Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Data from: Estimating sensitivity of seabed habitats to disturbance by bottom trawling based on the longevity of benthic fauna
Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Garcia, Clement ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Kooten, T. van - \ 2018
benthos
Bottom fishing such as trawling and dredging may pose serious risks to the seabed and benthic habitats, calling for a quantitative assessment method to evaluate the impact and guide management to develop mitigation measures. We provide a method to estimate the sensitivity of benthic habitats based on the longevity composition of the invertebrate community. We hypothesize that long-lived species are more sensitive to trawling mortality due to their lower pace of life (i.e. slower growth, late maturation). We analyse data from box-core and grab samples taken from 401 stations in the English Channel and southern North Sea to estimate the habitat-specific longevity composition of the benthic invertebrate community and of specific functional groups (i.e. suspension feeders and bioturbators), and examine how bottom trawling affects the longevity biomass composition. The longevity biomass composition differed between habitats governed by differences in sediment composition (gravel and mud content) and tidal bed-shear stress. The biomass proportion of long-lived species increased with gravel content and decreased with mud content and shear stress. Bioturbators had a higher median longevity than suspension feeders. Trawling, in particular by gears that penetrate the seabed >2cm, shifted the community towards shorter-lived species. Changes from bottom trawling were highest in habitats with many long-lived species (hence increasing with gravel content, decreasing with mud content). Benthic communities in high shear stress habitats were less affected by bottom trawling. Using these relationships, we predicted the sensitivity of the benthic community from bottom trawling impact at large spatial scale (the North Sea). We derived different benthic sensitivity metrics that provide a basis to estimate indicators of trawling impact on a continuous scale for the total community and specific functional groups. In combination with high resolution data of trawling pressure, our approach can be used to monitor and assess trawling impact and seabed status at the scale of the region or broadscale habitat and to compare the environmental impact of bottom-contacting fishing gears across fisheries.
Data from: Estimating sensitivity of seabed habitats to disturbance by bottom trawling based on the longevity of benthic fauna
Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Garcia, Clement ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Kooten, T. van - \ 2018
Benthos
Bottom fishing such as trawling and dredging may pose serious risks to the seabed and benthic habitats, calling for a quantitative assessment method to evaluate the impact and guide management to develop mitigation measures. We provide a method to estimate the sensitivity of benthic habitats based on the longevity composition of the invertebrate community. We hypothesize that long-lived species are more sensitive to trawling mortality due to their lower pace of life (i.e. slower growth, late maturation). We analyse data from box-core and grab samples taken from 401 stations in the English Channel and southern North Sea to estimate the habitat-specific longevity composition of the benthic invertebrate community and of specific functional groups (i.e. suspension feeders and bioturbators), and examine how bottom trawling affects the longevity biomass composition. The longevity biomass composition differed between habitats governed by differences in sediment composition (gravel and mud content) and tidal bed-shear stress. The biomass proportion of long-lived species increased with gravel content and decreased with mud content and shear stress. Bioturbators had a higher median longevity than suspension feeders. Trawling, in particular by gears that penetrate the seabed >2cm, shifted the community towards shorter-lived species. Changes from bottom trawling were highest in habitats with many long-lived species (hence increasing with gravel content, decreasing with mud content). Benthic communities in high shear stress habitats were less affected by bottom trawling. Using these relationships, we predicted the sensitivity of the benthic community from bottom trawling impact at large spatial scale (the North Sea). We derived different benthic sensitivity metrics that provide a basis to estimate indicators of trawling impact on a continuous scale for the total community and specific functional groups. In combination with high resolution data of trawling pressure, our approach can be used to monitor and assess trawling impact and seabed status at the scale of the region or broadscale habitat and to compare the environmental impact of bottom-contacting fishing gears across fisheries.
Estimating sensitivity of seabed habitats to disturbance by bottom trawling based on the longevity of benthic fauna
Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Garcia, Clement ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Kooten, Tobias van - \ 2018
Ecological Applications 28 (2018)5. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1302 - 1312.
benthic fauna - ecosystem-based management - effects of trawling - impact assessment - indicators - sea floor

