Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, R. ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, D. ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, M.V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-lópez, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, J.A. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
biodiversity - agroecosystem - landscape composition - landscape configuration - functional traits - arthropods - natural pest control - pollination - yields
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non‐crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7‐ and 1.4‐fold respectively. Arable‐dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield‐enhancing ecosystem services.
Science-based wildlife disease response
Vicente, Joaquín ; Apollonio, Marco ; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A. ; Borowik, Tomasz ; Brivio, Francesca ; Casaer, Jim ; Croft, Simon ; Ericsson, Göran ; Ferroglio, Ezio ; Gavier-Widen, Dolores ; Gortázar, Christian ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Keuling, Oliver ; Kowalczyk, Rafał ; Petrovic, Karolina ; Plhal, Radim ; Podgórski, Tomasz ; Sange, Marie ; Scandura, Massimo ; Schmidt, Krzysztof ; Smith, Graham C. ; Soriguer, Ramon ; Thulke, Hans Hermann ; Zanet, Stefania ; Acevedo, Pelayo - \ 2019
Science 364 (2019)6444. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 943 - 944.
Key determinants of global land-use projections
Stehfest, Elke ; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Valin, Hugo ; Havlik, Petr ; Popp, Alexander ; Kyle, Page ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Bodirsky, Benjamin L. ; Calvin, Katherine ; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Meijl, Hans van; Wiebe, Keith - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723 - 10 p.

Land use is at the core of various sustainable development goals. Long-term climate foresight studies have structured their recent analyses around five socio-economic pathways (SSPs), with consistent storylines of future macroeconomic and societal developments; however, model quantification of these scenarios shows substantial heterogeneity in land-use projections. Here we build on a recently developed sensitivity approach to identify how future land use depends on six distinct socio-economic drivers (population, wealth, consumption preferences, agricultural productivity, land-use regulation, and trade) and their interactions. Spread across models arises mostly from diverging sensitivities to long-term drivers and from various representations of land-use regulation and trade, calling for reconciliation efforts and more empirical research. Most influential determinants for future cropland and pasture extent are population and agricultural efficiency. Furthermore, land-use regulation and consumption changes can play a key role in reducing both land use and food-security risks, and need to be central elements in sustainable development strategies.

Report on regulations governing anaerobic digesters and nutrient recovery and reuse in EU member states
Hermann, Ludwig ; Hermann, Ralf ; Schoumans, Oscar F. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 121
The regulatory framework governing anaerobic digestion and biogas production in EU Member States is arranged in European Policies, Regulations and Directives and by national legislation, which is based on European Policies and Directives. Consequently, we have organised the Regulatory Framework Report following the same structure. Chapter 1 deals with European Policies which are followed by European Regulations that must be enforced by all Member States as they are in chapter 2. Chapter 3 refers to European Directives which must be adopted by Member States but not literally. Directives typically stipulate a target but leave room for selecting the strategy and pathway by the Member State. Chapter 4 briefly deviates from legislation and provides - extracted from the EBA Annual Reports - statistical information on the regional development of electricity from biogas and biomethane production in Europe clearly showing Germany in the lead but higher recent dynamics regarding biomethane in France and Nordic countries. In chapter 5 the report returns to legislation in Member States, starting with comprehensive information on the countries with demonstration plants. Chapter 6 deals with legislation in countries with outreach plants and chapter 7, finally, gives an overview of all Member States.
The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agroecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, David ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, Mario V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair-Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
Ecology Letters (2019). - ISSN 1461-023X
Agroecology - arthropod community - biological control - edge density - pest control - pollination - response trait - semi-natural habitat - trait syndrome - yield

Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non-crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7- and 1.4-fold respectively. Arable-dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield-enhancing ecosystem services.

Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer
Bien, Stephanie A. ; Su, Yu-Ru ; Conti, David V. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Qu, Conghui ; Guo, Xingyi ; Lu, Yingchang ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Auer, Paul L. ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chen, Sai ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Gallinger, Steven ; Giles, Graham G. ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Kühn, Tilman ; Küry, Sébastien ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Marchand, Loic Le; Milne, Roger L. ; Li, Christopher I. ; Lindblom, Annika ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Martín, Vicente ; McNeil, Caroline E. ; Melas, Marilena ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharaoh, Paul D.P. ; Potter, John D. ; Qu, Chenxu ; Riboli, Elio ; Rennert, Gad ; Sala, Núria ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Scacheri, Peter C. ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Severi, Gianluca ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Tumino, Rosario ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Abecasis, Goncalo R. ; Casey, Graham ; Nickerson, Deborah A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Hsu, Li ; Zheng, Wei ; Peters, Ulrike - \ 2019
Human Genetics 138 (2019)4. - ISSN 0340-6717 - p. 307 - 326.
Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10− 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10− 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10− 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.
Connecting the dots: Ethics, global citizenship and tourism
Hermann, Inge ; Weeden, Clare ; Peters, K.B.M. - \ 2019
Hospitality & Society 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2042-7913 - p. 3 - 8.
Cancer Prevention Europe
Wild, Christopher P. ; Espina, Carolina ; Bauld, Linda ; Bonanni, Bernardo ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brown, Karen ; Dillner, Joakim ; Forman, David ; Kampman, Ellen ; Nilbert, Mef ; Steindorf, Karen ; Storm, Hans ; Vineis, Paolo ; Baumann, Michael ; Schüz, Joachim - \ 2019
Molecular Oncology 13 (2019)3. - ISSN 1574-7891 - p. 528 - 534.
cancer - Cancer Prevention Europe - Europe

The case for cancer prevention in Europe is the same as for all other parts of the world. The number of cancers is increasing, driven by demographic change and evolution in the exposure to risk factors, while the cost of treating patients is likewise spiralling. Estimations suggest that around 40% of cancers in Europe could be prevented if current understanding of risk and protective factors was translated into effective primary prevention, with further reductions in cancer incidence and mortality by screening, other approaches to early detection, and potentially medical prevention. However, the infrastructure for cancer prevention tends to be fragmented between and within different countries in Europe. This lack of a coordinated approach recently led to the foundation of Cancer Prevention Europe (Forman et al., 2018), a collaborative network with the main aims of strengthening cancer prevention in Europe by increasing awareness of the needs, the associated required resources and reducing inequalities in access to cancer prevention across Europe. This article showcases the need for strengthening cancer prevention and introduces the objectives of Cancer Prevention Europe and its foreseen future role in reducing the European cancer burden.

Plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer: A discovery-replication strategy
Geijsen, Anne J.M.R. ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka ; Baierl, Andreas ; Bachleitner-Hofmann, Thomas ; Bergmann, Michael M. ; Boehm, Juergen ; Brenner, Hermann ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Gigic, Biljana ; Gumpenberger, Tanja ; Hofer, Philipp ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Holowatyj, Andreana N. ; Karner-Hanusch, Judith ; Kok, Dieuwertje E. ; Leeb, Gernot ; Ulvik, Arve ; Robinot, Nivonirina ; Ose, Jennifer ; Stift, Anton ; Schrotz-King, Petra ; Ulrich, Alexis B. ; Ueland, Per Magne ; Kampman, Ellen ; Scalbert, Augustin ; Habermann, Nina ; Gsur, Andrea ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. - \ 2019
International Journal of Cancer 145 (2019)5. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 1221 - 1231.
colorectal cancer - discovery-replication approach - metabolomics - UHPLC-QTOF-MS

Colorectal cancer is known to arise from multiple tumorigenic pathways; however, the underlying mechanisms remain not completely understood. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly popular tool in assessing biological processes. Previous metabolomics research focusing on colorectal cancer is limited by sample size and did not replicate findings in independent study populations to verify robustness of reported findings. Here, we performed a ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) screening on EDTA plasma from 268 colorectal cancer patients and 353 controls using independent discovery and replication sets from two European cohorts (ColoCare Study: n = 180 patients/n = 153 controls; the Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria (CORSA) n = 88 patients/n = 200 controls), aiming to identify circulating plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer and to improve knowledge regarding colorectal cancer etiology. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test the association between disease state and metabolic features. Statistically significant associated features in the discovery set were taken forward and tested in the replication set to assure robustness of our findings. All models were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and smoking status and corrected for multiple testing using False Discovery Rate. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from questionnaires and medical records.

