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Nile perch (Lates niloticus, L.) and cichlids (Haplochromis spp.) in Lake Victoria: could prey mortality promote invasion of tis predator?
Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2014
Theoretical Ecology 7 (2014)3. - ISSN 1874-1738 - p. 253 - 261.
east-africa - mwanza gulf - human impact - ecosystems - productivity - coexistence - competition - recovery - kyoga
The invasion of Nile perch into Lake Victoria is one of the iconic examples of the destructive effect of an introduced species on an ecosystem but no convincing explanation exists of why Nile perch only increased dramatically after a 25 year lag. Here, we consider this problem using a mathematical model that takes into account interactions between Nile perch and its cichlid prey. We examined competing hypotheses to explain Nile perch invasion and show that suppression of juvenile Nile perch by cichlids may cause the system to have two alternative stable states: one with only cichlids and one with coexistence of cichlids and Nile perch. Without cichlid predation on Nile perch, alternative stable states did not occur. Our analysis indicates that cichlid mortality, for example fishing mortality, may have induced the observed shift between the states.
Short-term ecological effects of an offshore wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone; a compilation
Lindeboom, H.J. ; Kouwenhoven, H.J. ; Bergman, M.J.N. ; Bouma, S. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Daan, R. ; Hal, R. van; Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Hofstede, R. ter; Leopold, M.F. ; Scheidat, M. ; Haan, D. de - \ 2011
Environmental Research Letters 6 (2011)3. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 13 p.
north-sea - regime shift - mechanisms - porpoises
The number of offshore wind farms is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the environmental impact of such farms. In the Netherlands, an extensive monitoring programme is being executed at the first offshore wind farm (Offshore Windfarm Egmond aan Zee, OWEZ). This letter compiles the short-term (two years) results on a large number of faunal groups obtained so far. Impacts were expected from the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise and the exclusion of fisheries. The results indicate no short-term effects on the benthos in the sandy area between the generators, while the new hard substratum of the monopiles and the scouring protection led to the establishment of new species and new fauna communities. Bivalve recruitment was not impacted by the OWEZ wind farm. Species composition of recruits in OWEZ and the surrounding reference areas is correlated with mud content of the sediment and water depth irrespective the presence of OWEZ. Recruit abundances in OWEZ were correlated with mud content, most likely to be attributed not to the presence of the farm but to the absence of fisheries. The fish community was highly dynamic both in time and space. So far, only minor effects upon fish assemblages especially near the monopiles have been observed. Some fish species, such as cod, seem to find shelter inside the farm. More porpoise clicks were recorded inside the farm than in the reference areas outside the farm. Several bird species seem to avoid the park while others are indifferent or are even attracted. The effects of the wind farm on a highly variable ecosystem are described. Overall, the OWEZ wind farm acts as a new type of habitat with a higher biodiversity of benthic organisms, a possibly increased use of the area by the benthos, fish, marine mammals and some bird species and a decreased use by several other bird species
Effect of habitat productivity and exploitation on populations with complex life cycles
Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Gardmark, A. - \ 2011
Marine Ecology Progress Series 438 (2011). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 175 - 184.
marine reserves - concentration hypothesis - size - fish - recruitment - dynamics - overcompensation - ecosystems - management - dependence
In this paper we study the consequences of habitat switching and the corresponding ontogenetic diet shifts between adult and juvenile life stages for harvesting and management of exploited populations using a consumer-resource model with stage-specific mortality. Specifically, we study how differences in stage-specific habitat productivity regulate exploited populations and affect yield. We show that the ratio of adult to juvenile habitat productivity determines whether the population is regulated by processes in the juvenile or adult stage and that population responses to changes in mortality (e.g. fishing) or habitat productivity (e.g. eutrophication or physical destruction) depend critically on the mechanism regulating the population. This result has important consequences for the management of marine fish. For example, in fisheries where the exploited population is regulated by processes in the juvenile stage, management measures aimed at protecting the juvenile habitat may be much more effective than regulating fishing effort on the adults. We find also that intermediate differences in habitat productivity lead to alternative stable states between a population regulated by processes in the juvenile or the adult stage. These alternative stable states may lead to counterintuitive population responses to harvesting
An exploration of suitability for windfarm placement in the Dutch North Sea with particular reference to benthos and demersal fish
Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Kooten, T. van; Boois, I.J. de; Wal, J.T. van der; Quirijns, F.J. ; Lavaleye, M.S.S. - \ 2010
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR no. C133/10) - 65
windmolens - windenergie - windmolenpark - nadelige gevolgen - benthos - vissen - aquatische ecologie - noordzee - windmills - wind power - wind farms - adverse effects - fishes - aquatic ecology - north sea
An increasing number of offshore windfarms are planned in the North Sea. In many cases the areas involved are also closed to fisheries. This may have important conservation implications for organisms in these areas, but may also have implications for fisheries. Whether or not area closures are effective depends on both species interactions within windfarms, and the placement and location of windfarms. This study uses existing data from routine surveys to examine the distribution of demersal fish and benthos, their potential sensitivity to mortality and thus their potential response to windfarm placement, and derives recommendations for windfarm placement based on this.