Bottom fishing such as trawling and dredging may pose serious risks to the seabed and benthic habitats, calling for a quantitative assessment method to evaluate the impact and guide management to develop mitigation measures. We provide a method to estimate the sensitivity of benthic habitats based on the longevity composition of the invertebrate community. We hypothesize that long-lived species are more sensitive to trawling mortality due to their lower pace of life (i.e., slower growth, late maturation). We analyze data from box-core and grab samples taken from 401 stations in the English Channel and southern North Sea to estimate the habitat-specific longevity composition of the benthic invertebrate community and of specific functional groups (i.e., suspension feeders and bioturbators), and examine how bottom trawling affects the longevity biomass composition. The longevity biomass composition differed between habitats governed by differences in sediment composition (gravel and mud content) and tidal bed-shear stress. The biomass proportion of long-lived species increased with gravel content and decreased with mud content and shear stress. Bioturbators had a higher median longevity than suspension feeders. Trawling, in particular by gears that penetrate the seabed >2 cm, shifted the community toward shorter-lived species. Changes from bottom trawling were highest in habitats with many long-lived species (hence increasing with gravel content, decreasing with mud content). Benthic communities in high shear stress habitats were less affected by bottom trawling. Using these relationships, we predicted the sensitivity of the benthic community from bottom trawling impact at large spatial scale (the North Sea). We derived different benthic sensitivity metrics that provide a basis to estimate indicators of trawling impact on a continuous scale for the total community and specific functional groups. In combination with high resolution data of trawling pressure, our approach can be used to monitor and assess trawling impact and seabed status at the scale of the region or broadscale habitat and to compare the environmental impact of bottom-contacting fishing gears across fisheries.

Response of benthic fauna to experimental bottom fishing : A global meta-analysis
Sciberras, Marija ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Szostek, Claire L. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Kneafsey, Brian ; Clarke, Leo J. ; Ellis, Nick ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. - \ 2018
Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)4. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 698 - 715.
Dredging - Effects of trawling - Fishing impacts - Invertebrate communities - Systematic review - Taxonomic analysis
Bottom-contact fishing gears are globally the most widespread anthropogenic sources of direct disturbance to the seabed and associated biota. Managing these fishing disturbances requires quantification of gear impacts on biota and the rate of recovery following disturbance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of 122 experiments on the effects-of-bottom fishing to quantify the removal of benthos in the path of the fishing gear and to estimate rates of recovery following disturbance. A gear pass reduced benthic invertebrate abundance by 26% and species richness by 19%. The effect was strongly gear-specific, with gears that penetrate deeper into the sediment having a significantly larger impact than those that penetrate less. Sediment composition (% mud and presence of biogenic habitat) and the history of fishing disturbance prior to an experimental fishing event were also important predictors of depletion, with communities in areas that were not previously fished, predominantly muddy or biogenic habitats being more strongly affected by fishing. Sessile and low mobility biota with longer life-spans such as sponges, soft corals and bivalves took much longer to recover after fishing (>3 year) than mobile biota with shorter life-spans such as polychaetes and malacostracans (<1 year). This meta-analysis provides insights into the dynamics of recovery. Our estimates of depletion along with estimates of recovery rates and large-scale, high-resolution maps of fishing frequency and habitat will support more rigorous assessment of the environmental impacts of bottom-contact gears, thus supporting better informed choices in trade-offs between environmental impacts and fish production.
Food stories : Unraveling the mechanisms underlying healthful eating
Swan, Emily ; Bouwman, Laura ; Aarts, Noelle ; Rosen, Leah ; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan ; Koelen, Maria - \ 2018
Appetite 120 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 456 - 463.

The biomedical model of health (BMH) studies the causes and origins of disease. When applied to nutrition research, eating is studied as a behavior that supports physical health. However, the lack of attention the BMH pays to social and historical circumstances in which health behaviors are constructed has been widely addressed in literature. When people are studied without considering contextual influences, the relevance to everyday life is limited. As a result, how individuals actively deal with their context to manage healthful eating is poorly understood. This research applies a complementary model, salutogenic model of health (SMH), and uses life course research methodology to study a group of healthy eaters. The purpose of this research is to unravel how healthful eating develops in everyday life. Healthy eaters (n = 17) were identified and recruited from the NQplus research panel at Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Life course experiences were examined through narrative inquiry. Participants recalled and visually explored life experiences with food and health using timelines. Results indicate that healthful eating results from exposure to individual- and context-bounded factors during childhood and adulthood and involves specific mental and social capacities relevant to coping including amongst others, critical self-awareness; flexibility, craftiness, and fortitude. Through life-course learning moments, participants were able to develop proactive coping strategies which strengthened their sense of agency and helped them in overcoming stressors and challenges. Findings show that nutrition strategies should not only focus on strengthening food-specific factors like cooking skills and nutrition knowledge, but other factors like stress management, empowerment, and participation. Such factors support the development of adaptive skills and behaviors, enable individuals to deal with the demands of everyday life, and are building blocks for health promotion.

Individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors that underlie sense of coherence in Dutch adults
Swan, E. ; Bouwman, L. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Aarts, N. ; Koelen, M. - \ 2018
Global Health Promotion 25 (2018)1. - ISSN 1757-9759 - p. 33 - 42.
Antonovsky’s salutogenesis is a theoretical perspective on health development that explores physical, mental, and social factors that contribute to a ‘healthy life orientation’ and also a theoretical approach to behavior change. Previous studies applying salutogenesis show that a high sense of coherence (SOC), a composite measure from salutogenesis indicating one’s capacity to cope with stress, is associated with a healthy life orientation and lifestyle behaviors, including healthy eating patterns. However, limited evidence exists on the factors that underlie SOC, which could be used to strengthen this capacity as a means to enable healthier eating. Dutch adults (N = 781) participated in a cross-sectional study examining the relationship between SOC and a set of individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors. The main findings indicate that high SOC was associated with a diverse set of factors including lower doctor-oriented health locus of control; higher satisfaction with weight; higher perceived levels of neighborhood collective efficacy; higher situational self-efficacy for healthy eating; lower social discouragement for healthy eating; and higher neighborhood affordability, accessibility and availability of healthy foods. These findings can inform the design of nutrition interventions that target these factors that strengthen SOC and provide the building blocks for a healthier life orientation.
A Brief History of the International Milk Genomics Consorium
Hiddink, Gerrit Jan - \ 2017
theme; "Moving Forward with Translational Milk Research to Advance Health"
Present and Future of Nutrition Guidance / Lifestyle Advice in Primary
Hiddink, Gerrit Jan - \ 2017
Farewell Speech
Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Szostek, Claire L. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Ellis, Nick ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. - \ 2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017)31. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8301 - 8306.
logistic recovery model - systematic review - metaanalysis - impacts - trawling
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity affecting seabed habitats. Here, we collate all available data for experimental and comparative studies of trawling impacts on whole communities of seabed macroinvertebrates on sedimentary habitats and develop widely applicable methods to estimate depletion and recovery rates of biota after trawling. Depletion of biota and trawl penetration into the seabed are highly correlated. Otter trawls caused the least depletion, removing 6% of biota per pass and penetrating the seabed on average down to 2.4 cm, whereas hydraulic dredges caused the most depletion, removing 41% of biota and penetrating the seabed on average 16.1 cm. Median recovery times posttrawling (from 50 to 95% of unimpacted biomass) ranged between 1.9 and 6.4 y. By accounting for the effects of penetration depth, environmental variation, and uncertainty, the models explained much of the variability of depletion and recovery estimates from single studies. Coupled with
large-scale, high-resolution maps of trawling frequency and habitat, our estimates of depletion and recovery rates enable the assessment of trawling impacts on unprecedented spatial scales.
Determinants of lifestyle behavior change to prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals
Braver, Nicole den; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Duijzer, G. ; Beek, J. ter; Jansen, S.C. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Haveman-Nies, A. - \ 2017
International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 14 (2017)1. - ISSN 1479-5868
Background
Although there are many effective lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevention, insight into effective intervention pathways, especially of long-term interventions, is often lacking. This study aims to provide insight into the effective intervention pathways of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention using mediation analyses.

Methods
In total, 240 participants at increased risk of T2DM were included in the analyses over 18 months. The intervention was a combined lifestyle intervention with a dietary and a physical activity (PA) component. The primary and secondary outcomes were change in fasting insulin (pmol/L) and change in body weight (kg) after 18 months, respectively. Firstly, in a multiple mediator model, we investigated whether significant changes in these outcomes were mediated by changes in dietary and PA behavior. Secondly, in multiple single mediator models, we investigated whether changes in dietary and PA behavior were mediated by changes in behavioral determinants and the participants’ psychological profile. The mediation analyses used linear regression models, where significance of indirect effects was calculated with bootstrapping.

Results
The effect of the intervention on decreased fasting insulin was 40% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where dietary behavior was an independent mediator of the association (34%). The effect of the intervention on decreased body weight was 20% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where PA behavior was an independent mediator (17%). The intervention significantly changed intake of fruit, fat from bread spread, and fiber from bread. Change in fruit intake was mediated by change in action control (combination of consciousness, self-control, and effort), motivation, self-efficacy, intention, and skills. Change in fat intake was mediated by change in action control and psychological profile. No mediators could be identified for change in fiber intake. The change in PA behavior was mediated by change in action control, motivation, and psychological profile.

