Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Research challenges for cultural ecosystem services and public health in (peri-)urban environments
Chen, Xianwen ; Vries, Sjerp de; Assmuth, Timo ; Dick, Jan ; Hermans, Tia ; Hertel, Ole ; Jensen, Anne ; Jones, Laurence ; Kabisch, Sigrun ; Lanki, Timo ; Lehmann, Irina ; Maskell, Lindsay ; Norton, Lisa ; Reis, Stefan - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 2118 - 2129.
Cultural ecosystem services - Nature-based solutions - Public health - Urban green/blue infrastructure

Urbanization is a global trend, and consequently the quality of urban environments is increasingly important for human health and wellbeing. Urban life-style is typically associated with low physical activity and sometimes with high mental stress, both contributing to an increasing burden of diseases. Nature-based solutions that make effective use of ecosystem services, particularly of cultural ecosystem services (CES), can provide vital building blocks to address these challenges. This paper argues that, the salutogenic, i.e. health-promoting effects of CES have so far not been adequately recognised and deserve more explicit attention in order to enhance decision making around health and wellbeing in urban areas. However, a number of research challenges will need to be addressed to reveal the mechanisms, which underpin delivery of urban CES. These include: causal chains of supply and demand, equity, and equality of public health benefits promoted. Methodological challenges in quantifying these are discussed. The paper is highly relevant for policy makers within and beyond Europe, and also serves as a review for current researchers and as a roadmap to future short- and long-term research opportunities.

Public-private partnerships as systemic agricultural innovation policy instruments : Assessing their contribution to innovation system function dynamics
Hermans, F.L.P. ; Geerling-Eiff, F.A. ; Potters, J.I. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2018
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences (2018). - ISSN 1573-5214
This paper addresses the question how public-private partnerships function as systemic innovation policy instruments within agricultural innovation systems. Public-private partnerships are a popular government tool to promote innovations. However, the wide ranging nature of PPPs make it difficult to assess their effects beyond the direct impacts they generate for the partners. This paper broadens the discussion on the evaluation of PPPs beyond the organisational and financial benefits of the actors involved, and assesses their contribution to the functioning of the innovation system itself. In this paper, we utilise an innovation system perspective that focusses on how PPPs influence the dynamic interplay of innovation system functions and how these functions form a set of feedback loops that constitute an ‘innovation motor’. We compare the innovation history of four cases that differ in their strategic policy goals, either working on agricultural sustainability, or on the international competitiveness in the Dutch agricultural sector. The results show the strengths and weaknesses of different types of public-private partnerships as systemic instruments and their capability to orchestrate other types of innovation policy instruments
Het gebruik van natuur voor gezondheid en praktijk : gebruik, beleving en gezondheid voorafgaand aan de herinrichting van een wijkpark in Breda
Kruize, H. ; Dop, T. van den; Hermans, C.L.M. ; Vries, S. de; Wendel-de Vos, G.C. ; Berg, A. van den - \ 2018
Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM Rapport 2017-0204) - 62
Effects of multi-stakeholder platforms on multi-stakeholder innovation networks : Implications for research for development interventions targeting innovations at scale
Sartas, Murat ; Schut, Marc ; Hermans, Frans ; Asten, Piet van; Leeuwis, Cees - \ 2018
PLoS One 13 (2018)6. - ISSN 1932-6203

Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) have been playing an increasing role in interventions aiming to generate and scale innovations in agricultural systems. However, the contribution of MSPs in achieving innovations and scaling has been varied, and many factors have been reported to be important for their performance. This paper aims to provide evidence on the contribution of MSPs to innovation and scaling by focusing on three developing country cases in Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Rwanda. Through social network analysis and logistic models, the paper studies the changes in the characteristics of multi-stakeholder innovation networks targeted by MSPs and identifies factors that play significant roles in triggering these changes. The results demonstrate that MSPs do not necessarily expand and decentralize innovation networks but can lead to contraction and centralization in the initial years of implementation. They show that some of the intended next users of interventions with MSPs–local-level actors–left the innovation networks, whereas the lead organization controlling resource allocation in the MSPs substantially increased its centrality. They also indicate that not all the factors of change in innovation networks are country specific. Initial conditions of innovation networks and funding provided by the MSPs are common factors explaining changes in innovation networks across countries and across different network functions. The study argues that investigating multi-stakeholder innovation network characteristics targeted by the MSP using a network approach in early implementation can contribute to better performance in generating and scaling innovations, and that funding can be an effective implementation tool in developing country contexts.

