Jatropha species in response to stress environmental conditions.

Why irrigation water pricing is not widely used
Davidson, Brian ; Hellegers, Petra ; Namara, Regassa Ensermu - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 1 - 6.

Despite its obvious advantages, pricing irrigation water is not widely practiced because it is not easy to deploy effectively. Water authorities require an understanding of the objectives they hope to gain from it, the performance different pricing instruments have and the preconditions that must be met to enable them to work. Also, pricing instruments work under assumptions that do not hold in an environment where multiple market failures exist and their introduction may lead to a number of unintended consequences those who operate irrigation systems never considered. The aim in this paper is to outline the difficulties that are associated with implementing pricing instruments in the irrigation sector.

The role of n-3 PUFA-derived fatty acid derivatives and their oxygenated metabolites in the modulation of inflammation
Bus, Ian de; Witkamp, Renger ; Zuilhof, Han ; Albada, Bauke ; Balvers, Michiel - \ 2019
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators 144 (2019). - ISSN 1098-8823
Chemical probes - Endocannabinoid - Inflammation - Oxygenation - PUFA

Notwithstanding the ongoing debate on their full potential in health and disease, there is general consensus that n-3 PUFAs play important physiological roles. Increasing dietary n-3 PUFA intake results in increased DHA and EPA content in cell membranes as well as an increase in n-3 derived oxylipin and -endocannabinoid concentrations, like fatty acid amides and glycerol-esters. These shifts are believed to (partly) explain the pharmacological and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs. Recent studies discovered that n-3 PUFA-derived endocannabinoids can be further metabolized by the oxidative enzymes CYP-450, LOX and COX, similar to the n-6 derived endocannabinoids. Interestingly, these oxidized n-3 PUFA derived endocannabinoids of eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide (EPEA) and docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) have higher anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative potential than their precursors. In this review, an overview of recently discovered n-3 PUFA derived endocannabinoids and their metabolites is provided. In addition, the use of chemical probes will be presented as a promising technique to study the n-3 PUFA and n-3 PUFA metabolism within the field of lipid biochemistry.

Radiation and cloud-base lowering fog events : Observational analysis and evaluation of WRF and HARMONIE
Román-Cascón, Carlos ; Yagüe, Carlos ; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan ; Morales, Gema ; Arrillaga, J.A. ; Sastre, Mariano ; Maqueda, Gregorio - \ 2019
Atmospheric Research 229 (2019). - ISSN 0169-8095 - p. 190 - 207.
Cloud-base-lowering - Fog - HARMONIE - Model skill - Radiation - WRF

Most of the effects caused by fog are negative for humans. Yet, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models still have problems to simulate fog properly, especially in operational forecasts. In the case of radiation fog, this is partially caused by the large sensitivity to many aspects, such as the synoptic and local conditions, the near-surface turbulence, the aerosol and droplet microphysics, or the surface characteristics, among others. This work focuses on an interesting 8-day period with several alternating radiation and cloud-base lowering (CBL) fog events observed at the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA) in the Spanish Northern Plateau. On the one hand, radiation fog events are associated with strong surface cooling leading to high stability close to the surface and low values of turbulence, giving rise to shallow fog. The evolution of this type of fog is markedly sensitive to the dynamical conditions close to the surface (i.e., wind speed and turbulence). On the other hand, CBL fog presents deeper thickness associated with higher values of turbulence and less stability. Subsequently, we evaluated the fog-forecasting skill of two mesoscale models (WRF and HARMONIE) configured as similar as possible. Both models present more difficulties simulating radiation fog events than CBL ones. However, the duration and vertical extension of the CBL fog events is normally overestimated. This extended-fog avoids the surface radiative cooling needed to simulate radiation fog events formed the following nights. Therefore, these periods with alternating CBL and radiation fog are especially challenging for NWP models.