Conclusion
The effect of the SLIMMER intervention on fasting insulin and body weight was mediated by changes in dietary and PA behavior, in distinct ways. These results indicate that changing dietary as well as PA behavior is important in T2DM prevention.
Is the success of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention modified by socioeconomic status? A randomised controlled trial
Bukman, A.J. ; Duijzer, G. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Jansen, S. ; Beek, J. ter; Hiddink, G.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2017
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 129 (2017). - ISSN 0168-8227 - p. 160 - 168.
Aim
To explore the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in participation, programme attendance, programme acceptability, adherence to lifestyle guidelines, drop-out, and effectiveness in the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention.
Methods
SLIMMER was a randomised controlled intervention, carried out in a real-world setting, targeting 40- to 70-year-old adults at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (n = 316). The intervention group participated in a 10-month combined dietary and physical activity programme. Measurements were carried out at baseline, 12 months, and 18 months. Effectiveness was determined for fasting insulin, HbA1c, weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height-ratio. Differences between the low SES (no, primary, or lower secondary school) and higher SES group were tested using logistic regression and ANCOVA.
Results
Fifty-two percent of the SLIMMER participants had a low SES. No differences in participation were observed between the low and higher SES group. The most important reason for non-participation in the low SES group was ‘lack of interest’ (32%), whereas in the higher SES group this was ‘I already exercise enough’ (31%). Attendance, acceptability, adherence, drop-out, and effectiveness after 12 months were similar in the low and higher SES group. After 18 months, the low SES group seemed to maintain slightly better effects for fasting insulin, HbA1c, and waist circumference.
Conclusions
The current study showed that participation, attendance, acceptability, adherence, drop-out, and effectiveness of the SLIMMER intervention were in general not modified by socioeconomic status. The SLIMMER intervention can contribute to health promotion for individuals in both low and higher socioeconomic groups.
Effect and maintenance of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention lifestyle intervention in Dutch primary healthcare: a randomised controlled trial
Duijzer, G. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Jansen, S.C. ; Beek, J. van; Bruggen, Rykel van; Willink, M. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2017
Nutrition & Diabetes 7 (2017)5. - ISSN 2044-4052
Background/Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of the SLIMMER combined dietary and physical activity lifestyle intervention on clinical and metabolic risk factors, dietary intake, physical activity, and quality of life after 12 months, and to investigate whether effects sustained six months after the active intervention period ended.


Subjects/Methods: SLIMMER was a randomised controlled intervention, implemented in Dutch primary healthcare. In total, 316 subjects aged 40–70 years with increased risk of type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to the intervention group (10-month dietary and physical activity programme) or the control group (usual healthcare). All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and physical examination, and filled in questionnaires. Identical examinations were performed at baseline and after 12 and 18 months. Primary outcome was fasting insulin.


Results: The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in anthropometry and glucose metabolism. After 12 and 18 months, differences between intervention and control group were -2.7 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): −3.7; −1.7) and −2.5 kg (95% CI: −3.6; −1.4) for weight, and −12.1 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −19.6; −4.6) and −8.0 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −14.7; −0.53) for fasting insulin. Furthermore, dietary intake, physical activity, and quality of life improved significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group.