Agent-based modeling of environment-migration linkages: a review
Thober, Jule ; Schwarz, Nina ; Hermans, Kathleen - \ 2018
Ecology and Society 23 (2018)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
Environmental change can lead to human migration and vice versa. Agent-based models (ABMs) are valuable tools to study these linkages because they can represent individual migration decisions of human actors. Indeed, there is an increasing, yet small, number of ABMs that consider the natural environment in rural migration processes. Therefore, we reviewed 15 ABMs of environment-migration linkages in rural contexts to synthesize the current state of the art. The reviewed ABMs are mostly applied in tropical contexts, serve a wide range of purposes, and cover diverse scales and types of environmental factors, migration processes, and social-ecological feedbacks. We identified potential for future model development with respect to the (1) complexity of environmental influence factors, (2) representation of relevant migration flows, and (3) type of social-ecological couplings. We found that existing models tend to not include fully integrated feedbacks and provide recommendations for the further development of ABMs to contribute to an understanding of the environment-migration-nexus in the future.
Rationale for dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD
Verlaet, Annelies A.J. ; Maasakkers, Carlijn M. ; Hermans, Nina ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 2072-6643
ADHD - Antioxidant - Immunity - Oxidative stress - Pycnogenol®
Increasing understanding arises regarding disadvantages of stimulant medication in children with ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). This review presents scientific findings supporting dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD and describes substantial alterations in the immune system, epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and oxidative stress regulation in ADHD. As a result, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress could develop, which can lead to ADHD symptoms, for example by chronic T-cell-mediated neuroinflammation, as well as by neuronal oxidative damage and loss of normal cerebral functions. Therefore, modulation of immune system activity and oxidant-antioxidant balance using nutritional approaches might have potential in ADHD treatment. The use of natural antioxidants against oxidative conditions is an emerging field in the management of neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary polyphenols, for example, have antioxidant capacities as well as immunoregulatory effects and, therefore, appear appropriate in ADHD therapy. This review can stimulate the development and investigation of dietary antioxidant treatment in ADHD, which is highly desired.
Plant power
Hermans, Tia - \ 2018
plantations - air quality - health - well-being - labour - offices - care - climate

Een plant op je bureau is gezond, zeggen ze. Het groen zou wonderen doen voor het binnenklimaat en de werklust. Bewijzen zijn er echter nog nauwelijks. Een proef op kantoren en in zorginstellingen moet nu uitsluitsel geven.