Invasive aquatic species: market/scientific opportunities for IMARES?
Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Boois, I.J. de; Heessen, H.J.L. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. - \ 2010
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES 10.003) - 16 p.
D1.2 Progress towards implementation of the fleet/fishery and indicator frameworks in the North Sea using Fcube
Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Kooten, T. van; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2009
S.l. : s.n. - 93
|Effects of stage specific habitat use; implications of complex life cycles on population management
Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Hille Ris Lambers, R. - \ 2009
In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Drivers of regime shifts in aquatic systems: case-specific or universal?, 24 September, 2009, Wageningen, The Netherlands. - Wageningen, Netherlands : - p. 2 - 2.
Species exhibiting ontogenetic diet shifts often change habitat between adult and juvenile life stages. Within stage processes such as competition or mortality may affect other life stages in different habitats. In this paper we study the effect of different processes on specific stages on a consumer population. A consumer-resource model is used, and stage specific habitat productivity, mortality and survival are varied. Our results indicate that for intermediate differences in habitat productivity juvenile or adult biomass dominated states can occur alternatively. When adult and juvenile habitat are more different a single equilibrium exist. Increased mortality decreases the scope for alternative stable states. Juvenile mortality in particular is more detrimental for population persistence than background or adult mortality, especially in combination with relative low productivity in the adult habitat. These findings are of interest when managing fish stock and implementing marine protected areas.
Model instruments for marine biodiversity policy : a quick scan
Klok, T.C. ; Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Vries, P. de; Tamis, J.E. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 148) - 73
mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - marien milieu - richtlijnen (directives) - noordzee - milieueffect - ecosystemen - biodiversiteit - modellen - populatiedynamica - mariene biologie - biodiversiteitsbepaling - aquatische ecosystemen - marine areas - marine ecology - marine environment - directives - north sea - environmental impact - ecosystems - biodiversity - models - population dynamics - marine biology - biodiversity assessment - aquatic ecosystems
The Netherlands Envrionmental Assessment Agency (PBL) developed several biodiversity models for the terrestrial environment to support policy making and evaluation. For the marine environment currently such modelling instruments are lacking. This report gives an overview of modelling instruments that are developed for marine biodiversity or its components. Next to this overview also an overview of marine biodiversity policies and their objectives is given. Modelling instruments are discussed in the context of their applicability for policy targets and their scientific pros and cons. Moreover, an overview of models developed within IMARES is given as well as an in-depth discussion on the food web model Ecopath with Ecosim, a model targeted by PBL as high potential.
|Modeling the competition for food by flatfish species in the North Sea under different temperature regimes and fishing pressures
Zon, S. van der; Hal, R. van; Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Kooten,, T. ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2009
The arms race between fishers
Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Poos, J.J. ; Quirijns, F.J. ; Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Wilde, J.W. de; Heijer, W.M. den - \ 2008
Journal of Sea Research 60 (2008)1-2. - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 126 - 138.
north-sea plaice - hake merluccius-bilinearis - maturation reaction norms - fishing vessels - mixed fisheries - fleet dynamics - behavioral inferences - population-dynamics - beam trawlers - catch
An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6¿7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.
Underwater sound emissions and effects of the pile driving of the OWEZ windfarm facility near Egmond aan Zee (Tconstruct)
Haan, D. de; Burggraaf, D. ; Ybema, M.S. ; Hille Ris Lambers, R. - \ 2007
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES no. C106/07) - 75
windenergie - windmolens - geluidsproductie - geluidshinder - akoestische emissie - civiele techniek - constructie - pijlers - milieueffect - noordzee - nederland - offshore - onderwaterakoestiek - wind power - windmills - sound production - noise pollution - acoustic emissions - civil engineering - construction - piles - environmental impact - north sea - netherlands - underwater acoustics
The aim of this part of the Monitoring and Evaluation Program NSW (MEP-NSW), i.e. “acoustic measurements”, is to measure and analyze underwater sound emissions from the construction of the OWEZ wind farm and to investigate the effects to marine animals (in particular fish, harbour porpoises and seals) from other relevant studies. The Off-Shore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) was built in the Dutch coastal zone 8 - 18 km off the coast from Egmond aan Zee. It consists of an arrangement of 36 wind turbines with a total capacity of 108 MW.