Conclusions: The Dutch SLIMMER lifestyle intervention is effective in the short and long term in improving clinical and metabolic risk factors, dietary intake, physical activity, and quality of life in subjects at high risk of diabetes.
Estimating the sustainability of towed fishing-gear impacts on seabed habitats: a simple quantitative risk assessment method applicable to data-limited fisheries
Pitcher, C.R. ; Ellis, Nick ; Jennings, Simon ; Hiddink, Jan G. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Kangas, Mervi I. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Amoroso, Ricardo ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Hilborn, Ray ; Freckleton, Robert - \ 2017
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 472 - 480.
benthic fauna - depletion - ecological risk assessment - ecoystem-based fishery management - effects of trawling - recovery - resilience - sensivity - trawl footprints - vulnerability indicators
1. Impacts of bottom fishing, particularly trawling and dredging, on seabed (benthic) habitats are commonly perceived to pose serious environmental risks. Quantitative ecological risk assessment can be used to evaluate actual risks and to help guide the choice of management measures needed to meet sustainability objectives. 2. We develop and apply a quantitative method for assessing the risks to benthic habitats by towed bottom-fishing gears. The meth od is based on a simple eq uation for relative benthic status (RBS), derived by solving the logistic population growth equation for the equilibrium state. Estimating RBS requires only maps of fishing intensity and habitat type – and parameters for impact and recovery rates, which may be taken from meta-analyses of multiple experimental studies of towed-gear impacts. The aggregate status of habitats in an assessed region is indicated by the distribution of RBS values for the region. The application of RBS is illustrated for a tropical shrimp-trawl fishery. 3. The status of trawled habitats and their RBS value depend on impact rate (depletion per trawl), recovery rate and exposure to tra wling. In the shrimp-trawl fishery region, gravel habitat was most sensitive, and though less exposed than sand or mudd y-sand, was most affected overall (regional RBS = 91% relative to un-trawled RBS = 100%). Muddy-sand was less sensitive, and though relatively most exposed, was less affected overall (RBS = 95%). Sand was most heavily trawled but least sensitive and least affected overall (RBS = 98%). Region-wide , >94% of habitat area had >80% RBS because most tra wling and impacts were confined to small areas. RBS was also applied to the region’s benthic invertebrate communities with similar results. 4. Conclu sions. Unlike qualitative or categorical trait-based risk assessments, the RBS method provides a quantitative estimate of status relative to an unimpacted baseline, with minimal requireme nts for input data. It could be applied to bottom-contact fish erie s world-wide, including situations where detailed data on characteristics of seabed habitats, or the abundance of seabed fauna are not available. The approach supports assessment against sustainability criteria and evaluation of alternative management strategies (e.g. closed areas, effort management, gear modifications).
Differences in biological traits composition of benthic assemblages between unimpacted habitats
Bolam, S.G. ; Garcia, C. ; Eggleton, J. ; Kenny, A.J. ; Buhl-Mortensen, L. ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, G. ; Kooten, T. van; Dinesen, G. ; Hansen, J. ; Hiddink, J.G. ; Sciberras, M. ; Smith, C. ; Papadopoulou, N. ; Gumus, A. ; Hoey, G. Van; Eigaard, O.R. ; Bastardie, F. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2017
Marine Environmental Research 126 (2017). - ISSN 0141-1136 - p. 1 - 13.
Biological traits - European shelf - Infauna - Unimpacted assemblages
There is an implicit requirement under contemporary policy drivers to understand the characteristics of benthic communities under anthropogenically-unimpacted scenarios. We used a trait-based approach on a large dataset from across the European shelf to determine how functional characteristics of unimpacted benthic assemblages vary between different sedimentary habitats. Assemblages in deep, muddy environments unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance show increased proportions of downward conveyors and surface deposit-feeders, while burrowing, diffusive mixing, scavenging and predation traits assume greater numerical proportions in shallower habitats. Deep, coarser sediments are numerically more dominated by sessile, upward conveyors and suspension feeders. In contrast, unimpacted assemblages of coarse sediments in shallower regions are proportionally dominated by the diffusive mixers, burrowers, scavengers and predators. Finally, assemblages of gravelly sediments exhibit a relatively greater numerical dominance of non-bioturbators and asexual reproducers. These findings may be used to form the basis of ranking habitats along a functional sensitivity gradient.
Indirect effects of bottom fishing on the productivity of marine fish
Collie, Jeremy ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Kooten, Tobias van; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Jennings, Simon ; Hilborn, Ray - \ 2017
Fish and Fisheries 18 (2017)4. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 619 - 637.
Beam trawls - Benthic disturbance - Dredges - Fish yield - Otter trawl
One quarter of marine fish production is caught with bottom trawls and dredges on continental shelves around the world. Towed bottom-fishing gears typically kill 20-50 per cent of the benthic invertebrates in their path, depending on gear type, substrate and vulnerability of particular taxa. Particularly vulnerable are epifaunal species, which stabilize the sediment and provide habitat for benthic invertebrates. To identify the habitats, fisheries or target species most likely to be affected, we review evidence of the indirect effects of bottom fishing on fish production. Recent studies have found differences in the diets of certain species in relation to bottom fishing intensity, thereby linking demersal fish to their benthic habitats at spatial scales of ~10 km. Bottom fishing affects diet composition and prey quality rather than the amount of prey consumed; scavenging of discarded by-catch makes only a small contribution to yearly food intake. Flatfish may benefit from light trawling levels on sandy seabeds, while higher-intensity trawling on more vulnerable habitats has a negative effect. Models suggest that reduction in the carrying capacity of habitats by bottom fishing could lead to lower equilibrium yield and a lower level of fishing mortality to obtain maximum yield. Trawling effort is patchily distributed - small fractions of fishing grounds are heavily fished, while large fractions are lightly fished or unfished. This patchiness, coupled with the foraging behaviour of demersal fish, may mitigate the indirect effects of bottom fishing on fish productivity. Current research attempts to scale up these localized effects to the population level.
Operationalising the health aspects of sustainable diets : a review
Mertens, Elly ; van’t Veer, Pieter ; Hiddink, Gerrit J. ; Steijns, Jan M.J.M. ; Kuijsten, Anneleen - \ 2017
Public Health Nutrition 20 (2017)4. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 739 - 757.
Approaches - Consumer diet - Environmentally sustainable diet - Health aspects

Objective: Shifting towards a more sustainable food consumption pattern is an important strategy to mitigate climate change. In the past decade, various studies have optimised environmentally sustainable diets using different methodological approaches. The aim of the present review was to categorise and summarise the different approaches to operationalise the health aspects of environmentally sustainable diets. Design: Conventional keyword and reference searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and CAB Abstracts. Inclusion criteria were: (i) English-language publication; (ii) published between 2005 and October 2015; (iii) dietary data collected for the diet as a whole at the national, household or individual level; (iv) comparison of the current diet with dietary scenarios; and (v) for results to consider the health aspect in some way. Setting: Consumer diets. Subjects: Adult population. Results: We reviewed forty-nine studies that combined the health and environmental aspects of consumer diets. Hereby, five approaches to operationalise the health aspect of the diet were identified: (i) food item replacements; (ii) dietary guidelines; (iii) dietary quality scores; (iv) diet modelling techniques; and (v) diet-related health impact analysis. Conclusions: Although the sustainability concept is increasingly popular and widely advocated by nutritional and environmental scientists, the journey towards designing sustainable diets for consumers has only just begun. In the context of operationalising the health aspects, diet modelling might be considered the preferred approach since it captures the complexity of the diet as a whole. For the future, we propose SHARP diets: environmentally Sustainable (S), Healthy (H), Affordable (A), Reliable (R) and Preferred from the consumer’s perspective (P).