Oostlandse glastuinbouw zet koers naar 2030 : Verduurzamingsrichtingen energievoorziening van de Oostlandse glastuinbouw
Smit, Pepijn ; Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Rapport / Wageningen Eonomic Research 2019-066) - ISBN 9789463950176 - 52
For greenhouse horticulture in the region of Oostland far-reaching changes are foreseen in three scenarios for 2030 when looking at energy use. The scenarios consist of pessimistic, moderate and optimistic development routes of greenhouse horticulture in the Oostland region. The changes have the most impact on energy supply sources, which will rely less on natural gas and more on sustainable sources and purchase of energy from third parties, and are a result of changes in energy demand and mutations of sector structure, sustainability efforts of the greenhouse enterprises with their partners and government policy. The changes have a positive effect on the reduction of CO2 emissions and the share of renewable energy. It has emerged that energy sustainability is related to the modernisation of greenhouses, that cooperation between companies, their partners and governments is essential and that expansion of energy-networks are of great importance. The glasshouse horticulture in Oostland distinguishes itself with its own characteristics in terms of sector structure, energy demand and energy supply from national greenhouse horticulture.
Quantifying harbour porpoise foraging behaviour in CPOD data: identification, automatic detection and potential application
Berges, B.P.J. ; Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Scheidat, M. ; Tougaard, J. - \ 2019
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C039/19) - 41
Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are regularly monitored to assess how they are impacted by the construction and operation of offshore wind farms. A suitable method to do this is passive acoustic monitoring (PAM), and in particular using specific stationary hydrophones called CPODs. These devices provide information on click activity, which can then be analysed to investigate habitat use over time, differences between areas and the impact of human activities. Due to their small size and high metabolism porpoises are thought to need a more or less constant supply of prey to survive. Prey occurrence is thus considered one of the main drivers in porpoise distribution. And successful feeding is vital to the fitness and survival of individual porpoises. Information on foraging behaviour, however, is difficult to obtain in the field, in particular as animals feed under water. Recently the tagging of animals has provided new insights into porpoise behaviour, but it has been done for a limited number of individuals and for short times only. CPOD data have been used in Dutch waters to monitor harbour porpoise habitat use and behaviour before, during and after the construction of wind farms. The analyses have focussed on using a number of parameters that can be derived from the data, such as porpoise positive minutes, hours or days, encounter and waiting times. From other studies, primarily in captivity, we know that during foraging porpoises produce a characteristic pattern of clicks, starting with an approach phase and ending with a so-called “terminal buzz”. Aim of our study was to investigate if we could quantify foraging behaviour from CPOD data, and we were able to use an existing data set of harbour porpoise click activity from the Gemini wind park (June 2015 to February 2016). The study consisted of three phases. First, the different existing methods were applied to a sample set of data to determine the most suitable approach to identify foraging behaviour. The results indicate that re-classification of clicks following the method developed by Pirotta (2014 a,b) to identify terminal buzzes provides the best results. Second, an algorithm was written to allow the automated analyses of CPOD data following this method. Finally, this analytical tool was applied to the Gemini wind park data to explore the potential applications of this method. The results show that foraging events could be determined in sufficient numbers to detect patterns over time, such as diel patterns, as well as to compare differences between stations. We propose that this tool is applied to a larger dataset to investigate: 1) how porpoises use existing wind parks during the operational phase, 2) if and at what scale anthropogenic activities (such as construction work) impact foraging behaviour and 3) how foraging behaviour is linked to environmental parameters, including prey occurrence. This study was funded through the WOZEP project and the data were provided by Gemini Windpark
Teachers and students’ perception of competence-based education in the agricultural higher education system (Case of a student cooperative in Iran)
Saadvandi, Mahsa ; Abbasi, Enayat ; Farhadian, Homayoun ; Zarafshani, Kiumars ; Biemans, Harm - \ 2019
The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 25 (2019)4. - ISSN 1389-224X - p. 307 - 322.
competence-based education - Perception - student cooperative