Assessment of promising agricultural management practices
Barão, Lúcia ; Alaoui, Abdallah ; Ferreira, Carla ; Basch, Gottlieb ; Schwilch, Gudrun ; Geissen, Violette ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Lemesle, Julie ; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta ; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia ; Mataix-Solera, Jorge ; Kosmas, Costas ; Glavan, Matjaž ; Pintar, Marina ; Tóth, Brigitta ; Hermann, Tamás ; Vizitiu, Olga Petruta ; Lipiec, Jerzy ; Reintam, Endla ; Xu, Minggang ; Di, Jiaying ; Fan, Hongzhu ; Wang, Fei - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 649 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 610 - 619.
Environment - Farming systems - Soil threats - Sustainability

iSQAPER project - Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience - aims to develop an app to advise farmers on selecting the best Agriculture Management Practice (AMPs) to improve soil quality. For this purpose, a soil quality index has to be developed to account for the changes in soil quality as impacted by the implementation of the AMPs. Some promising AMPs have been suggested over the time to prevent soil degradation. These practices have been randomly adopted by farmers but which practices are most used by farmers and where they are mostly adopted remains unclear. This study is part of the iSQAPER project with the specific aims: 1) map the current distribution of previously selected 18 promising AMPs in several pedo-climatic regions and farming systems located in ten and four study site areas (SSA) along Europe and China, respectively; and 2) identify the soil threats occurring in those areas. In each SSA, farmers using promising AMP's were identified and questionnaires were used to assess farmer's perception on soil threats significance in the area. 138 plots/farms using 18 promising AMPs, were identified in Europe (112) and China (26).Results show that promising AMPs used in Europe are Crop rotation (15%), Manuring & Composting (15%) and Min-till (14%), whereas in China are Manuring & Composting (18%), Residue maintenance (18%) and Integrated pest and disease management (12%). In Europe, soil erosion is the main threat in agricultural Mediterranean areas while soil-borne pests and diseases is more frequent in the SSAs from France and The Netherlands. In China, soil erosion, SOM decline, compaction and poor soil structure are among the most significant. This work provides important information for policy makers and the development of strategies to support and promote agricultural management practices with benefits for soil quality.

Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Bien, Stephanie A. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Chen, Sai ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Conti, David V. ; Qu, Conghui ; Jeon, Jihyoun ; Edlund, Christopher K. ; Greenside, Peyton ; Wainberg, Michael ; Schumacher, Fredrick R. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Levine, David M. ; Nelson, Sarah C. ; Sinnott-armstrong, Nasa A. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Alonso, M.H. ; Anderson, Kristin ; Arnau-Collell, Coral ; Arndt, Volker ; Bamia, Christina ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Baron, John A. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Bishop, D.T. ; Boehm, Juergen ; Boeing, Heiner ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Buch, Stephan ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Burnett-hartman, Andrea ; Butterbach, Katja ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores ; Cho, Sang Hee ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Li, Li ; Huang, Wen-Yi - \ 2018
Nature Genetics 51 (2018). - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 76 - 87.
To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10−8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.
Time for a European initiative for research to prevent cancer : A manifesto for Cancer Prevention Europe (CPE)
Forman, David ; Bauld, Linda ; Bonanni, Bernardo ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brown, Karen ; Dillner, Joakim ; Kampman, Ellen ; Manczuk, Marta ; Riboli, Elio ; Steindorf, Karen ; Storm, Hans ; Espina, Carolina ; Wild, Christopher P. - \ 2018
Journal of Cancer Policy 17 (2018). - ISSN 2213-5383 - p. 15 - 23.
Cancer prevention - Collaborative research - Europe - Health promotion - Knowledge hub - Multidisciplinary - Population-level - Translational research

