Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Continental-scale macrofungal assemblage patterns correlate with climate, soil carbon and nitrogen deposition
Andrew, Carrie ; Halvorsen, Rune ; Heegaard, Einar ; Kuijper, Thomas W. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Bässler, Claus ; Egli, Simon ; Gange, Alan C. ; Høiland, Klaus ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Boddy, Lynne ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
Journal of Biogeography 45 (2018)8. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 1942 - 1953.
assemblage - biogeography - climate - ectomycorrhizal - Europe - fungi - macroecology - saprotrophic - temporal change

Aim: Macroecological scales of species compositional trends are well documented for a variety of plant and animal groups, but remain sparse for fungi, despite their ecological importance in carbon and nutrient cycling. It is, thus, essential to understand the composition of fungal assemblages across broad geographical scales and the underlying drivers. Our overall aim was to describe these patterns for fungi across two nutritional modes (saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal). Furthermore, we aimed to elucidate the temporal component of fruiting patterns and to relate these to soil carbon and nitrogen deposition. Location: Central and Northern Europe. Methods: A total of 4.9 million fungal fruit body observations throughout Europe, collected between 1970 and 2010, were analysed to determine the two main environmental and geographical gradients structuring fungal assemblages for two main nutritional modes, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Results: Two main gradients explaining the geography of compositional patterns were identified, for each nutritional mode. Mean annual temperature (and related collinear, seasonal measures) correlated most strongly with the first gradient for both nutritional modes. Soil organic carbon was the highest correlate of the second compositional gradient for ectomycorrhizal fungi, suspected as an indicator of vegetation- and pH-related covariates. In contrast, nitrogen deposition constituted a second gradient for saprotrophic fungi, likely a proxy for anthropogenic pollution. Compositional gradients and environmental conditions correlated similarly when the data were divided into two time intervals of 1970–1990 and 1991–2010. Evidence of compositional temporal change was highest with increasing elevation and latitude. Main conclusions: Fungal assemblage patterns demonstrate clear biogeographical patterns that relate the nutritional modes to their main environmental correlates of temperature, soil organic carbon and nitrogen deposition. With respect to global change impacts, the highest rates of compositional change by time suggest targeting higher latitudes and elevations for a better understanding of fungal dynamics. We, finally, suggest further examination of the ranges and dispersal abilities of fungi to better assess responses to global change.

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability
Andrew, Carrie ; Heegaard, Einar ; Høiland, Klaus ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Gange, Alan C. ; Egli, Simon ; Bässler, Claus ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Boddy, Lynne ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
climate - fungi - fruit bodies - distribution - NDVI - nutritional mode - path analysis - phenology
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by approximately 25 days, primarily with latitude. Altitude affected fruiting by up to 30 days, with spring delays and autumnal accelerations. Fruiting was as much explained by the effects of bioclimatic variability as by their large‐scale spatial patterns. Temperature drove fruiting of autumnal ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic, as well as spring saprotrophic groups, while primary production and precipitation were major drivers for spring‐fruiting ectomycorrhizal fungi. Species‐specific phenology predictors were not stable, instead deviating from the overall mean. There is significant likelihood that further climatic change, especially in temperature, will impact fungal phenology patterns at large spatial scales. The ecological implications are diverse, potentially affecting food webs (asynchrony), nutrient cycling and the timing of nutrient availability in ecosystems.
Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability
Andrew, Carrie ; Heegaard, Einar ; Høiland, Klaus ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Gange, Alan C. ; Egli, Simon ; Bässler, Claus ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Boddy, Lynne ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
Ecology 99 (2018)6. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 1306 - 1315.
climate - distribution - Europe - fruit bodies - fungi - NDVI - nutritional mode - path analysis - phenology
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude, and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation, and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by approximately 25 d, primarily with latitude. Altitude affected fruiting by up to 30 d, with spring delays and autumnal accelerations. Fruiting was as much explained by the effects of bioclimatic variability as by their large-scale spatial patterns. Temperature drove fruiting of autumnal ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic groups as well as spring saprotrophic groups, while primary production and precipitation were major drivers for spring-fruiting ectomycorrhizal fungi. Species-specific phenology predictors were not stable, instead deviating from the overall mean. There is significant likelihood that further climatic change, especially in temperature, will impact fungal phenology patterns at large spatial scales. The ecological implications are diverse, potentially affecting food webs (asynchrony), nutrient cycling and the timing of nutrient availability in ecosystems.
Trait-dependent distributional shifts in fruiting of common British fungi
Gange, A.C. ; Heegaard, E. ; Boddy, L. ; Andrew, Carrie ; Kirk, P.M. ; Halvorsen, R. ; Kuijper, T.W. ; Bässler, C. ; Diez, J. ; Heilman-Clausen, J. ; Høiland, K. ; Büntgen, U. ; Kauserud, H. - \ 2018
Ecography 41 (2018)1. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 51 - 61.