Purpose: This quantitative study sought to investigate the perceptions of teachers and students regarding competency-based education (CBE) principles at the College of Agriculture at Razi University. Design: This research is a comparative analysis of two groups. The first group consists of undergraduate and graduate students majoring in agriculture who are members and non-members of student cooperatives (n = 256). The second group consists of agricultural faculty members (n = 59). Findings: The results of this study show that students and teachers have different views with regard to the extent to which CBE principles are practiced in the College of Agriculture. Moreover, students with different learning patterns had different perceptions regarding the extent to which CBE is practiced, whereas teachers with different teaching patterns had the same perception of the application of CBE principles in the College of Agriculture. Practical implications: This study has practical implications for agricultural higher education in general and colleges of agriculture in particular. Colleges of agriculture across Iran could encourage their students to establish and engage in student cooperatives so that the ‘what’ and ‘how’ aspects of CBE are put into practice. Theoretical implications: This study has theoretical implications for CBE principles. For example, student cooperatives can be utilized by faculty members as one of the main strategies for developing CBE in agricultural colleges. Originality/value: This study is original in that it moves from theory to practice when considering CBE.

Plastic responses to novel environments are biased towards phenotype dimensions with high additive genetic variation
Noble, Daniel W.A. ; Radersma, Reinder ; Uller, Tobias - \ 2019
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)27. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 13452 - 13461.
Cryptic genetic - Evolvability - Phenotypic accommodation - Phenotypic plasticity - Variation

Environmentally induced phenotypes have been proposed to initiate and bias adaptive evolutionary change toward particular directions. The potential for this to happen depends in part on how well plastic responses are aligned with the additive genetic variance and covariance in traits. Using meta-analysis, we demonstrate that plastic responses to novel environments tend to occur along phenotype dimensions that harbor substantial amounts of additive genetic variation. This suggests that selection for or against environmentally induced phenotypes typically will be effective. One interpretation of the alignment between the direction of plasticity and the main axis of additive genetic variation is that developmental systems tend to respond to environmental novelty as they do to genetic mutation. This makes it challenging to distinguish if the direction of evolution is biased by plasticity or genetic “constraint.” Our results therefore highlight a need for new theoretical and empirical approaches to address the role of plasticity in evolution.

Mineralenprestaties van de melkveehouderij in Noord-Nederland
Timmerman, M. ; Plomp, M. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1173) - 32
In this study the realized soil surpluses (N and P2O5), ammonia- and greenhouse gas emissions and the percentage protein of own land of the dairy farms in the Northern part of the Netherlands have been established for the years 2016 and 2017. The realized values were subsequently compared with previous published results over 2013.
Ammoniakemissie tijdens frequent mixen van drijfmestmet lucht : Onderzoek op Dairy Campus
Dooren, H.J.C. van; Bokma, S. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1170) - 22
Four experiments have been conducted between 2016 and 2018 at Dairy Campus in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands with the aim to measure the effect of daily mixing of dairy slurry on the emission of ammonia. Daily mixing of slurry either with air pumped into the slurry or with an electrical mixer did not result in reduction of ammonia emission. The assumption that preventing a crust to be formed on top of the slurry by frequent mixing would reduce ammonia emission was not supported by the results found the emission measurements units at Dairy Campus (The Netherlands) in four experiments.
Parental unemployment and child health in China
Pieters, Janneke ; Rawlings, Samantha - \ 2019
Review of Economics of the Household (2019). - ISSN 1569-5239 - 31 p.
Child Health - China - Nutrition - Unemployment

This paper studies the causal effect of maternal and paternal unemployment on child health in China, analyzing panel data for the period 1997–2004, when the country underwent economic reforms leading to massive layoffs. Using a FE-IV strategy, we find that paternal unemployment reduces child health, while maternal unemployment has beneficial child health impacts. Analysis of channels shows that paternal and maternal unemployment have different effects on income, time use, and children’s diets. Though many estimates are imprecise, a key finding is that paternal unemployment significantly reduces children’s fat intake and dietary diversity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence on the causal effect of parental unemployment on the nutrient intake of children aged 0–17. In all, our estimates are consistent with the notion that traditional gender roles can explain why mothers’ and fathers’ unemployment affect child health differently.