Vismonitoring in het IJsselmeer en Markermeer in 2006
Jansen, H.M. ; Boois, I.J. de; Hille Ris Lambers, R. ; Os-Koomen, E. van; Willigen, J.A. van; Leeuw, J.J. de - \ 2007
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES no. C052/07) - 66
visserij - visbestand - monitoring - nederland - vissen - visstand - ijsselmeer - fisheries - fishery resources - netherlands - fishes - fish stocks - lake ijssel
Ten behoeve van het visserijbeleid, het integraal waterbeheer en het visstandbeheer wordt een jaarlijks geactualiseerde inventarisatie gemaakt van de visstand op basis van monitoring van de visbestanden en de visserij
|Background noise measurements for MEP-NSW: Baseline TO
Haan, D. de; Burggraaf, D. ; Asjes, J. ; Hille Ris Lambers, R. - \ 2007
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES nr. C049/07) - 57
geluid - windmolens - noordzee - mariene gebieden - kustgebieden - nederland - noise - windmills - north sea - marine areas - coastal areas - netherlands
Traditional background noise spectra were measured predicting the construction of a 108 MW wind farm power generating facility 8 - 18 km off the Dutch coast of Egmond aan Zee. Off-shore windmill
On local extinction in a metapopulation.
Grasman, J. ; Hille Ris Lambers, R. - \ 1997
Ecological Modelling 103 (1997). - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 71 - 80.
On aphids, their host plants and speciation : a biosystematic study of the genus Cryptomyzus
Guldemond, J.A. - \ 1990
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L.M. Schoonhoven; A.F.G. Dixon. - S.l. : Guldemond - ISBN 9789072620033 - 155
aphididae - aphidoidea - taxonomie - classificatie - biologische naamgeving - evolutie - herbivoren - taxonomy - classification - biological nomenclature - evolution - herbivores
<p>Allozyme data as determined by starch gel electrophoresis revealed that all species of <em>Cryptomyzus</em> could be distinguished on the basis of unique alleles. Moreover, differences were detected between the two forms of <em>C.</em><em>alboapicalis,</em> which do not host-alternate and instead live on <em>Lamium album</em> and <em>L. maculatum</em> , <em></em> respectively. In the <em>C. galeopsidis</em> complex as well a form that host-alternates between <em>Ribes rubrum</em> and <em>L. galeobdolon</em> was distinguished. The two non- alternating subspecies on <em>R. rubrum</em> and <em>R.nigrum,</em> respectively, differed in allozyme frequency, indicating a reduced gene flow. Electrophoresis proved a powerful tool in unraveling relationships of closely related aphid complexes (Chapter 1).<p>The life cycle of <em>C.</em><em>heinzei</em> was elucidated by the discovery that <em>Ribes alpinum is</em> the winter host and <em>Stachys officinalis</em> the summer host. No populations survived on the originally described summer host plant of this species, <em>Satureja vulgaris</em> , probably indicating that the host plant was initially misidentified. In laboratory experiments <em>R. alpinum</em> appeared to be the winter host of <em>C.</em><em>ballotae</em> although reproduction and developmerit on this plant were weak. A full account of the host plants of <em>Cryptomyzus</em> species is given in Chapter 2.<p>Closely related forms of <em>C. alboapicalis</em> and <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis</em> revealed a definite host plant preference for their own particular summer host plant. This fact was corroborated by the host plant suitability, based on the reproductive performance of these forms. Significantly, for the development of reproductive isolation those morphs returning to the winter host exhibit a prefererence for the host on which their stem mother was born. Experiments confirmed this feature in the case of host- alternating clones of <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis</em> from <em>R. nigrum,</em> although host preference of those from <em>R. rubrum</em> proved to be ambiguous. Several clones preferred <em>R. rubrum</em> on which their oviparae matured, while others preferred <em>R.</em><em>nigrum</em> on which their oviparae matured as well. This indicates that gene flow occurs between these forms. The populations with intermediate behaviour may be assumed to be hybrids and the forms on <em>R. rubrum</em> and <em>R. nigrum</em> are considered to represent host races (Chapter 3).<p>Hybridization experiments were performed between the closely related forms of <em>C. galeopsidis,</em> which share the winter host <em>R. rubrum,</em> but have different summer hosts, <em>Galeopsis</em> and <em>Lamium galeobdolon</em> , <em></em> respectively. A F <sub>1</sub> generation could be established, but its fecundity on both summer hosts was lower than that of the parents. The F <sub>2</sub> and a backcross revealed that reproduction on the winter host was weak and the populations subsequently died out. This demonstrates that hybridisation of these two forms in the field would probably not result in permanent populations and natural selection would eliminate these hybrids.