A landmark resolution on cancer prevention and control was adopted by Member States at the World Health Assembly 2017, noting that “risk reduction has the potential to prevent around half of all cancers” and urging “to promote cancer research to improve the evidence base for cancer prevention and control”. Public health oriented strategies for cancer prevention and their optimal application in effective real-life programmes will be vital to circumvent the dramatic health and economic implications of a strategy and healthcare expenditure based primarily on cancer treatment. The inter-disciplinary nature of cancer prevention stretches from the sub-microscopic study of cancer pathways through to the supra-macroscopic analysis of the “causes of the causes” encompassing socio-economic and environmental factors. Research is required to provide new evidence-based preventive interventions and to understand the factors that hamper their implementation within health care systems and in the community. Successful implementation of cancer prevention requires long-term vision, a dedicated research agenda and funding, sustainable infrastructure and cooperation between countries and programmes. In order to develop world class prevention research in Europe that translates into effective cancer prevention guidelines and policies, we report on the creation of Cancer Prevention Europe. This international and multidisciplinary consortium of research institutes, organisations and networks of excellence with a common mission of reducing cancer morbidity and mortality in European populations through prevention, brings together different fields of expertise, from laboratory science through to policy research, as well as dissemination of the best evidence, the best quality indicators and the best practices used.

Comparison of a laser methane detector with the GreenFeed and two breath analysers for on-farm measurements of methane emissions from dairy cows
Sorg, Diana ; Difford, Gareth F. ; Mühlbach, Sarah ; Kuhla, Björn ; Swalve, Hermann H. ; Lassen, Jan ; Strabel, Tomasz ; Pszczola, Marcin - \ 2018
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 153 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 285 - 294.
GreenFeed - Laser methane detector - Methane emission - Sniffer

To measure methane (CH4) emissions from cattle on-farm, a number of methods have been developed. Combining measurements made with different methods in one data set could lead to an increased power of further analyses. Before combining the measurements, their agreement must be evaluated. We analysed data obtained with a handheld laser methane detector (LMD) and the GreenFeed system (GF), as well as data obtained with LMD and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) and Non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) breath analysers (sniffers) installed in the feed bin of automatic milking systems. These devices record short-term breath CH4 concentrations from cows and make it possible to estimate daily CH4 production in g/d which is used for national CH4 emission inventories and genetic studies. The CH4 is released by cows during eructation and breathing events, resulting in peaks of CH4 concentrations during a measurement which represent the respiratory cycle. For LMD, the average CH4 concentration of all peaks during the measurement (P_MEAN in ppm × meter) was compared with the average daily CH4 production (g/d) measured by GF on 11 cows. The comparison showed a low concordance correlation coefficient (CCC; 0.02) and coefficient of individual agreement (CIA; 0.06) between the methods. The repeated measures correlation (rp) of LMD and GF, which can be seen as a proxy for the genetic correlation, was, however, relatively strong (0.66). Next, based on GF, a prediction equation for estimating CH4 in g/d (LMD_cal) using LMD measurements was developed. LMD_cal showed an improved agreement with GF (CCC = 0.22, CIA = 0.99, rp = 0.74). This prediction equation was used to compare repeated LMD measurements (LMD_val in g/d) with CH4 (g/d) measured with FTIR (n = 34 cows; Data Set A) or NDIR (n = 39 cows; Data Set B) sniffer. A low CCC (A: 0.28; B: 0.17), high CIA (A: 0.91; B: 0.87) and strong rp (A: 0.57; B: 0.60) indicated that there was some agreement and a minimal re-ranking of the cows between sniffer and LMD. Possible sources of disagreement were cow activity (LMD: standing idle; sniffer: eating and being milked) and the larger influence of wind speed on LMD measurement. The LMD measurement was less repeatable (0.14–0.27) than the other techniques studied (0.47–0.77). Nevertheless, GF, LMD and the sniffers ranked the cows similarly. The LMD, due to its portability and flexibility, could be used to study CH4 emissions on herd or group level, as a validation tool, or to strengthen estimates of genetic relationships between small-scale research populations.