Present and future of nutrition guidance : lifestyle advice in primary care
Hiddink, Gert Jan - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431798 - 33
Process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial of a diabetes prevention intervention in Dutch primary health care: the SLIMMER study
Dongen, E.J.I. van; Duijzer, G. ; Oord-Jansen, S.J. van; Beek, J. ter; Huijg, Johanna M. ; Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Haveman-Nies, A. - \ 2016
Public Health Nutrition 19 (2016)16. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 3027 - 3038.
Objective To investigate (i) how the SLIMMER intervention was delivered and received in Dutch primary health care and (ii) how this could explain intervention effectiveness.
Design A randomised controlled trial was conducted and subjects were randomly allocated to the intervention (10-month combined dietary and physical activity intervention) or the control group. A process evaluation including quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted. Data on process indicators (recruitment, reach, dose received, acceptability, implementation integrity and applicability) were collected via semi-structured interviews with health-care professionals (n 45) and intervention participant questionnaires (n 155).
Setting SLIMMER was implemented in Dutch primary health care in twenty-five general practices, eleven dietitians, nine physiotherapist practices and fifteen sports clubs.
Subjects Subjects at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes were included.
Results It was possible to recruit the intended high-risk population (response rate 54 %) and the SLIMMER intervention was very well received by both participants and health-care professionals (mean acceptability rating of 82 and 80, respectively). The intervention programme was to a large extent implemented as planned and was applicable in Dutch primary health care. Higher dose received and participant acceptability were related to improved health outcomes and dietary behaviour, but not to physical activity behaviour.

Conclusions The present study showed that it is feasible to implement a diabetes prevention intervention in Dutch primary health care. Higher dose received and participant acceptability were associated with improved health outcomes and dietary behaviour. Using an extensive process evaluation plan to gain insight into how an intervention is delivered and received is a valuable way of identifying intervention components that contribute to implementation integrity and effective prevention of type 2 diabetes in primary health care.
Understanding healthful eating from a salutogenic perspective
Swan, E.C. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Maria Koelen; Gerrit Jan Hiddink, co-promotor(en): Laura Bouwman; Noelle Aarts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576957 - 111 p.
extension - foods - health - health education - health foods - health policy - pathogenesis - voorlichting - voedingsmiddelen - gezondheid - gezondheidseducatie - gezondheidsvoedsel - gezondheidsbeleid - pathogenese

The biomedical model of health orients towards pathogenesis, the study of disease origins and causes. The starting point is to understand determinants of ill-health, and health is defined in this model as the absence of disease. When applied to nutrition research, the underlying assumption is that eating is a physiological act, and that eating supports physical health. This risk-oriented, pathogenic view also underlies the search for determinants of unhealthful eating. However, there is such an emphasis on finding risk factors, that the biomedical model overlooks the fact that individuals also possess, or have access to, factors that support healthful eating. As a result, very little is known on factors that enable healthful eating and how these factors can be used to complement current health promotion strategies. The overall aim of this research was to contribute to a better understanding of healthful eating in the context of everyday life. We applied a complementary research framework, the salutogenic model of health, to 1) map factors underlying the development of sense of coherence (SOC); 2) study which of these factors are predictors for healthy eating; 3) unravel how people develop healthful eating practices in everyday life; and 4) integrate this understanding and provide building blocks for nutrition promotion. This research employed a mixed research design, using cross-sectional survey research and in-depth interviews.

Chapter 2 explored the possibilities of applying the salutogenic framework as a complementary approach to biomedical-oriented nutrition research and practice. Nutrition research takes a mostly biomedical-oriented approach to better understand risk factors that determine unhealthful eating. Though relevant for curative medicine, such an approach limits the evidence base for health promotion, which is guided by the principles that personal and social resources are preconditions for health and well-being. Moreover, biomedical-oriented nutrition promotion takes a reductionist approach and studies and enacts upon individual or the external environment separately. Disjointedly studying and enacting upon people and context may be easier, yet it does not do justice to reality and limits the relevance and applicability in everyday eating situations. The salutogenic model of health can provide complementary knowledge on what is already known through biomedical approaches. It guides the study of the dynamics between people and their environment and how health develops from this interaction. Since salutogenesis guides the study of health as an interplay between physical, mental, and social factors, it is more in line with how people experience eating in their everyday lives. In the study described in chapter 3, we examined individual, social, and physical-environmental factors that underlie SOC. Dutch adults (n=781) participated in a cross-sectional study examining the relationship between SOC and a set of individual, social- and physical-environmental factors. The main findings indicate that high SOC was significantly (p<.05) associated with a diverse set of factors including lower doctor oriented multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC); higher satisfaction with weight; higher situational self-efficacy for healthy eating; lower perceived social discouragement for healthy eating; higher perceived levels of neighborhood collective efficacy; and higher perceived neighborhood affordability, accessibility and availability of healthy foods. Non-significant factors (p≥.05) included gender; employment status; education level; cohabitation; BMI; nutrition knowledge; internally oriented MHLC; chance oriented MHLC; and perceived social support for healthy eating. These findings are relevant since they can inform the design of nutrition interventions that target factors that strengthen SOC and provide building blocks for a healthier life orientation. Next, the study in chapter 4 aimed to determine a set of individual, social and physical-environmental factors that predict healthy eating practices in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n=703) that completed the study’s survey and logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p<.05) to the predictive ability of the overall model: being female; cohabitation; a strong sense of coherence; flexible restraint of eating; and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Non-significant factors (p≥.05) in the multivariate logistic regression model included age; employment status; net monthly household income; education level; nutrition knowledge; internally oriented MHLC; perceived social support and discouragement for healthy eating; perceived neighborhood collective efficacy and perceived neighborhood affordability, availability and accessibility of healthy foods. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive understanding of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices.