The need for bottom-up assessments of climate risks and adaptation in climate-sensitive regions
Conway, Declan ; Nicholls, Robert J. ; Brown, Sally ; Tebboth, Mark G.L. ; Adger, William Neil ; Ahmad, Bashir ; Biemans, Hester ; Crick, Florence ; Lutz, Arthur F. ; Campos, Ricardo Safra De; Said, Mohammed ; Singh, Chandni ; Zaroug, Modathir Abdalla Hassan ; Ludi, Eva ; New, Mark ; Wester, Philippus - \ 2019
Nature Climate Change 9 (2019)7. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 503 - 511.

Studies of climate change at specific intervals of future warming have primarily been addressed through top-down approaches using climate projections and modelled impacts. In contrast, bottom-up approaches focus on the recent past and present vulnerability. Here, we examine climate signals at different increments of warming and consider the need to reconcile top-down and bottom-up approaches. We synthesise insights from recent studies in three climate-sensitive systems where change is a defining feature of the human-environment system. Whilst top-down and bottom-up approaches generate complementary insights into who and what is at risk, integrating their results is a much-needed step towards developing relevant information to address the needs of immediate adaptation decisions.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum evolves in geographical and biotic niches of vertebrates and ticks
Jaarsma, Ryanne I. ; Sprong, Hein ; Takumi, Katsuhisa ; Kazimirova, Maria ; Silaghi, Cornelia ; Mysterud, Atle ; Rudolf, Ivo ; Beck, Relja ; Földvári, Gábor ; Tomassone, Laura ; Groenevelt, Margit ; Everts, Reinard R. ; Rijks, Jolianne M. ; Ecke, Frauke ; Hörnfeldt, Birger ; Modrý, David ; Majerová, Karolina ; Votýpka, Jan ; Estrada-Peña, Agustín - \ 2019
Parasites & Vectors 12 (2019). - ISSN 1756-3305
Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Ixodidae - Molecular epidemiology - Network analysis - Ticks - Transmission dynamics

Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is currently regarded as a single species. However, molecular studies indicate that it can be subdivided into ecotypes, each with distinct but overlapping transmission cycle. Here, we evaluate the interactions between and within clusters of haplotypes of the bacterium isolated from vertebrates and ticks, using phylogenetic and network-based methods. Methods: The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in ticks and vertebrate tissue samples. A fragment of the groEl gene was amplified and sequenced from qPCR-positive lysates. Additional groEl sequences from ticks and vertebrate reservoirs were obtained from GenBank and through literature searches, resulting in a dataset consisting of 1623 A. phagocytophilum field isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were used to infer clusters of haplotypes and to assess phylogenetic clustering of A. phagocytophilum in vertebrates or ticks. Network-based methods were used to resolve host-vector interactions and their relative importance in the segregating communities of haplotypes. Results: Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 199 haplotypes within eight network-derived clusters, which were allocated to four ecotypes. The interactions of haplotypes between ticks, vertebrates and geographical origin, were visualized and quantified from networks. A high number of haplotypes were recorded in the tick Ixodes ricinus. Communities of A. phagocytophilum recorded from Korea, Japan, Far Eastern Russia, as well as those associated with rodents had no links with the larger set of isolates associated with I. ricinus, suggesting different evolutionary pressures. Rodents appeared to have a range of haplotypes associated with either Ixodes trianguliceps or Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi. Haplotypes found in rodents in Russia had low similarities with those recorded in rodents in other regions and shaped separate communities. Conclusions: The groEl gene fragment of A. phagocytophilum provides information about spatial segregation and associations of haplotypes to particular vector-host interactions. Further research is needed to understand the circulation of this bacterium in the gap between Europe and Asia before the overview of the speciation features of this bacterium is complete. Environmental traits may also play a role in the evolution of A. phagocytophilum in ecotypes through yet unknown relationships.