Local agro-ecological condition-based food resources to promote infant food security : a case study from Benin
Chadare, Flora Josiane ; Fanou Fogny, Nadia ; Madode, Yann Eméric ; Ayosso, Juvencio Odilon G. ; Honfo, Sèwanou Hermann ; Kayodé, Folachodé Pierre Polycarpe ; Linnemann, Anita Rachel ; Hounhouigan, Djidjoho Joseph - \ 2018
Food Security 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 1013 - 1031.
Agro-ecological zone - Complementary foods - Infant undernutrition - West Africa

Children are still undernourished in many developing countries. A way to address this issue is to make better use of local food resources. The present study documents local plant and animal resources used for feeding infants and young children across the agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of Benin, with a focus on the availability of resources and consumption forms. It describes similarities and differences among the AEZs and identifies proposals for infant food formulations at the AEZ level. A literature review was performed and supplemented with a survey in 42 villages of eight AEZs of Benin. The selection of municipalities was based on the prevalence of food insecurity. In total 969 people were interviewed through focus group discussions and individual interviews using pre-established interview checklists and questionnaires. Data were processed with statistical tools, including non-metric dimensional scaling analyses, descriptive statistics and Chi2 test of independence. Results showed disparities in the distribution and use of local food resources for infant foods in the AEZs. AEZ 1 represented by Karimama and AEZ 2 represented by Banikoara (both in the Sudanian zone, with about 900 mm rainfall per year in one long rainy season and one long dry season) had the lowest diversity of local food resources used in children’s feeding, while AEZ 5 represented by Aplahoué and Ouèssè (both in the Guinean zone, with about 1200 mm rainfall per year over two rainy seasons and two dry seasons), and AEZ 8 represented by Adjohoun and Bopa (both in the Guinean zone with about 1200 mm rain per year) had the highest diversity. The baobab tree (Adansonia digitata) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea) were the plant resources recording the highest number of usages for food in general and infant foods in particular. High similarities in the species used for infant food existed among AEZs 5, 6, 7 and 8 whereas AEZ 1 and AEZ 4 had no match with resources used for infants in the other AEZs, mainly due to food cultures and availability. These findings indicate the usefulness and efficiency of an approach to formulate generic infant food formulas based on grouping AEZs with similar resources. Further studies are needed to assess the quantitative availability of local food resources throughout the year, the links between food prices and purchasing power of the population, and to assess the bioavailability of nutrients in infant foods made from local food resources in relation to food preparation methods.

Risk of increased food insecurity under stringent global climate change mitigation policy
Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Havlík, Petr ; Valin, Hugo ; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon ; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Fellmann, Thomas ; Kyle, Page ; Koopman, Jason F.L. ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel ; Ochi, Yuki ; Pérez Domínguez, Ignacio ; Stehfest, Elke ; Sulser, Timothy B. ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Takahashi, Kiyoshi ; Takakura, J. ; Meijl, Hans van; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Wiebe, Keith ; Witzke, Peter - \ 2018
Nature Climate Change 8 (2018)8. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 699 - 703.

Food insecurity can be directly exacerbated by climate change due to crop-production-related impacts of warmer and drier conditions that are expected in important agricultural regions1–3. However, efforts to mitigate climate change through comprehensive, economy-wide GHG emissions reductions may also negatively affect food security, due to indirect impacts on prices and supplies of key agricultural commodities4–6. Here we conduct a multiple model assessment on the combined effects of climate change and climate mitigation efforts on agricultural commodity prices, dietary energy availability and the population at risk of hunger. A robust finding is that by 2050, stringent climate mitigation policy, if implemented evenly across all sectors and regions, would have a greater negative impact on global hunger and food consumption than the direct impacts of climate change. The negative impacts would be most prevalent in vulnerable, low-income regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where food security problems are already acute.

Comparing impacts of climate change and mitigation on global agriculture by 2050
Meijl, Hans van; Havlik, Petr ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Stehfest, Elke ; Witzke, Peter ; Domínguez, Ignacio P. ; Bodirsky, Benjamin L. ; Dijk, Michiel van; Doelman, Jonathan ; Fellmann, Thomas ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Koopman, Jason F.L. ; Müller, Christoph ; Popp, Alexander ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Valin, Hugo ; Zeist, Willem J. van - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)6. - ISSN 1748-9318
adaptation - agriculture - climate change - economic models - mitigation - shared socioeconomic pathways