Lastly, the qualitative study described in chapter 5 examined a group of healthy eaters and explored life experiences and coping strategies that foster healthful eating through narrative inquiry. The study was undertaken with seventeen Dutch women (aged 36- 54 years) in the highest quartile of dietary quality index scores. The main findings showed that life experiences gave rise to coping strategies that enabled healthful eating. Childhood experiences included: accustomed to non-processed foods and positive child-parent interactions. Adulthood experiences included: regained stability and structure in stressful life events and forged positive experiences with food. Coping strategies included: organizing eating in an uncomplicated manner; creativity in the kitchen; valuing good food with good company; approaching eating with critical self-awareness; and applying craftiness and fortitude during difficult moments. The findings suggest that there is an interplay between life experiences and coping strategies, and this mechanism underpins healthful eating. Findings offer potential entry points for nutrition promotion to foster healthful eating.

When integrating the research findings in chapter 6, we found that healthful eating results from three composite factors: balance and stability, sense of agency, and sensitivity to the dynamics of everyday life. Firstly, healthful eating results from balance and stability in life, represented by a strong SOC, which characterizes a balanced mixture of giving meaning to eating as an integral part of life, comprehending its importance to oneself, and having competencies to manage its organization in the everyday social context. In the life course, healthful eating also results from the ability to regain stability and structure in stressful life events and craftiness and fortitude during difficult moments. Healthful eating is also rooted in a sense of agency (the feeling of being in control of one’s own actions), with regards to the ability to take action related to eating and life in general. This sense of agency is enabled through flexibility, lower doctor oriented MHLC, applying creativity in the kitchen, and approaching eating with critical self-awareness. Thirdly, healthful eating results from a sensitivity to the dynamics of everyday life, with regards to the how people deal with and navigate through everyday challenging situations by applying individual- and context-bound factors including situational self-efficacy, organizing eating in an uncomplicated manner, valuing good food with good company, and perceiving less social discouragement for healthy eating from family and friends.

Few of the factors associated with SOC and healthful eating converged with risk factors for unhealthful eating found in previous studies, including coping, self-efficacy, restraint of eating, and living situation. Our findings show that the set of factors related to the origins of health substantially diverged from the set of factors related to the origins of disease. From this, we conclude that the “origins of health” differ from the “origins of disease”. Hence, factors that foster and support healthful eating are not simply the reversed version of the factors known to increase the risk of unhealthful food choices. This implies that a different set of factors should inform health promoting strategies, in addition to the factors informing strategies targeting the prevention of diet-related illnesses.

The new insights brought forth in this research provide building blocks for salutogenic-oriented nutrition promotion. 1) Strategies should take a more holistic orientation to food and eating, emphasizing a balance between physical, social, and mental health. Similarly, dietary guidelines should emphasis more than what and how much to eat for physical health and also consider the social and mental dimensions.

2) Nutrition promotion should develop strategies to support a healthful orientation to life. Through strengthening SOC, people can become more capable of coping with any situation or challenge, independent of whatever is happening in life. Nutrition promotion should also strengthen more general health promotion factors including mindfulness, critical thinking, and stress management because these skills support adaptive behavior when life circumstances change. 3) Strategies should facilitate health-directed learning processes through positive interactions and experiences with food. For instance, strategies that support health-directed learning processes should improve food-related procedural knowledge such as food literacy and cooking skills. They should also include socially-embedded learning experiences involving the selection, purchase, and preparation of healthful food; encourage positive parent-child interactions at the dinner table; and recommend that people cook regularly with partners, family or friends.