Despite the dramatic phenological responses of fungal fruiting to recent climate warming, it is unknown whether spatial distributions of fungi have changed and to what extent such changes are influenced by fungal traits, such as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or saprotrophic lifestyles, spore characteristics, or fruit body size. Our overall aim was to understand how climate and fungal traits determine whether and how species-specific fungal fruit body abundances have shifted across latitudes over time, using the UK national database of fruiting records. The data employed were recorded over 45 yr (1970-2014), and include 853 278 records of Agaricales, Boletales and Russulales, though we focus only on the most common species (with more than 3000 records each). The georeferenced observations were analysed by a Bayesian inference as a Gaussian additive model with a specification following a joint species distribution model. We used an offset, random contributions and fixed effects to isolate different potential biases from the trait-specific interactions with latitude/climate and time. Our main aim was assessed by examination of the three-way-interaction of trait, predictor (latitude or climate) and time. The results show a strong trait-specific shift in latitudinal abundance through time, as ECM species have become more abundant relative to saprotrophic species in the north. Along precipitation gradients, phenology was important, in that species with shorter fruiting seasons have declined markedly in abundance in oceanic regions, whereas species with longer seasons have become relatively more common overall. These changes in fruit body distributions are correlated with temperature and rainfall, which act directly on both saprotrophic and ECM fungi, and also indirectly on ECM fungi, through altered photosynthate allocation from their hosts. If these distributional changes reflect fungal activity, there will be important consequences for the responses of forest ecosystems to changing climate, through effects on primary production and nutrient cycling.

Data from: Trait-dependent distributional shifts in fruiting of common British fungi
Gange, A.C. ; Heegaard, E. ; Boddy, L. ; Kirk, P.M. ; Halvorsen, R. ; Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Bässler, C. ; Diez, J. ; Heilman-Clausen, J. ; Høiland, K. ; Büntgen, U. ; Kauserud, H. - \ 2017
fungal ecology - global change biology - community ecology - biogeography - fungi - Agaricomycetes
Despite the dramatic phenological responses of fungal fruiting to recent climate warming, it is unknown whether spatial distributions of fungi have changed and to what extent such changes are influenced by fungal traits, such as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or saprotrophic lifestyles, spore characteristics, or fruit body size. Our overall aim was to understand how climate and fungal traits determine whether and how species-specific fungal fruit body abundances have shifted across latitudes over time, using the UK national database of fruiting records. The data employed were recorded over 45 years (1970 – 2014), and include 853,278 records of Agaricales, Boletales and Russulales, though we focus only on the most common species (with more than 3,000 records each). The georeferenced observations were analysed by a Bayesian inference as a Gaussian Additive Model with a specification following a joint species distribution model. We used an offset, random contributions and fixed effects to isolate different potential biases from the trait-specific interactions with latitude/climate and time. Our main aim was assessed by examination of the three-way-interaction of trait, predictor (latitude or climate) and time. The results show a strong trait-specific shift in latitudinal abundance through time, as ECM species have become more abundant relative to saprotrophic species in the north. Along precipitation gradients, phenology was important, in that species with shorter fruiting seasons have declined markedly in abundance in oceanic regions, whereas species with longer seasons have become relatively more common overall. These changes in fruit body distributions are correlated with temperature and rainfall, which act directly on both saprotrophic and ECM fungi, and also indirectly on ECM fungi, through altered photosynthate allocation from their hosts. If these distributional changes reflect fungal activity, there will be important consequences for the responses of forest ecosystems to changing climate, through effects on primary production and nutrient cycling.
Big data integration : Pan-European fungal species observations' assembly for addressing contemporary questions in ecology and global change biology
Andrew, Carrie ; Heegaard, Einar ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Bässler, Claus ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Kuijper, Thomas ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2017
Fungal Biology Reviews 31 (2017)2. - ISSN 1749-4613 - p. 88 - 98.
Biogeography - Citizen science - Fungi - Global change - Meta-database - Open-source

Species occurrence observations are increasingly available for scientific analyses through citizen science projects and digitization of museum records, representing a largely untapped ecological resource. When combined with open-source data, there is unparalleled potential for understanding many aspects of the ecology and biogeography of organisms. Here we describe the process of assembling a pan-European mycological meta-database (ClimFun) and integrating it with open-source data to advance the fields of macroecology and biogeography against a backdrop of global change. Initially 7.3 million unique fungal species fruit body records, spanning nine countries, were processed and assembled into 6 million records of more than 10,000 species. This is an extraordinary amount of fungal data to address macro-ecological questions. We provide two examples of fungal species with different life histories, one ectomycorrhizal and one wood decaying, to demonstrate how such continental-scale meta-databases can offer unique insights into climate change effects on fungal phenology and fruiting patterns in recent decades.