Historical changes (1905-present) in catch size and composition reflect altering fisheries practices on a small Caribbean island
Vermeij, Mark J.A. ; Latijnhouwers, Kelly R.W. ; Dilrosun, Faisal ; Chamberland, Valérie F. ; Dubé, Caroline E. ; Buurt, Gerard van; Debrot, Adolphe O. - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)6. - ISSN 1932-6203

Effective assessments of the status of Caribbean fish communities require historical baselines to adequately understand how much fish communities have changed through time. To identify such changes and their causes, we compiled a historical overview using data collected at the beginning (1905-1908), middle (1958-1965) and end (1984-2016) of the 20th century, of the artisanal fishing practices and their effects on fish populations around Curaçao, a small island in the southern Caribbean. We documented historical trends in total catch, species composition, and catch sizes per fisher per month for different types of fisheries and related these to technological and environmental changes affecting the island's fisheries and fish communities. We found that since 1905, fishers targeted species increasingly farther from shore after species occurring closer to shore had become rare. This resulted in surprisingly similar catches in terms of weight, but not composition. Large predatory reef fishes living close to shore (e.g., large Epinephelid species) had virtually disappeared from catches around the mid-20th century, questioning the use of data from this period as baseline data for modern day fish assessments. Secondly, we compared fish landings to in-situ counts from 1969 to estimate the relative contributions of habitat destruction and overfishing to the changes in fish abundance around Curaçao. The decline in coral dominated reef communities corresponded to a concurrent decrease in the abundance and diversity of smaller reef fish species not targeted by fishers, suggesting habitat loss, in addition to fishing, caused the observed declines in reef fish abundance around Curaçao.

The EU ruling on plant breeding and what it means for Africa
Purnhagen, K. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2019
Rural 21 : the international journal for rural development 53 (2019)2. - ISSN 1866-8011 - p. 16 - 17.
New plant breeding technologies (NPBTs) allow biotic and abiotic problems in crop production to be addressed much faster more precisely than conventional ones. Legal regulations governing the use of technologies vary from country to country. Above all the latest ruling by the European Court of Justice has sparked debate. Our authors look at the implications that the decision taken by the European Union could have for African agriculture and call on African policy-makers not to reject certain strategies and technologies out of hand.
Basisregistratie Ondergrond (BRO) - actualisatie bodemkaart : Herkartering van de bodem in Eemland
Brouwer, F. ; Walvoort, D.J.J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 155) - 39
Wageningen Environmental Research (WENR) has been in the process of updating the Soil Map of the Netherlands, scale 1:50,000, since 2010. The map distinguishes between various different soil units with peat layers in the upper horizons of the profile. The thickness of the peat is being reduced by oxidation and subsidence. To manage these peat soils it is important to have information on the thickness of the peat layer. This study has resulted in a peat thickness map for the peat soil areas in the Eemland region north of Amersfoort and an updated soil map of these peat soil areas at scale 1:50,000.
Integrated bio-economic impact of the landing obligation on the Dutch North Sea sole fishery : Task 1.3 of the project Best Practices II
Hamon, Katell G. ; Bartelings, Heleen - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research Report 2019-075) - ISBN 9789463950299 - 33
To reduce the discarding practice in fisheries and promote better selectivity, the EU has introduced a landing obligation. The implementation of the landing obligation started in 2015 and since 1 January 2019, all catches of stocks under quota management must be landed (with someexemptions). The Dutch flatfish fishery has always had a large amount of plaice discards while targeting sole and is now faced with a challenge to reduce those discards. While the fishery still benefits from exemption for plaice, the results of this report show that a strict implementation of the landing obligation would have negative implications for the fishing sector without necessarily benefitting the fish stocks. The estimated survivability, higher than the one currently assumed in assessment, also means that the impacts will be larger. Tests to improve selectivity by using 90mm mesh sizes instead of the traditional 80mm show that more work is needed to develop gears that avoid unwanted catch while retaining targeted fish.
Korte ketens in Gelderland
Schans, J.W. van der; Wonderen, D. van - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research Nota 2019-072) - 39
This report provides a picture of the size and distribution of short supply chains for agricultural products in the Province of Gelderland. First we define short food supply chains in the context of the Common Agricultural Policy. Then we look at the size of short food supply chains in Gelderland: which sectors and municipalities are taking the lead? Furthermore, some additional attributes of short food supply chains have been analysed: farm size, whether or not there is a successor for the farm, etc. The relations between multi-functional farming activities and short food supply chains have also been analysed. Lastly, the dynamics of farm sales have been analysed, as an example of a short food supply chain which is relatively well documented.
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