Systematic model inter-comparison helps to narrow discrepancies in the analysis of the future impact of climate change on agricultural production. This paper presents a set of alternative scenarios by five global climate and agro-economic models. Covering integrated assessment (IMAGE), partial equilibrium (CAPRI, GLOBIOM, MAgPIE) and computable general equilibrium (MAGNET) models ensures a good coverage of biophysical and economic agricultural features. These models are harmonized with respect to basic model drivers, to assess the range of potential impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector by 2050. Moreover, they quantify the economic consequences of stringent global emission mitigation efforts, such as non-CO2 emission taxes and land-based mitigation options, to stabilize global warming at 2 °C by the end of the century under different Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. A key contribution of the paper is a vis-à-vis comparison of climate change impacts relative to the impact of mitigation measures. In addition, our scenario design allows assessing the impact of the residual climate change on the mitigation challenge. From a global perspective, the impact of climate change on agricultural production by mid-century is negative but small. A larger negative effect on agricultural production, most pronounced for ruminant meat production, is observed when emission mitigation measures compliant with a 2 °C target are put in place. Our results indicate that a mitigation strategy that embeds residual climate change effects (RCP2.6) has a negative impact on global agricultural production relative to a no-mitigation strategy with stronger climate impacts (RCP6.0). However, this is partially due to the limited impact of the climate change scenarios by 2050. The magnitude of price changes is different amongst models due to methodological differences. Further research to achieve a better harmonization is needed, especially regarding endogenous food and feed demand, including substitution across individual commodities, and endogenous technological change.

Prospects for harnessing biocide resistance for bioremediation and detoxification
Atashgahi, Siavash ; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene ; Heipieper, Hermann J. ; Meer, Jan R. van der; Stams, Alfons J.M. ; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2018
Science 360 (2018)6390. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 743 - 746.
Prokaryotes in natural environments respond rapidly to high concentrations of chemicals and physical stresses. Exposure to anthropogenic toxic substances—such as oil, chlorinated solvents, or antibiotics—favors the evolution of resistant phenotypes, some of which can use contaminants as an exclusive carbon source or as electron donors and acceptors. Microorganisms similarly adapt to extreme pH, metal, or osmotic stress. The metabolic plasticity of prokaryotes can thus be harnessed for bioremediation and can be exploited in a variety of ways, ranging from stimulated natural attenuation to bioaugmentation and from wastewater treatment to habitat restoration.
The socioeconomic benefits of biological control of western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and wireworms Agriotes spp. in maize and potatoes for selected European countries
Benjamin, Emmanuel O. ; Grabenweger, Giselher ; Strasser, Hermann ; Wesseler, Justus - \ 2018
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 125 (2018)3. - ISSN 1861-3829 - p. 273 - 285.
Biological control agents - Diabrotica virgifera virgifera - Integrated pest management (IPM) - Socioeconomic welfare gain - Wireworms Agriotes spp

Innovative biological pest control of the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and wireworms Agriotes spp. in maize and potato cultivation in Europe is driven by (1) the economic damages caused and (2) the restrictions on chemical pesticides. We analyze the efficacy of biological control agents for WCR and wireworms based on European field trails. A partial equilibrium displacement model is used to estimate the changes in producer and consumer surplus for France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Austria and Romania given different adoption ceiling and adoption speed. Furthermore, the benefit of a potential reduction in pesticide use due to biological control application is evaluated. The results suggest a total annual welfare gain of ca. €190 million from biocontrol of WCR in maize production for the countries under consideration at an adoption ceiling and adoption speed of 30% and 2.41, respectively. In potato production, an annual welfare gain of over €2 million may be recorded in ecological and/or organic cultivation. Overall, the biological control methods provide an economical alternative in maize and can contribute to increase the competitiveness of European Union (EU) agriculture, while they look promising for certified organic potato production at the current level of control efficiency.