Fine-scale spatiotemporal dynamics of fungal fruiting : Prevalence, amplitude, range and continuity
Heegaard, E. ; Boddy, L. ; Diez, J.M. ; Halvorsen, R. ; Kauserud, H. ; Kuijper, Thomas ; Bässler, C. ; Büntgen, U. ; Gange, A.C. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, I. ; Andrew, C.J. ; Ayer, F. ; Høiland, K. ; Kirk, P.M. ; Egli, S. - \ 2017
Ecography 40 (2017)8. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 947 - 959.
Despite the critical importance of fungi as symbionts with plants, resources for animals, and drivers of ecosystem function, the spatiotemporal distributions of fungi remain poorly understood. The belowground life cycle of fungi makes it difficult to assess spatial patterns and dynamic processes even with recent molecular techniques. Here we offer an explicit spatiotemporal Bayesian inference of the drivers behind spatial distributions from investigation of a Swiss inventory of fungal fruit bodies. The unique inventory includes three temperate forest sites in which a total of 73 952 fungal fruit bodies were recorded systematically in a spatially explicit design between 1992 and 2006. Our motivation is to understand how broad-scale climate factors may influence spatiotemporal dynamics of fungal fruiting within forests, and if any such effects vary between two functional groups, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and saprotrophic fungi. For both groups we asked: 1) how consistent are the locations of fruiting patches, the sizes of patches, the quantities of fruit bodies, and of prevalence (occupancy)? 2) Do the annual spatial characteristics of fungal fruiting change systematically over time? 3) Are spatial characteristics of fungal fruiting driven by climatic variation? We found high inter-annual continuity in fruiting for both functional groups. The saprotrophic species were characterised by small patches with variable fruit body counts. In contrast, ECM species were present in larger, but more distinctly delimited patches. The spatial characteristics of the fungal community were only indirectly influenced by climate. However, climate variability influenced overall yields and prevalence, which again links to spatial structure of fruit bodies. Both yield and prevalence were correlated with the amplitudes of occurrence and of fruit body counts, but only prevalence influenced the spatial range. Summarizing, climatic variability affects forest-stand fungal distributions via its influence on yield (amount) and prevalence (occupancy), whereas fungal life-history strategies dictate fine-scale spatial characteristics.
Replication, Pathogenesis and Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Non-Immune Pigs
Brookes, S.M. ; Nunez, A. ; Choudhury, B. ; Matrosovich, M. ; Essen, S.C. ; Clifford, D. ; Slomka, M.J. ; Kuntz-Simon, G. ; Garcon, F. ; Nash, B. ; Hanna, A. ; Heegaard, P.M.H. ; Queguiner, S. ; Chiapponi, C. ; Bublot, M. ; Garcia, J.M. ; Gardner, R. ; Foni, E. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. ; Larsen, L. ; Reeth, K. ; Banks, J. ; Irvine, R.M. ; Brown, I.H. - \ 2010
PLoS One 5 (2010)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
avian influenza-viruses - acute-phase protein - receptor-binding properties - c-reactive protein - interspecies transmission - experimental-infection - mdck cells - hemagglutinin - strains - ferrets
The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1,2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment and evolution within swine worldwide [3]. A key public and veterinary health consideration in the context of the evolving pandemic is whether the H1N1/09 virus could become established in pig populations [4]. We performed an infection and transmission study in pigs with A/California/07/09. In combination, clinical, pathological, modified influenza A matrix gene real time RT-PCR and viral genomic analyses have shown that infection results in the induction of clinical signs, viral pathogenesis restricted to the respiratory tract, infection dynamics consistent with endemic strains of influenza A in pigs, virus transmissibility between pigs and virus-host adaptation events. Our results demonstrate that extant H1N1/09 is fully capable of becoming established in global pig populations. We also show the roles of viral receptor specificity in both transmission and tissue tropism. Remarkably, following direct inoculation of pigs with virus quasispecies differing by amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin receptor-binding site, only virus with aspartic acid at position 225 (225D) was detected in nasal secretions of contact infected pigs. In contrast, in lower respiratory tract samples from directly inoculated pigs, with clearly demonstrable pulmonary pathology, there was apparent selection of a virus variant with glycine (225G). These findings provide potential clues to the existence and biological significance of viral receptor-binding variants with 225D and 225G during the 1918 pandemic [5].
Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions
Nielsen, B.H. ; Jacobsen, S. ; Andersen, P.H. ; Niewold, T.A. ; Heegaard, P.M.H. - \ 2004
Veterinary Record 154 (2004)12. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 361 - 365.
amyloid-a saa - escherichia-coli mastitis - dairy-cows - haptoglobin - infection - cattle - conductivity - expression - secretion - metritis
The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 µg/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present in the mammary gland for serum amyloid A to accumulate in milk. The acute phase protein concentrations in milk increased significantly with increasing somatic cell count, suggesting that they may be indicators of the severity of an infection.
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