Exploring SSP land-use dynamics using the IMAGE model : Regional and gridded scenarios of land-use change and land-based climate change mitigation
Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Stehfest, Elke ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Meijl, Hans van; Lassaletta, Luis ; Gernaat, David E.H.J. ; Neumann-Hermans, Kathleen ; Harmsen, Mathijs ; Daioglou, Vassilis ; Biemans, Hester ; Sluis, Sietske van der; Vuuren, Detlef P. van - \ 2018
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 48 (2018). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 119 - 135.
Bioenergy - Climate change mitigation - Integrated assessment - Land-use change - REDD - Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs)
Projected increases in population, income and consumption rates are expected to lead to rising pressure on the land system. Ambitions to limit global warming to 2 °C or even 1.5 °C could also lead to additional pressures from land-based mitigation measures such as bioenergy production and afforestation. To investigate these dynamics, this paper describes five elaborations of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) using the IMAGE 3.0 integrated assessment model framework to produce regional and gridded scenarios up to the year 2100. Additionally, land-based climate change mitigation is modelled aiming for long-term mitigation targets including 1.5 °C. Results show diverging global trends in agricultural land in the baseline scenarios ranging from an expansion of nearly 826 Mha in SSP3 to a decrease of more than 305 Mha in SSP1 for the period 2010–2050. Key drivers are population growth, changes in food consumption, and agricultural efficiency. The largest changes take place in Sub-Saharan Africa in SSP3 and SSP4, predominantly due to high population growth. With low increases in agricultural efficiency this leads to expansion of agricultural land and reduced food security. Land use also plays a crucial role in ambitious mitigation scenarios. First, agricultural emissions could form a substantial component of emissions that cannot be fully mitigated. Second, bioenergy and reforestation are crucial to create net negative emissions reducing emissions in SSP2 in 2050 by 8.7 Gt CO2/yr and 1.9 Gt CO2/yr, respectively (1.5 °C scenario compared to baseline). This is achieved by expansion of bioenergy area (516 Mha in 2050) and reforestation. Expansion of agriculture for food production is reduced due to REDD policy (290 Mha in 2050) affecting food security especially in Sub-Saharan Africa indicating an important trade-off of land-based mitigation. This set of SSP land-use scenarios provides a comprehensive quantification of interacting trends in the land system, both socio-economic and biophysical. By providing high resolution data, the scenario output can improve interactions between climate research and impact studies.
Grijs, Groen & Gelukkig - Plantenwand
Hermans, C.M.L. - \ 2017
IVN Nederland
groene gevels - klimaat - zorg - natuur - planten - green walls - climate - care - nature - plants
Plantenwanden zorgen voor een gezonder binnenklimaat. Voor zorginstellingen waar cliënten weinig buiten komen, halen we met de Plantenwand de natuur naar binnen en dragen zo bij aan een gezondere leefomgeving. Wageningen Environmental Research doet onderzoek naar de effecten van Plantenwanden op het binnenklimaat. Ook het effect op cliëntwelzijn en de afname van het ziekteverzuim onder medewerkers wordt onderzocht.
Zoonotic chlamydia caviae presenting as community-acquired pneumonia
Ramakers, Bart P. ; Heijne, Marloes ; Lie, Natascha ; Le, Thuy Nga ; Vliet, Monique Van; Claessen, Vivian P.J. ; Tolsma, Paulien J.P. ; Rosa, Mauro De; Roest, Hendrik I.J. ; Vanrompay, Daisy ; Heddema, Edou R. ; Schneeberger, Peter ; Hermans, Mirjam H.A. - \ 2017
New England Journal of Medicine 377 (2017)10. - ISSN 0028-4793 - p. 992 - 993.
Towards systematic analyses of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies : Main concepts, methods and the road ahead
Cord, Anna F. ; Bartkowski, Bartosz ; Beckmann, Michael ; Dittrich, Andreas ; Hermans, Kathleen ; Kaim, Andrea ; Lienhoop, Nele ; Locher-Krause, Karla ; Priess, Jörg ; Schröter-Schlaack, Christoph ; Schwarz, Nina ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Strauch, Michael ; Václavík, Tomáš ; Volk, Martin - \ 2017
Ecosystem Services 28 (2017)part C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 264 - 272.
Ecosystem service bundles - Ecosystem service demand - Ecosystem service supply - Optimization - Spatio-temporal scales - Stakeholders

Ecosystem services (ES), the benefits that humans obtain from nature, are of great importance for human well-being. The challenge of meeting the growing human demands for natural resources while sustaining essential ecosystem functions and resilience requires an in-depth understanding of the complex relationships between ES. These conflicting ('trade-offs') or synergistic ('synergies') relationships mean that changes in one ES can cause changes in other ES. By synthesizing the growing body of literature on ES relationships, we identified the following four main study objectives: (i) the identification and characterization of co-occurrences of ES, (ii) the identification of drivers that shape ES relationships, (iii) the exploration of biophysical constraints of landscapes and limitations to their multifunctionality, and (iv) the support of environmental planning, management and policy decisions. For each of these objectives we here describe the key concepts, including viewpoints of different disciplines, and highlight the major challenges that need to be addressed. We identified three cross-cutting themes being relevant to all four main types of studies. To help guiding researchers towards more systematic analyses of ES trade-offs and synergies, we conclude with an outlook on suggested future research priorities.

Effect of Pycnogenol® on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Verlaet, Annelies A.J. ; Ceulemans, Berten ; Verhelst, Helene ; West, Dirk Van; Bruyne, Tess De; Pieters, Luc ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Hermans, Nina - \ 2017
Trials 18 (2017). - ISSN 1745-6215 - 9 p.
ADD - ADHD - Antioxidant - Behaviour - Catecholamines - Immunity - Oxidative stress - Polyphenols - Pycnogenol®