Type 2 diabetes prevention from research to practice : the SLIMMER lifestyle intervention
Duijzer, G. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Edith Feskens; Gerrit Jan Hiddink, co-promotor(en): Annemien Haveman-Nies. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576391 - 216 p.
type 2 diabetes - disease prevention - disease control - health care - health care costs - pilot projects - evaluation - netherlands - diabetes type 2 - ziektepreventie - ziektebestrijding - gezondheidszorg - kosten van de gezondheidszorg - proefprojecten - evaluatie - nederland

INTRODUCTION

Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic, causing a high disease and economic burden. Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, is associated with overweight and obesity and an unfavourable lifestyle, including unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Over the last two decades, many large-scale experimental trials have shown that type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented by lifestyle modification in high-risk subjects. This evidence has been translated and implemented in interventions in real-world settings, however, no (cost)effective diabetes prevention programme in Dutch primary health care was available at the start of the current project in 2008. Therefore the SLIMMER study (SLIM iMplementation Experience Region Noord- en Oost-Gelderland) was started in which the SLIM intervention, revealing a 47% diabetes risk reduction, was translated to Dutch primary health care. The aim of this thesis was to implement the SLIMMER intervention in Dutch primary health care and to evaluate its (cost)effectiveness and implementation.

METHODS

In 2010-2011, the SLIMMER intervention was tested for its feasibility and desired impact in a one-year pilot study (n = 31) with process evaluation, including quantitative and qualitative methods. From 2011 to 2014, the SLIMMER intervention was implemented on a larger scale in Dutch public health and primary health care. A randomised controlled trial was conducted (n = 316), including subjects aged 40 to 70 years with impaired fasting glucose or high risk of diabetes. The 10-month SLIMMER intervention involved a dietary and physical activity programme, including case management and a maintenance programme. The control group received usual health care. A logic model of change was composed to link intervention activities with intervention outcomes in a logical order. Primary outcome was fasting insulin. Measurements were performed at baseline and after 12 and 18 months and covered quality of life, clinical and metabolic risk factors (e.g. glucose tolerance, serum lipids, body fatness, and blood pressure), and eating and physical activity behaviour. Furthermore, a process evaluation including quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted. Data on process indicators (recruitment, reach, dose received, acceptability, implementation integrity, and applicability) were collected in semi-structured interviews with health care professional (n = 45) and intervention participant questionnaires (n = 155). Moreover, cost-effectiveness analyses were performed from both a societal and a health care perspective. Participants completed questionnaires to assess health care utilisation, participant out-of-pocket costs, and productivity losses.

RESULTS

The pilot study showed that participants lost on average 3.5 kg (p = 0.005) of their body weight. Both participants and health care professionals were satisfied with the intervention, which was implemented as planned and appeared to be suitable for application in practice. Refinements were identified and made prior to further implementation. The randomised controlled trial showed that after 12 and 18 months, the intervention group significantly improved weight (β=-2.7 kg (95% CI: -3.7;-1.7) and β=-2.5 kg (95% CI: -3.6;-1.4), respectively), and fasting insulin (β=-12.1 pmol/l (95% CI: -19.6;-4.6) and β=-8.0 pmol/l (95% CI: -14.7;-0.53), respectively) compared with the control group. Intervention subjects improved weight and glucose tolerance, independent of manner of recruitment (laboratory glucose test or Diabetes Risk Test). Furthermore, intake of total and saturated fat decreased and fibre intake increased in the intervention group compared with the control group, both at 12 and 18 months (p < 0.05). The DHD-index score – indicating adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines – was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group, both at 12 and at 18 months (p < 0.05). Vigorous activities and physical fitness improved both at 12 and at 18 months. Finally, beneficial changes in several domains of quality of life were found both at 12 and at 18 months, although not all domains reached statistical significance. From the process evaluation it was revealed that it was possible to recruit the intended high-risk population, and the SLIMMER intervention was very well received by both participants and health care professionals. The intervention programme was to a large extent implemented as planned and was applicable in Dutch primary health care. Higher dose received and participant acceptability were related to improved health outcomes and dietary behaviour, but not to physical activity behaviour. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed that, from a societal perspective, the incremental costs of the SLIMMER lifestyle intervention were €547 and that the incremental effect was 0.02 QALY, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 28,094/QALY. When cost-effectiveness was calculated from a health care perspective, the ICER decreased to 13,605/QALY, with a moderate probability of being cost-effective (56% at a willingness to pay (WTP) of €20,000/QALY and 81% at a WTP of €80,000/QALY.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, this study showed that a thorough preparation of translation and implementation has led to a cost-effective intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes which is feasible to implement in Dutch primary health care. In fact, our clinical effects were larger than those in most other real-world intervention programmes, and most effects sustained at 18 months. Furthermore, we showed that a higher intervention dose and participant acceptability were associated with improved health outcomes and dietary behaviour. Further research is needed on effects and costs over longer follow-up, effective intervention components, and consequences of suggested adaptations of the programme on intervention effectiveness. The results of this study provide valuable insights that can contribute to structural embedding and funding of effective diabetes prevention programmes in Dutch primary health care.

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