<p>F <sub>1</sub> hybrids were also used to determine the genetic basis of reproductive performance and host preference. This objective could not be fully realized, because of hybrid inferiority. Preliminary results indicate that preference may be determined by only a few genes and reproductive performance by many.<p>Hybrids between the host-alternating and non-alternating forms of <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis</em> revealed no hybrid inferiority, and probably hybridization also occurs in the field. The results of these crosses argue for a one gene (complex) determination of host-alternation. The implications of this for speciation are discussed (Chapter 4).<p>A morphometric study was initiated to determine whether the forms of <em>C.</em><em>alboapicalis</em> and <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis,</em> described on the basis of their hosts and life cycles, are also morphologically distinct. <em>C.</em><em>alboapicalis</em> from <em>L.</em><em>album</em> can be differentiated by the greater number of hairs on their abdominal segments. A canonical variate analysis using wingless females showed that <em>C.</em><em>alboapicalis</em> on <em>L. maculatum</em> deviates considerably in morphology from the other taxa. A linear discriminant function, which uses the best four characters, adequately separates this taxon. <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis</em> on <em>L. galeobdolon is</em> more closely related to the other <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis</em> forms, and the linear discriminant function is less reliable. The four host-alternating and non-alternating forms of <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis</em> are closely related, and there is no unequivocal morphometric support for the separation of the forms on <em>R. rubrum</em> and <em>R. nigrum</em> (Chapter 5).<p>The taxonomic conclusions that emerge from this study are:<br/><em>* C. (Ampullosiphon) stachydis</em> (Heikinheimo) belongs to <em>Cryptomyzus</em> on the basis of its host plant relationships <em>(Ribes</em> and Labiatae) and the presence of a filterchamber in its gut.<br/><em>* C. heinzei</em> Hille Ris Lambers is a separate species which differs from the morphologically comparable <em>C.</em><em>korschelti</em> Börner in having different host plants and unique allozymes.<br/>* The form of <em>C.</em><em>alboapicalis</em> that only lives on <em>L. maculatum is</em> a separate species with the name <em>C.</em><em>ulmeri</em> Börner It was previously synonymized with <em>C.</em><em>alboapicalis</em> (Theobald) that lives on <em>L. album</em> but it differs from this species and <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis</em> (Kaltenbach) forms in its host plant preference, reproductive performance, life cycle, allozymes and morphometrics.<br/>* The form of <em>C. galeopsidis</em> that host-alternates between <em>R. rubrum</em> and <em>L. galeobdolon is</em> a separate species and described as <em>C.</em><em>maudamanti</em><strong>sp.n.</strong> . <em></em> Its host plant preference, reproductive performance, allozymes and the inferiority of its hybrids conclusively show that it differs from <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis</em> sensu strictu.<br/>* Within <em>C.</em><em>galeopsidis</em> the forms on <em>R. rubrum</em> can be distinguished from those of <em>R. nigrum.</em> On the basis of host preference, reproductive performance and allozyme frequency these forms are called host races. Contrastly, there is no support for taxonomically separating the host-alternating and non-alternating forms living on the same primary host plant. This makes the use of subspecific names for the non alternating forms, <em>C.</em><em>g. citrinus</em> HRL on <em>R. rubrum</em> and <em>C.</em><em>g. dickeri</em> HRL on <em>R. nigrum</em> , <em></em> undesirable.<br/>* A key for wingless and winged virginoparous females was constructed for all European species of <em>Cryptomyzus</em> (Chapter 5).<p>The possible pathways of speciation in <em>Cryptomyzus</em> are discussed. Therefore, a phylogeny was presented for this genus, based on allozyme, life cycle and morphological characters. A close association between the taxonomic relationships of <em>Cryptomyzus</em> and its host plants appeared, which was suggested to have been originated by sequential evolution (Jermy 1984). The process of speciation is discussed more generally, and the role of a host plant shift is considered. Because aphids have cyclical parthenogenesis and a close association with a specific host plant, they seem good candidates to follow the mode of sympatric speciation (Chapter 6).
Insecticides against aphid vectors of potato viruses
Hille Ris Lambers, D. ; Reestman, A.J. ; Schepers, A. - \ 1953
Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 1 (1953)3. - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 188 - 201.