Background: Methylphenidate (MPH), the first choice medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is associated with serious adverse effects like arrhythmia. Evidence on the association of ADHD with immune and oxidant-antioxidant imbalances offers potential for antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory nutritional supplements as ADHD therapy. One small randomised trial in ADHD suggests, despite various limitations, therapeutic benefit from Pycnogenol®, a herbal, polyphenol-rich extract. Methods: This phase III trial is a 10-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo and active treatment controlled multicentre trial with three parallel treatment arms to compare the effect of Pycnogenol® to MPH and placebo on the behaviour of 144 paediatric ADHD and attention-deficit disorder (ADD) patients. Evaluations of behaviour (measured by the ADHD-Rating Scale (primary endpoint) and the Social-emotional Questionnaire (SEQ)), immunity (plasma cytokine and antibody levels, white blood cell counts and faecal microbial composition), oxidative stress (erythrocyte glutathione, plasma lipid-soluble vitamins and malondialdehyde and urinary 8-OHdG levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression), serum zinc and neuropeptide Y level, urinary catecholamines and physical complaints (Physical Complaints Questionnaire) will be performed in week 10 and compared to baseline. Acceptability evaluations will be based on adherence, dropouts and reports of adverse events. Dietary habits will be taken into account. Discussion: This trial takes into account comorbid behavioural and physical symptoms, as well as a broad range of innovative immune and oxidative biomarkers, expected to provide fundamental knowledge on ADHD aetiology and therapy. Research on microbiota in ADHD is novel. Moreover, the active control arm is rather unseen in research on nutritional supplements, but of great importance, as patients and parents are often concerned with the side effects of MPH. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT02700685. Registered on 18 January 2016. EudraCT 2016-000215-32. Registered on 4 October 2016.

Large scale land acquisitions and REDD+: a synthesis of conflicts and opportunities
Carter, Sarah ; Manceur, Ameur M. ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Hermans, Kathleen ; Herold, Martin ; Verchot, Louis V. - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 12 p.
Large scale land acquisitions (LSLA), and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) are both land based phenomena which when occurring in the same area, can compete with each other for land. A quantitative analysis of country characteristics revealed that land available for agriculture, accessibility, and political stability are key explanatory factors for a country being targeted for LSLA. Surprisingly LSLA occur in countries with lower accessibility. Countries with good land availability, poor accessibility and political stability may become future targets if they do not already have LSLA. Countries which high levels of agriculture-driven deforestation and LSLA, should develop interventions which reduce forest loss driven either directly or indirectly by LSLA as part of their REDD+ strategies. Both host country and investor-side policies have been identified which could be used more widely to reduce conflicts between LSLA and REDD+. Findings from this research highlight the need for and can inform the development of national and international policies on land acquisitions including green acquisitions such as REDD+. Land management must be considered with all its objectives—including food security, biodiversity conservation, and climate change mitigation—in a coherent strategy which engages relevant stakeholders. This is not currently occurring and might be a key ingredient to achieve the targets under the Sustainable Development Goals 2 and 15 and 16 (related to food security and sustainable agriculture and the protection of forests) among others.
The effect of real-time vibrotactile feedback delivered through an augmented fork on eating rate, satiation, and food intake
Hermans, Roel C.J. ; Hermsen, Sander ; Robinson, Eric ; Higgs, Suzanne ; Mars, Monica ; Frost, Jeana H. - \ 2017
Appetite 113 (2017). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 7 - 13.
Digital technology - Eating rate - Food intake - Satiety - Vibrotactile feedback
Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation, as people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. Without assistance, eating rate is difficult to modify due to its automatic nature. In the current study, participants used an augmented fork that aimed to decelerate their rate of eating. A total of 114 participants were randomly assigned to the Feedback Condition (FC), in which they received vibrotactile feedback from their fork when eating too fast (i.e., taking more than one bite per 10 s), or a Non-Feedback Condition (NFC). Participants in the FC took fewer bites per minute than did those in the NFC. Participants in the FC also had a higher success ratio, indicating that they had significantly more bites outside the designated time interval of 10 s than did participants in the NFC. A slower eating rate, however, did not lead to a significant reduction in the amount of food consumed or level of satiation. These findings indicate that real-time vibrotactile feedback delivered through an augmented fork is capable of reducing eating rate, but there is no evidence from this study that this reduction in eating rate is translated into an increase in satiation or reduction in food consumption. Overall, this study shows that real-time vibrotactile feedback may be a viable tool in interventions that aim to reduce eating rate. The long-term effectiveness of this form of feedback on satiation and food consumption, however, awaits further investigation.
Social network analysis of multi-stakeholder platforms in agricultural research for development : Opportunities and constraints for innovation and scaling
Hermans, Frans ; Sartas, Murat ; Schagen, Boudy van; Asten, Piet van; Schut, Marc - \ 2017
PLoS One 12 (2017)2. - ISSN 1932-6203

Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to achieve agricultural development impacts. By increasing collaboration, exchange of knowledge and influence mediation among farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, MSPs supposedly enhance their 'capacity to innovate' and contribute to the 'scaling of innovations'. The objective of this paper is to explore the capacity to innovate and scaling potential of three MSPs in Burundi, Rwanda and the South Kivu province located in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In order to do this, we apply Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM) to investigate the structural properties of the collaborative, knowledge exchange and influence networks of these MSPs and compared them against value propositions derived from the innovation network literature. Results demonstrate a number of mismatches between collaboration, knowledge exchange and influence networks for effective innovation and scaling processes in all three countries: NGOs and private sector are respectively over- and under-represented in the MSP networks. Linkages between local and higher levels are weak, and influential organisations (e.g., high-level government actors) are often not part of the MSP or are not actively linked to by other organisations. Organisations with a central position in the knowledge network are more sought out for collaboration. The scaling of innovations is primarily between the same type of organisations across different administrative levels, but not between different types of organisations. The results illustrate the potential of Social Network Analysis and ERGMs to identify the strengths and limitations of MSPs in terms of achieving development impacts.

Human migration, climate variability, and land degradation: hotspots of socio-ecological pressure in Ethiopia
Hermans, Kathleen ; Priess, Joerg ; Herold, Martin - \ 2017
Regional Environmental Change 17 (2017)5. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1479 - 1492.
In Ethiopia, human migration is known to be influenced by environmental change—and vice versa. Thus, degradation of environmental conditions can contribute to out-migration, and in-migration can cause environmental changes at the immigrants’ destination. The aim of our study was to systematically identify regions in which socio-ecological pressures can arise from high population densities, migration, land degradation, and/or rainfall variability. We combined population census data at the district level with high-resolution remote sensing data regarding rainfall variability, land degradation, and land cover. We identified districts in which high population density is coupled with both a steep decline in net primary production (NPP) and large precipitation variability. The affected regions are mainly cropping regions located in the northern highlands and in the central part of the Great Rift Valley. We consider these regions to be particularly prone to environmental changes; moreover, high population density places additional stress on local natural resources. Next, we identified districts in which high in-migration is coupled with both a strong decline in NPP and low rainfall variability, proposing that land degradation in these regions is likely to have resulted from human activity rather than climatic factors. The affected regions include parts of the Awash Valley, regions surrounding Lake Tana, and the mountainous regions between Addis Ababa, Bedele, and Jima. We found these hotspots of in-migration and land degradation are dominantly grasslands regions, which have been characterized by significant cropland expansion during the period studied. Whereas exploring causal relationships between migration, environmental change, and land cover change is beyond the scope of our study, we have pinpointed regions where these processes coincide. Our findings suggest that at the regional scale, deteriorating environmental conditions can be both the cause and the effect of migration.
An analytical framework for strategic delta planning : negotiating consent for long-term sustainable delta development
Seijger, C. ; Douven, W. ; Halsema, G. van; Hermans, L. ; Evers, J. ; Phi, H.L. ; Khan, M.F. ; Brunner, J. ; Pols, L. ; Ligtvoet, W. ; Koole, S. ; Slager, K. ; Vermoolen, M.S. ; Hasan, S. ; Thi Minh Hoang, Vo - \ 2017
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60 (2017)8. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1485 - 1509.
actor coalitions - implementation - innovations - participatory planning tools - Strategic delta planning
Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to actions and means for implementation in the short-term, in line with long-term strategic choices. This paper introduces an analytical framework that focuses on the role of actors, innovative solutions and participatory planning tools in negotiating consent for the strategic choices in a delta plan and its implementation. Cases of Bangladesh, the Netherlands and Vietnam are discussed as a plausibility probe to explore the framework's potential. The probe reveals that the framework is promising to explain the process and outcomes of strategic delta planning in urbanizing deltas. The paper ends with an initial research agenda to stimulate research and discussion on this new delta planning approach.