Comparative microbiome analysis of a Fusarium wilt suppressive soil and a Fusarium wilt conducive soil from the Châteaurenard region
Siegel-Hertz, Katarzyna ; Edel-Hermann, Véronique ; Chapelle, Emilie ; Terrat, Sébastien ; Raaijmakers, Jos M. ; Steinberg, Christian - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)APR. - ISSN 1664-302X
454 pyrosequencing - Bacterial community - Biocontrol agent - Diversity - Fungal community - Metabarcoding
Disease-suppressive soils are soils in which specific soil-borne plant pathogens cause only limited disease although the pathogen and susceptible host plants are both present. Suppressiveness is in most cases of microbial origin. We conducted a comparative metabarcoding analysis of the taxonomic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities from suppressive and non-suppressive (conducive) soils as regards Fusarium wilts sampled from the Châteaurenard region (France). Bioassays based on Fusarium wilt of flax confirmed that disease incidence was significantly lower in the suppressive soil than in the conducive soil. Furthermore, we succeeded in partly transferring Fusarium wilt-suppressiveness to the conducive soil by mixing 10% (w/w) of the suppressive soil into the conducive soil. Fungal diversity differed significantly between the suppressive and conducive soils. Among dominant fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated to known genera, 17 OTUs were detected exclusively in the suppressive soil. These OTUs were assigned to the Acremonium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Ceratobasidium, Mortierella, Penicillium, Scytalidium, and Verticillium genera. Additionally, the relative abundance of specific members of the bacterial community was significantly higher in the suppressive and mixed soils than in the conducive soil. OTUs found more abundant in Fusarium wilt-suppressive soils were affiliated to the bacterial genera Adhaeribacter, Massilia, Microvirga, Rhizobium, Rhizobacter, Arthrobacter, Amycolatopsis, Rubrobacter, Paenibacillus, Stenotrophomonas, and Geobacter. Several of the fungal and bacterial genera detected exclusively or more abundantly in the Fusarium wilt-suppressive soil included genera known for their activity against F. oxysporum. Overall, this study supports the potential role of known fungal and bacterial genera in Fusarium wilt suppressive soils from Châteaurenard and pinpoints new bacterial and fungal genera for their putative role in Fusarium wilt suppressiveness.
A cross-scale impact assessment of European nature protection policies under contrasting future socio-economic pathways
Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Popp, Alexander ; Lindner, Marcus ; Verkerk, Pieter J. ; Moiseyev, Alexander ; Schrammeijer, Elizabeth ; Helming, John ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Schulp, Catharina J.E. ; Zanden, Emma H. van der; Lavalle, Carlo ; E Silva, Filipe Batista ; Walz, Ariane ; Bodirsky, Benjamin - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 751 - 762.
Cross-scale interaction - Impact assessment - Integrated modelling - Land use change - Nature protection
Protection of natural or semi-natural ecosystems is an important part of societal strategies for maintaining biodiversity, ecosystem services, and achieving overall sustainable development. The assessment of multiple emerging land use trade-offs is complicated by the fact that land use changes occur and have consequences at local, regional, and even global scale. Outcomes also depend on the underlying socio-economic trends. We apply a coupled, multi-scale modelling system to assess an increase in nature protection areas as a key policy option in the European Union (EU). The main goal of the analysis is to understand the interactions between policy-induced land use changes across different scales and sectors under two contrasting future socio-economic pathways. We demonstrate how complementary insights into land system change can be gained by coupling land use models for agriculture, forestry, and urban areas for Europe, in connection with other world regions. The simulated policy case of nature protection shows how the allocation of a certain share of total available land to newly protected areas, with specific management restrictions imposed, may have a range of impacts on different land-based sectors until the year 2040. Agricultural land in Europe is slightly reduced, which is partly compensated for by higher management intensity. As a consequence of higher costs, total calorie supply per capita is reduced within the EU. While wood harvest is projected to decrease, carbon sequestration rates increase in European forests. At the same time, imports of industrial roundwood from other world regions are expected to increase. Some of the aggregate effects of nature protection have very different implications at the local to regional scale in different parts of Europe. Due to nature protection measures, agricultural production is shifted from more productive land in Europe to on average less productive land in other parts of the world. This increases, at the global level, the allocation of land resources for agriculture, leading to a decrease in tropical forest areas, reduced carbon stocks, and higher greenhouse gas emissions outside of Europe. The integrated modelling framework provides a method to assess the land use effects of a single policy option while accounting for the trade-offs between locations, and between regional, European, and global scales.
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