What Drives Human Migration in Sahelian Countries? A Meta-analysis
Neumann, K. ; Hermans, Frans - \ 2017
Population, Space and Place 23 (2017)1. - ISSN 1544-8444
The Sahel region has one of the most mobile populations in the world, with migration serving as a common household strategy to increase livelihood and social resilience. However, the Sahel region's population is extremely heterogeneous, and the processes and factors that contribute to migration are complex. Consequently, recent empirical studies yielded conflicting conclusions regarding the processes that drive migration. This study was designed to increase our understanding of the factors that drive migration in the Sahel region. We performed a systematic meta-analysis of English-language literature to synthesise the empirical evidence collected from 53 case studies covering eight Sahelian countries. We analysed the frequencies of a broad range of drivers that affected migration processes during the past three decades. Our results show that the primary impetus for driving migration is a combination of economic and social motivations, which together account for 80% of all drivers that were identified in the case studies. In contrast, only 11% of the identified drivers are related directly to demographic and/or environmental conditions. Moreover, we conclude that the majority of case studies do not explore causation among migration drivers, which clearly hampers our understanding of migration mechanisms taking place in the Sahel region.
Samenvatting van het project ‘Kijkrichtingen natuur en gezondheid’ : Definitieve versie april 2016
Kruize, Hanneke ; Hermans, C.M.L. - \ 2016
Bilthoven : RIVM - 18 p.
De afgelopen jaren is er bij beleid, onderzoek en praktijk veel aandacht voor
de positieve invloed van natuur op de gezondheid. Steeds meer gemeenten
profileren zich met groenprojecten. Zij veronderstellen dat de aanwezigheid van
een groen in de leefomgeving – dat wil zeggen, de aanwezigheid van parken,
tuinen, bossen, bomen, groenstroken – mensen stimuleert om (meer) te gaan
bewegen. Verder zijn er aanwijzingen dat een groene leefomgeving sociale
contacten stimuleert. Ook wordt verondersteld dat mensen met groen in de
leefomgeving minder stress hebben en dat het als buffer tegen luchtverontreiniging
en geluidoverlast kan dienen. Kortom, het idee is dat mensen
door hun contact met een groene leefomgeving een betere gezondheid en
kwaliteit van leven hebben. Er ontbreekt echter nog veel kennis over de relatie
tussen groen en gezondheid. Daarnaast wordt de groene leefomgeving nog
maar weinig benut door gezondheidsprofessionals.
Belangrijke vragen zijn dan ook: wat kan een groene leefomgeving betekenen
voor de gezondheid van mensen? En wat hebben gezondheidsprofessionals
nodig zodat de groene leefomgeving beter wordt benut?
Het Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) en Alterra hebben
daarom drie onderzoeken uitgevoerd. Als eerste zijn gegevens over de
gezondheid van inwoners uit Doetinchem die al lange tijd worden gevolgd
– de zogeheten Doetinchem Cohort-studie – gecombineerd met gegevens
over de groene leefomgeving voor verkennende analyses naar de relatie groen
en gezondheid. Ten tweede is gezondheidsprofessionals gevraagd wat zij
nodig hebben om de groene leefomgeving in te zetten voor de gezondheid
van hun patiënten. Ten slotte is de situatie voorafgaand aan een gemeentelijke
interventie op het gebied van groen en gezondheid in kaart gebracht (nulmeting).
In deze samenvatting worden de termen natuur, groene leefomgeving en groen
afwisselend gebruikt. In essentie wordt steeds het zelfde bedoeld: de effecten
van natuur, de groene leefomgeving op gezondheid.
Local availability of green and blue space and prevalence of common mental disorders in the Netherlands
Vries, Sjerp de; Have, Margreet ten; Dorsselaer, Saskia van; Wezep, Manja van; Hermans, Tia ; Graaf, Ron de - \ 2016
BJPsych Open 2 (2016)6. - p. 366 - 372.
Background: Previous studies revealed a relationship between residential green space availability and health, especially mental health. Studies on blue space are scarcer and results less conclusive. Aims: To investigate the hypotheses that green and blue space availability are negatively associated with anxiety and mood disorders, and positively associated with self-reported mental and general health. Method: Health data were derived from a nationally representative survey (NEMESIS-2, n=6621), using a diagnostic interview to assess disorders. Green and blue space availability were expressed as percentages of the area within 1 km from one's home. Results: The hypotheses were confirmed, except for green space and mood disorders. Associations were generally stronger for blue space than for green space, with ORs up to 0.74 for a 10%-point increase. Conclusions: Despite the different survey design and health measures, the results largely replicate those of previous studies on green space. Blue space availability deserves more systematic attention.
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